ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

TRANSLATION OF FOUR-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS



The four-componental NNNN-type asyndetic substantival clus­ters are less frequently used in newspaper or scientific and technical matter texts than the three-componental ones. The nouns within the four-componental asyndetic noun clusters are semantically intercon­nected, like in the three componental ones forming the N+NNN, NN+NN or NNN+N sense units within them. There may also be AN+NNN or AN+ANNN etc. structural forms of them. The semantic


interrelations between the components usually predetermine the choice of an approach to translating the four componental asyndetic substantival clusters. This approach may sometimes depend on the meaning of separate noun components and on their structure as well as on their position within the frames of substantival clusters. As a result, there are different approaches to translating this structure type of asyndetic substantival clusters, the most frequently resorted to being the following:

1) starting with the head noun and proceeding in reverse or­der to the initial noun adjunct. This approach provides the expres­sion of meaning of the NNN+N, NN+NN, NP+NN+N, N+NN+N struc­tural types of asyndetic substantival clusters: the US Defence De­partment officials decision рішення представників міністераства оборони США; Copper Products Development Association відділ/ рада розробки виробів з міді; the UN Security Council meeting agenda порядок денний засідання Ради Безпеки ООН/Організації Об'єднаних Націй; Kyiv career club open meeting відкриті зустрічі в Київському клубі трудовлаштування;

2) some of the above-given semantic groups of the four-componental asyndetic substantival clusters are translated starting from the head noun and its preceding adjunct and proceeding to the initial and the following (second) noun: the Sunday Express newspa­per leader writer автор передових статей/передовиць газети «Санді експрес»; а $40 a week wage increase offer пропозиція про підвищення зарплатні на 40 доларів за тиждень;

3) depending on the semantic interrelations between the nouns of the four-componental asyndetic substantival clusters their trans­lation can also proceed in the 4-2-3-1 order of components: the House of Representatives Government Operations Committee комісія урядових заходів палати представників (при палаті представників); Caterpillar Diesel tractors trials випробування дизельних тракторів (марки) «Катерпіллар»;

4) there are also some minute groups of the four-componental substantival clusters with less common approaches like 4-1-3-2: Nobel Peace Prize Winners лауреати Нобелівської Премії Миру; 3-4-1-2: Gloucester County Cricket Club крикетна команда/клуб Глостерського графства; 2-3-1-4: Salford West Labour MP Stan Orme Стен Орм, лейбористський член парламенту від Салфорд-Веста; 2-4-1-3: the 40-nation Geneva Disarmament Conference Женевська конференція 40 країн з питань роззброєння; 1-4-3-2: Darmouth Auto Castings Plants заводи відливків автомобільних


заготовок у Дартмауті or: Дартмаутські заводи відливків автомобільних заготовок;

5) when the NNNN-type substantival clusters are semantically condensed, which happens rather often, because their components may also be of different word-group structure or contain a noun denot­ing some specific English national features, they are translated in a descriptive way: Mr. Hiles, the lobby committee secretary секретар комітету комісії лоббістів пан Гайлз; the National Union of Railway-men jubilee celebration dinner святковий обід з нагоди відзначення ювілейної річниці профспілки залізничників (Великої Британії).

The four-componental asyndetic substantival clusters having an initial adjective, numeral, participle, pronoun or an N's compo­nent may be translated by applying different approaches:

1) starting with the attribute and proceeding in the same order of components in which the N+NNN, NN+NN or the NNN+N(N+NN+N-type) asyndetic substantival clusters are translated: a total UK oil out­put figure загальні/підсумкові цифри/дані видобутку нафти Об'єднаним Королівством (Великої Британії); the first Rugby League test match перший відбірковий матч команд з регбі/ регбістів;

2) starting with the head NN or N component as in the asyndetic substantival clusters below: the British road service parcels depots склади посилок/пакетів дорожнього обслуговування Великої Британії; the language service inauguration dates дати початку перших передач (радіо «Свобода») окремими мовами (світу).

Translating of the four-componental NNNN-type asyndetic sub­stantival clusters may also be predetermined either by a semanti­cally leading head component (a single noun or a NN, AN, NprepN structure) as well as by the adjunct component. The latter may in its turn be a single attributive noun or an adjective +N (AN), present participle + N(VingN), past participle +N (Ven+N), numeral +N (QN), pronoun +N (IN) or have a word-group structure (NP or VP): U.S. presidential campaign finance legislation (Nabbr. +AN+NN) заканодавство США про фінансування передвиборної президентської кампанії. Similarly in many other noun clusters of this type: a glass reinforced plastics lifeboats construction зміцнена склопластиком конструкція рятувального човна. But: Harwell atomic Energy Research Centre Гарвельський центр досліджень в галузі атомної енергії; the continental China off-shore islands oil deposits поклади нафти (біля) прибережних островів континентального Китаю.




 


TRANSLATION OF FIVE-, SIX-AND

SEVEN-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC

SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS

It must be noted from the very start that the five-, six- and seven-componental asyndetic substantival clusters belong to rare or rather rare word-groups in English newspaper or scientific and tech­nical matter texts. Nevertheless the approach to their translating does not differ practically from that of the four-componental asyndetic sub­stantival clusters. It usually starts with the head noun. To render the meaning of any multi-componental asyndetic noun cluster, however, there should be identified first and foremost closer sense units within them. Thus, in a five-componental asyndetic substantival cluster its noun constituents may form the NN+NN+N, NNN+NN, AN+NN+NN, N+AN+NN+N-type, etc. sense units. For example: Covent Garden Opera House orchestra performance has the following closer or looser sense units: NN+NN+NN where Covent Garden is a close sense unit (proper noun) and functions as a single component. Translation of this and the like asyndetic substantival clusters should be started with the head NN component: виступ/гра оркестру (лондонського) оперного театру «Ковент Ґарден». Similarly with the cluster Lon­don County Council general purpose committee member член комісії із загальних питань Ради Лондонського графства; London Dis­trict Woodworker Amalgamated Society committee комісія/комітет Лондонського окружного відділення об'єднаної профспілки теслярів.

When the initial N component performs the function of a rela­tive adjective, translating of the five-componental NNNNN-type asyndetic substantival cluster may start with this N component: the London sheet metal workers section Лондонська філія профспілки робітників металопрокатних підприємств. Translating of the five-componental asyndetic substantival clusters can also be started with the second sense unit initiated by a noun, functioning as a relative adjective: the Post Office Workers London district council Лондонська окружна рада профспілки поштових працівників.

When the multi-componental asyndetic substantival cluster is of appositional nature, its translation starts either with the proper name, which is the apposition noun, or with its antecedent noun. However, translation may also start with some other component func­tioning as a relative adjective in a sense unit preceding the apposi­tional nouns: world-mile record holder Peter Snell. 1. Пітер Снелл,


чемпіон світу з бігу на милю; 2. світовий рекордсмен з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл; 3. рекордсмен світу з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл. Multicomponental asyndetic substantival clusters designat­ing some specific English notion, which is not revealed by direct ren­dering of the lexical meaning of its noun components, are translated in a descriptive way: the City Cooper Square Community Develop­ment Committee комісія (комітет) по переплануванню площі Купера лондонського Сіті.

Translation of the six- and seven-componental asyndetic sub­stantival clusters is realized according to the same principles and ap­proaches as the four- and five-componental asyndetic substantival clusters. Pointing out the sense units, formed by the components usu­ally helps find out the starting component and the correct way of trans­lating the clusters. It must be borne in mind, however, that these multicomponental asyndetic substantival clusters may be translated by different approaches as well, each of which may faithfully render the clusters' meaning: New Zealand world mile record holder Peter Snell 1. новозеландський світовий рекордсмен з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл; 2. новозеландець Пітер Снелл, чемпіон світу з бігу на милю. On rare occasions one may come across asyndetic substanti­val clusters consisting of seven or more nouns. These semantically condensed noun word-groups are translated in accordance with the same rules, which are employed when dealing with the five- and six-componental noun clusters (by way of pointing out the sense units within the clusters and finding the necessary noun or sense unit for the translation to start). In such cases the multi-componental asyndetic substantival clusters, which are not preceded by attributive adjuncts, can be translated starting with the head noun: United Post Workers London district council postmen section chairman Mr. Harry Jones Гаррі Джоунз, голова Лондонської окружної/районної філії листонош об'єднаної профспілки поштових працівників.

It should be added in conclusion, that many asyndetic sub­stantival clusters are difficult for our students to translate because they mostly do not take into account their condensed semantic na­ture, due to which more words are usually needed to convey their meaning in the target language. And not only multi-componetal asyndetic substantival clusters. Very often two-componental asyndetic noun clusters can be semantically condensed: >4/DS drugs ліки/ пілюлі, що поліпшують самопочуття хворих на СНІД; fax brakes зриви/провали в зборі податків; Rome-based Food and Agricul­ture Organization Організація з питань сільского господарства і


 

виробництва продуктів харчування (зі штаб-квартирою в Римі). Semantically condensed may also be many three- and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters: World Health Organi­zation (three words) Всесвітня організація охорони здоров'я (four words); government work offices урядові установи з питань працевлаштування населення. Here the number of components in all Ukrainian equivalents is larger than in their English originals.

Sometimes, though rarely, however, the meaning of asyndetic substantival clusters can be rendered in Ukrainian by fewer words, than in English: the Turin public prosecutor прокурор Туріна; Lon­don building workers лондонські будівельники; the old books sales­man букініст; the land improvement work меліорація; the crop farm­ers хлібороби, etc.

Our students must be repeatedly warned, that the use of three-and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters is mostly re­stricted to the newspaper and scientific or technical matter texts. In spoken English and in belles-lettres texts preference is given to prepo­sitional word-groups, which may easily be transformed into asyndetic substantival clusters. Cf.:

Newspaper texts/styles Oral speech
the plant shop-stewards the shop-stewards of the plant
Labour housing policy the policy of the Labour Party

in/concerning housing

the Midlands car factory trade the trade union committee of
union committee the Midlands car factory

All translators, therefore, must bear it in mind, that in the proc­ess of rendering far from all Ukrainian substantival word-groups should necessarily be transformed into English multi-componental asyndetic noun clusters. Exception must be made only when dealing with the names of various former Soviet and today's Ukrainian public bodies, offices and enterprises, institutes, universities, former col­lective and state farms, plants and factories, publishing houses, firms, farmer cooperatives, etc., which bore or bear honorary names like: Львівський театр опери та балету їм. Заньковецької Lviv Zan'kovets'ka Opera and Ballet House; київська станція метро «Шулявська» the Kyiv Shulyavs'ka underground railway station; Харківський педагогічний університет їм. Сковороди Kharkiv Skovoroda Teachers Training University, колективне сільскогосподарське підприємство (КСП) «Пролісок» the Prolisok (Snowdrop) Collective Agricultural Enterprise, etc.





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