Exercise VIII. Read the stories A, B, C, D, E below, pick out the units of the English culturally biased lexicon and trans­late the stories into Ukrainian.


An Englishman's day - and who better to describe it than an Englishman's wife? It begins when, ignoring me, he sits down to break­fast with his morning paper. As he scans the headlines (or the rac­ing results) there is nothing he likes better than his favourite break­fast of cornflakes with milk and sugar (porridge if he lives in the North) followed by fried bacon and eggs, marmalade and toast, the whole accompanied by tea or coffee. But whether he in fact gets such a meal depends on the state of my housekeeping budget! After break­fast, except on Sundays and (in many cases) Saturdays which are holidays, he sets off to work by train, tube, car, motor scooter, motor bike or even on his own two feet. The time he sets out depends in large degree upon whether he is what might colloquially be termed a «striver» (one who works himself), a «driver» (one who sees..that others works) or a «thriver» (one who profits from others work). If he is a «striver», he will jostle along with thousands like him on the 7.20, probably still reading his paper (or somebody else's) and studying the successes (or otherwise) of his favourite team.

The «drivers» customarily depart about an hour later while the «thrivers» travel up to the City in great style about an hour later. But be he «striver», «driver» or «thriver»-, he will enjoy his tea or coffee break around about 11. The tea or coffee is usually brought to the factory bench or office desk.

Then, at mid-day, everything stops for lunch. Most offices and small shops close for an hour, say from 1 to 2, and the city pavements are thronged with people on their way to cafes. Factory work­ers usually eat in their canteens.

The usual mid-day meal usually consists of two courses - a meat course accompanied by plenty of vegetables, followed by a sweet dish, perhaps fruit pudding and custard with tea or coffee to finish. Most Englishmen like what they call «good plain food, not messed about with». They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Otherwise they are likely to refuse it. Usually they like beef steaks, chops, roast beef and Yorkshire pudding and fried fish and chipped potatoes.

They are in the main not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. Then back to work again, with another break in the middle of the afternoon, once again for tea or coffee, sometimes with a cake or biscuit.

The working day finishes at time between 4 and 6, with the «thrivers» usually first home and the «strivers» last. On arrival home, many Englishmen seem to like to inspect their gardens before their evening meal.

This goes under various names - tea, high tea, dinner or sup­per depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it. Usually a savoury meat course is followed by stewed fruit or cake and tea. His evening meal over, the Englishman might do a bit of gardening and then have a walk to the «local» for a «quick one». The «local» means the nearest beer house while a «quick one» means a drink (alcoholic, of course!) taking anything from half-an-hour to three hours to imbibe! There is plenty of lively, congenial company at the «local» and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards or discuss the weather or the current situation.

But if the Englishman stays at home, he might listen to the radio, watch television, talk, read or pursue his favourite hobby. Then at any time between 10 and 12 he will have his «nightcap» - a drink accompanied by a snack - and then off to bed ready for tomorrow. (S. Andrews)

B. You Say Pasta, We Say Noodle It's too soon to declare peace in the world's pasta wars. But the combatants finally sat down together at the table. U.S. pasta-makers have been angered over European Union subsidies, which sometimes made Italian pasta cheaper than American brands on U.S. grocery shelves. Afew months ago, the U.S. International Trade Commission decided there was merit to American pastamakers' com-

plaints about being hurt by Italian and Turkish imports. No settle­ment has been reached yet. Italy's MenconLwas quick to recall how national pride was pricked earlier this year by a claim from some U.S. experts that pasta could be bad for some people, especially the overweight. Focusing on the common goal of increasing pasta con­sumption, savvy spaghetti sellers aren't overlooking any market. C. Fast Food Burgers

Two quick service restaurants specializing in burgers are at­tracting locals and foreigners alike. If you're looking for a tasty, cheap meal in a convenient location, Kentucky Beirut Chicken and Boston Burger, both located in the center of Kyiv, measure up Kentucky Bei­rut Chicken wins on the burger front. Their Lebanese-seasoned burg­ers - it's a secret recipe, - are crave-indicing. They come on crisp buns with a variety of fixings that are in the plate option. A plate is like getting a full meal deal at McDonald's, only in Kyiv it includes a hamburger or cheesburger, French fries, pickles and coleslaw. KBC's drawback is Boston Burger's saving - French fries. While KBC's tend to be soggy and too cool, Boston Burger's are perfect, string-like morsels. Boston Burger's hamburgers are fine, but they're miss­ing a special touch. They're simply a bland hunk of meat, with wilted lettuce and ketchup. KBC has an advantage in that it cooks as food is ordered, whereas Boston Burger premakes a bunch of sandwiches, which means they sometimes are served lukewarm and not-so-fresh. Until the Big Mac makes its way to Kyiv, Boston Burger and Ken­tucky Beirut Chicken will fill that fast-food burger whole in your stom­ach.

D. the Candymaker's Witness

A candymaker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the famous throughout America Christ­mas Candy Cane on which he incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry and death of Jesus Christ.

He began with a hard candy stick of pure white, which symbol­izes the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus; and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the Church, and the firm­ness of the promises of God. This candy cane was made in the form of the letter «J» to represent the name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It could also represent the staff of the «Good Shep­herd» with which he reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.

Thinking that the only white candy was somewhat plain, the candymaker stained it with red stripes. He used three small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus and the large red stripe was for the blood that was shed by Christ on the cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life.

Unfortunately, in America the candy became known only as a sweet Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who «have eyes to see and ears to hear».

E. Scotland

It is one of those places where civilization has not tramped all before it. Scotland has uniqely combined the untouched beauty of nature with the kind of facilities that guarantee comfort.

Your impressions from Scotland very much depend on you, on how open you are to new cultures and traditions of this country. Start your trip with the cities and then go deep to the Highlands. Step by step you will be unweiling the quiet magic of this miraculous place and falling in love with its unforgettable authenticity, which gets smoothly with modernity. Tartan is no longer just an echo from the past. Any bank or football team has its own tartan. Any local family can have a tartan by just registering it at the Scottish tartan Society. And it is not only fashion that reflects a changing conscious­ness. Over the last 10-15 years Scots seem to have become more conscious of their national identity, just as we Ukrainians have. They do not only debate their more independent status, but wear kilts more often - for weddings and for parties, even for work. They feel proud and comfortable on these double-pleated skirts, even when they have to pay something in the region on of 600 USD for a full outfit.

Exercise IX. Translate the passage below into English. Explain the ways you employed to convey faithfully the notions of the specifically Ukrainian national lexicon. 1. Кобзар О.М. Вересай

Старий уже був Грицько Вересай. Він брав кобзу і простував на церковний майдан Калюжинців. Поводирем сліпого ставав малий онук Остапко, що мусив жербати, бо кріпацького хліба вистачало сім'ї лише до Різдва. У М'ясниці гуляли весілля, на які запрошували Остапкового батька Микиту Вересая, котрий гарно грав на скрипці. Після тяжкої хвороби 4-річний хлопчик осліп. Дід переконував онука, що для закріпаченої людини - то захист, хоч не бачитеме, що діється на нашій зболеній землі. А через десятиліття саме пісня «Про правду і неправду» понесла славу Кобзаря Остапа Вересая по Україні і за її межі. Коли влітку 1874 року в Києві відбувався визначний в історії кобзарства III

Археологічний з'їзд, на який з'іхалися учені з усієї Европи, французький професор Н. Рамбо назвав знаменитого виконавця народних дум і пісень «Гомером в українській свиті». Завдяки своєму мистецтву Остап Микитович побував у царському палаці в Петербурзі - прийшов зі скаргою на тяжку долю селянина, наївно думаючи, що цар допоможе.

Спливли роки. У Сокиринці на Чернігівщині, як до Канева на могилу великого Шевченка, приходять люди вклонитися співцеві..

2. Мандрики

Це печиво пекли у Петрівський піст або на Петра. На це свято годилося шанувати пастухів і підпасків, їх частували і дарували мандрики («мандриги») - сирні пампушки. Вірили: хто з'їсть їх у Петрівку, того весь рік минатиме лихоманка. Після Петра вже переставала кувати зозуля, що й породило приказку: «Зозуля мандрикою вдавилась». Особливо смачними були мандрики із сиру, відтопленого із сколотини (маслянки), тобто сироватки, яка залишилася після збитого із сметани масла.

Обряд з кашею

Щоб відзначити таку важливу для сім'ї подію, як хрещення дитини, у хаті влаштовували святковий обід, відомий у народі під назвою «христини». За північноукраїнською традицією баба-повитуха приносила круто зварену кашу, накривала її хлібом-сіллю або млинцем і пропонувала розбити горщик тому, хто покладе більше грошей. Гості скидали їх новородженому - «на мило», «на воза», «на коня», «на люльку», «на віночок». Дарували й полотно на пелюшки, хустинки.

Хрещений батько клав більші гроші і розбивав горщик качалкою або тричі підіймав його і за останнім разом ударяв об кут стола. Якщо каша 'ціла, не розвалилася, - це на достаток і щастя, її годилося скоро схопити і з'їсти, «щоб дитина говорила скоріше», «щоб дитя на ноги хваталося швидко». Частування кашею було насичене й іншими діями, супроводжувалося примовками, наприклад: «Роди, Боже, жито й пшеницю, а куму й кумі дітей копицю». Хлопчику бажали, «щоб орач був, щоб не злодій був». Дівчинці - «щоб хлопці поважали й любили» і т.ін. Обряд з кашею - багатозначний ритуал. У ньому реалізувалася ідея входження дитини в сім'ю.


Idiomatic or phraseological expressions are structurally, lexi­cally and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having mostly the meaning, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their component parts1. An indispensable feature of idiomatic (phraseo­logical) expressions is their figurative, i.e., metaphorical nature and usage. It is this nature that makes them distinguishable from struc­turally identical free combinations of words Cf.: red tape (free word-comb.) червона стрічка - red tape (idiom) канцелярський формалізм (бюрократизм); the tables are/were turned (free word-comb.) столи перекинуті/були перекинуті - the tables are turned (idiom) ситуація докорінно змінилася; супротивники помінялися ролями/місцями; play with fire гратися з вогнем (free word-comb.) гратися з вогнем (біля багаття) - наражатися на небезпеку (idiom).

On rare occasions the lexical meaning of idiomatically bound expressions can coincide with their direct, i.e., not transferred mean­ing, which facilitates their understanding as in the examples like: to make way дати дорогу; to die a dog's death здохнути як собака; to receive a hero's welcome зустрічати як героя; wait a minute/a mo­ment зачекайте хвилинку/ один момент; to tell (you) the truth правду казати/правду кажучи; to dust one's coat/jacket витрусити пальто/ піджака - дати духопеликів.

Some proper names can also be endowed with figurative meaning and possess the necessary expressiveness which are the distinguishing features of idioms2: Croesus, Tommy (Tommy Atkins), Yankee, Mrs. Grundy, Jack Ketch, etc. These, proper names have acquired their constant meaning and can not be confused with usual (common) proper names of people. As a result their transferred mean­ing is conveyed in a descriptive way. So Mrs. Grundy means світ, люди, існуюча мораль; Jack Ketch кат; Croesus Крез, надзвичайно багата людина; Tommy Atkins англійський солдат; Yankee (in Eu­rope) янкі/американець, etc.

Idiomatic/phraseological expressions should not be mixed up with different fixed/set prepositional, adjectival, verbal and adverbial

1 See: Кунин А.В. Фразеология английского язьїка. - М.: Международ. отношения, 1972. Martin H. Manser A Dictionary of Contemporary Idioms. - Lon­don, Pan Books Ltd, 1983.

2 See: CollinsV.N.ABook of English Idioms. -Л.:Учпедгиз, 1950. Англо-український фразеологічний словник Склав К.Т. Баранцев. - Київ: Рад. шк., 1969. phrases the meaning of which is not an actual sum of meanings made up by their constituent parts either: by George, by and by, for all of, for the sake of, cut short, make believe; or compounds like: topsy-turvy, higledy-piggledy; coordinate combinations like: high and dry, cut and run, touch and go; Tom, Dick and Harry, etc. These and a lot of other stable expressions can very often be treated as stand­ardized collocations. Their meaning can be rendered in a descriptive way too, like that of genuine idiomatic expressions: fifty-fifty так собі; ні добре ні погано; О.Квсе гаразд, на належному рівні; cut short обірвати, присікти/припинити щось (поїздку), обірвати (розмову).

Such and the like stable expressions, like most of other stand­ardized collocations, have usually a transparent meaning and are easier to translate than regular idioms (the so-called phraseological fusions). Meanwhile it is next to impossible to guess, for example, the meaning of the English idiom Hobson's choice from the seem­ingly transparent meanings of its componental parts. Only a philo­logical inquiry helps establish the meaning of the name and the real sense of the idiom - «no choice whatsoever», «acceptance of what is offered» жодного вибору.

Similarly treated must also be many other English and Ukrain­ian picturesque idioms, proverbs and sayings, which have national literary images and reflect the traditions, customs, the way of con­duct or the mode of life of a nation. Their meaning, due to absence of similar idioms in the target language, can be rendered descriptively, i.e. through a regular explication. The latter, depending on the se­mantic structure of the source language idiom, may be sometimes achieved in the target language with the help of a single word. Cf.: English: an odd/queer fish дивак; Canterbury tale небувальщина, вигадка; blue bonnet («синій берет») шотландець; ніде курці клюнути crammed; зубами тертяка вибивати to be chilled. Most often, however, the meaning of this kind of idioms is conveyed with the help of free word-combinations: to dine with Duke Humphrey залишитись без обіду (нічого не ївши); to cut off with a shilling позбавити когось спадщини. Similarly in Ukrainian: ноги на плечі to go quickly (or very quickly) on one's feet; зуби з'їсти на чомусь to have great experience in something; кивати/накивати п'ятами to run away quickly/hurriedly.

It goes without saying that none of the phraseologisms above can be translated word-for-word since their constituent images would lose their connotative, i.e., metaphorical meaning in the target lan­guage. So, пообідати з герцоґом Гамфрі or обрізати шилінґом


in their

could be understood by the Ukrainian language spe& „u на плеч/ literal meaning. The same can be said about our idiom ^ ^/Ould never та й гайда, i.e., *with one's legs on the shoulders whid1 ^ language be understood, when translated literally, by the Eng'1 n mechani-native speakers. Therefore, the componental images ^ rjpg about a cally transplanted to the target language, may often " complete destruction of the idiomatic expression. , jdioms may The choice of the way of translation of this kind ° у tne exist-be predetermined by the source language context of tjC/stable ex-ence/absence of contextual equivalents for the idiorn^ pelow units pression in the target language. Thus, in the exampl^ ^e ne|p of a of this kind can be translated into Ukrainian either witf1 jca| expres-single word or with the help of a standardized phrased0 sion: to give a start здригнутися; to give ft підбадьорювати, морально підтримувати когось; tf7 sel (facet) жінка (прекрасна стать; жіноцтво; слаб1^ людства), the Holy Mother Богоматір. 0|location af-Not infrequently the meaning of a standardized csynonymous ter V.V.Vinigradov like that of a regular idiom may hav^ ^Ojce Of ^ne single word equivalents in the target language. The ^e standard-equivalent is predetermined then by the meaning of ntence where ized collocation/phraseologism and by the style of the 5^0зпечувати; it is used: to make sure упевнитись (пеконатися), з& ^раплятися; to make comfort втішатися; to take place відбуватись-the world and his wife усі. 5 which have Similarly treated are also traditional combinatio11 equivalents in the target language several stylistically neutral fr0 дати, йти на (words or word-combinations) as: to run a risk ризи^У Op ризик, to apply the screw натиснути (на когось); to .^, potato швидко позбутися когось, обірвати стосУ припинити знайомство. ue idiomatic/ Faithful translating of a large number of picture5^cnjevec| on|y phraseological expressions, on the other hand, can be > language a by a thorough selection of variants having in the tar0 picturesque-similar to the original lexical meaning, and also th^1 j on common


the mean-gener-

a раптово

ness and expressiveness. This similarity can be in the source language and in the target language c° ages as well as on the structural form of them. As a f05 ing of such idioms is mostly guessed by the student5'

ally facilitates their translation.

A few examples will suffice to prove it. English

grass widow

(widower) солом'яна вдова (вдівець); not to see a step beyond one's nose далі свого носа нічого не бачити; measure twice and cut once сім раз одміряй, а раз відріж; not for love or money ні за які гроші/ ні за що в світі; Ukrainian: не знати/тямити ні бе, ні ме, ні кукуріку (not to know chalk from cheese); вночі що сіре, те й вовк all cats are grey in the dark, який батько, такий син, яка хата, такий тин (яблучко від яблуні далеко не відкочується) like fa­ther, like son; not a cat's/dog's chance жодних шансів/можливостей, etc.

It often happens that the target language has more than one semantically similar/analogous phraseological expression for one in the source language. The selection of the most fitting variant for the passage under translation should be based then not only on the se­mantic proximity of the idioms/phraseologisms but also on the simi­larity in their picturesqueness, expressiveness and possibly in their basic linages. The bulk of this kind of phraseological expressions belong to the so-called phraseological unities. (Vinogradov). Here are some Ukrainian variants of the kind of English phraselogisms: either win the saddle or loose the horse або пан, або пропав; або перемогу здобути, або вдома не бути; many hands make work light де згода, там і вигода; гуртом і чорта побореш; гуртом і батька добре бити; громада т великий чоловік; a man can die but once від смерті не втечеш; раз мати народила, раз і вмирати; раз козі смерть; двом смертям не бути, а одної не минути; hastle makes waste/the more haste, the less speed тихше їдеш - далі будеш, поспішиш -людей насмішиш, хто спішить-той людей смішить.

A number of phraseological units, due to their common source of origin, are characterized in English and Ukrainian by partial or complete identity of their syntactic structure, their componental im­ages, picturesqueness and expressiveness (and consequently of their meaning). Such kind of idioms often preserve a similar or even iden­tical word order in the source language and in the target language. Hence, they are understood and translated by our students without difficulties: to,cast pearls before swine кидати перла перед свиньми; to be 00/77 under a lucky star народилася під щасливою зіркою; to cherish/warm a viper in one's bosom пригріти гадюку в пазусі; to be/fall between Scilla and Charybdis бути між Сціллою і Харібдою/ між двох вогнів.

One of the peculiar features of this type of idiomatic expres­sions is their international nature. Only few of them have phraseo­logical synonyms of national flavour, being thus restricted to corre-

185spending speech styles, whereas international idioms predominantly belong to the domain of higher stylistic level: Genuine Internationalisms National/Colloquial Variants

The apple of discord яблуко The bone of contention. The розбрату, яблуко чвар bone of discord Strike the iron while it is hot make hay while the sun shines куй залізо, доки гаряче коси коса поки роса

neither fish nor flesh ні риба ні м'ясо to cross the Styx канути в Лету; піти в непам'ять

ні Богові свічка, ні чортові шпичка; ні пава, ні ґава to turn one's toes up простягти/витягнути ноги

National/colloquial variants of international idiomatic substi­tutes, therefore, always differ considerably by their picturesqueness, expressiveness and their lexical meaning. They are only semanti-cally analogous to genuine equivalents, which may sometimes lack absolute identity in the source language and in the target language (to cross the Styx канути в Лету; to drop from the clouds з неба впасти; neither fish nor flesh ні пава ні ґава).

As can be seen, some international idiomatic expressions slightly differ in English and Ukrainian either in their structural form and lexical idiomatic meaning or in the images making up the idi­oms. Thus, the idiomatic expression to fish in troubled waters has in English the plural of wafers whereas in its Ukrainian equivalent has a singular form, wheras the component to fish is detalized and ex­tended to ловити рибку (рибу) в каламутній воді; the Society of Jesus is орден єзуїтів, (but not the Order of Jesus) and the Babel of tongues is вавілонське стовпотворіння and not *Вавілон мов.

Slight divergences are also observed in several other English and Ukrainian international equivalents: the game is (not) worth the candle (singular) варта гра св/чок (plural). The idiom a sound mind in a sound body, on the other hand, has a reverse position of its component parts: у здоровому тілі здоровий дух.

Therefore, each of the above-given idiomatic expressions has either a different form of a component/image, a different word order or a slightly different lexical meaning of a componental part. And yet despite the pointed out divergences such and the like idiomatic ex­pressions/phraseological units do not cease to be absolute equiva­lents in either of the two languages.

Apart from the kinds of idiomatic expressions singled out on the foregoing pages, there exists in each language a specific na­tional layer of idiomatic/phraseological expressions comprising also proverbs and sayings, which are formed on the basis of componenta! images pertaining solely to a concrete national language. Such idi­oms are first of all distinguished by their picturesqueness, their ex­pressiveness and lexical meaning of their own. Due to their national particularity, these idioms/phraseologisms can not and do not have traditionally established literary variants in the target language. As a result, their structural form and wording in different translations may often lack absolute identity. In their rough/interlinear or word-for-word variants they mostly lose their aphoristic/idiomatic nature and thus are often subject to literary perfection: the moon is not seen when the sun shines місяця не видно, коли світить сонце/ місяця не помічають, коли світить сонце; it is a great victory that comes with­out blood велика та перемога, яку здобувають без пролиття крові or найбільша та перемога, яка здобувається без пролиття крові.

Similarly translated are some Ukrainian national phraseologisms into English: один дурень зіпсує, що й десять розумних не направять what is spoiled by one fool can not be mended by ten wisemen; малі дти - малий клопіт, великі діти -великий клопіт small children - smaller troubles, grown-up chil­dren - grave troubles.

Isomorphic is also the existence in both the languages of a number of idiomatic expressions which are of regular sentence-type structure containing some common componental parts. Hence, their lexical meaning, nothing to say about their componental images, their picturesqueness^nd their expressiveness are identical as well. This is predetermined by their common source of origin in English and in Ukrainian: if you run after two hares, you will catch neither якщо побіжиш за двома зайцями, не впіймаєш жодного; a drowning man will catch (snatch) at a straw потопаючий хапається за соломинку (і за соломинку вхопиться, хто топиться); Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune Вакх утопив більше людей, ніж Нептун (вино загубило більше людей, ніж море) he who spares the rod spoils the child хто жаліє різку, той збавляє дитину.

As can be noticed from these examples, some English and Ukrainian idiomatic expressions are far from uniform lexically, struc­turally, and by their componental images, picturesqueness and ex­pressiveness. They do not always spring from the same source of origin either. Because of this a faithful translation of phraseological/

187idiomatic expressions depends upon some factors the main of which

are as follows:

1) whether the idiomatic expression in the source language and in the target language is of the same/different source of origin;

2) whether the idiomatic expression has in the target language only one, more than one or all componental images in common;

3) whether the componental images, when translated, are per­ceived by the target language speakers;

4) whether the structural form of the idiomatic expressions can be retained in the target language without any transformations;

5) whether there exists an analogous/similar in sense idiomatic expression in the target language, etc.

All these and some other factors should not be neglected when translating idiomatic/phraseological expressions from and into Eng­lish. In fact, here exists a regular interdependence between the lexi­cal meaning, the origin, the picturesqueness and the expressive­ness of idioms on the one hand and the method of their translating

on the other.

Taking into account these and some other factors, the follow­ing ways of faithful rendering the idiomatic/phraselogical expressions are to be identified:

1. By Choosing Absolute/Complete EquivalentsThis is the method of translating by which every componental part of the source language idiom is retained in the target language unchanged. The componental parts include all notionals and also the lexically charged functionals which contribute to the lexical mean­ing of the idiomatic/phraseological expression. The notional compo­nents also create the main images (the picturesqueness), the ex­pressiveness and the figurative (connotative) meanings of idiomatic expressions. Translating with the help of equivalents is resorted to when deating with idioms which originate from the same source in both the languages in question. These sources may be:

1) Greek or other mythology: Augean stables авгієві стайні (занедбане, занехаяне місце); Cassandra warning застереження Кассандри (застереження, на які не звертають уваги, але які збуваються); Hercules' Pillars (the Pillars of Hercules) геркулесові стовпи (Ґібралтарська протока); a labour of Sisyphus сізіфова праця (важка і марна праця); Pandora's box скринька Пандори/ Пандорина скриня (джерело всіляких лих); the Trojan horse троянський кінь (прихована небезпека); Aladdin's'lamp Аладдінова лампа; between Scilla and Charybdis між Сціллою і Харібдою;

2) ancient history or literature: an ass in a lion's skin (назва однієї з байок Езопа) осел у левовій шкурі; to cross (pass) the Rubicon перейти Рубікон (прийняти важливе рішення); the die is thrown/cast жеребок кинуто (рішення прийнято); the golden age золотий вік (золоті часи); / came, I saw, I conquered прийшов, побачив, переміг;

3) the Bible or works based on a biblical plot: to cast the first stone at one першим кинути у когось каменем; to cast pearls be­fore swine розсипати перла перед свиньми; the golden calf золотий телець/ідол; a lost sheep заблудла вівця; the massacre (slaugh­ter) of innocents винищення немовлят; the ten commandments десять заповідей; the thirty pieces of silver тридцять срібняків; prodigal son блудний син.

A great many absolute equivalents originate from contempo­rary literary or historical sources relating to different languages (mainly to French, Spanish, Danish, German, Italian, Arabic). English:Time is money час - гроші; self made man людина, що сама проклала собі шлях у житті; my house is my castle мій дім - моя фортеця. French:after us the deluge після нас хоч потоп; the fair sex прекрасна стать; the game is worth the candle гра варта свічок; more royalist than the king більший монархіст ніж сам король; to pull the chestnuts out of the fire вигрібати каштани з вогню; one's place in the sun місце під сонцем; Spanish:blue blood блакитна кров; the fifth column (introduced by E. Hemingway) п'ята колона; to tilt at the windmills (introduced by Cervantes) воювати з вітряками; Italian:Dante's inferno Дантове пекло; finita la commedia ділу кінець; Arabic:Aladdin's lamp лампа Аладдіна; German:da 1st derHund begraben ось де собака зарита; Sturm und Drang буря і натиск.

Some mots belonging to prominent English and American au­thors have also turned into regular idiomatic expressions. Due to their constant use in belles-lettres they have become known in many languages. Especially considerable is the amount of Shakespear-ean mots: better a witty fool than a foolish wit краще дотепний дурень, ніж дурний дотеп; cowards die many times before their deaths боягузи вмирають багато разів; something is rotten in the state of Denmark, etc. не все гаразд у Данському королівстві; vanity fair (J. Bunyan) ярмарок марнославства/суєти; to reign in hell is better than to serve in heaven (J. Milton) краще панувати в пеклі, ніж слугувати в раю; the banana republic (O. Henry) бананова республіка; the last of the Mohicans останній з могікан; to bury a hatchet (F. Cooper) закопати томагавк (укласти мир); the almighty dollar (W. Irving) всемогутній долар; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today ніколи не відкладай на завтра те, що можна зробити сьогодні; the execution of the laws is more important than the making of them (T. Jefferson) закони виконувати важче, ніж їх створювати/писати; the iron nee/(J. London) залізна п'ята (ярмо); gone with the wind (M. Wilson) пішло за вітром/знесено вітром; the cold war (W. Lippamn) холодна війна; Iron Curtain (W. Church­ill) залізна завіса, etc.

Translating with the help of monoequivalents, as the absolute equivalents are sometimes called, is very often made use of when dealing with the sentence idioms containing the subject, the predi­cate, and some other parts of the sentence, though some minor al­terations in their structure/word order may not be excluded altogether. Such alterations, however, do not change either the denotative mean­ing or the componental images, the picturesqueness, expressive­ness or connotative meaning of idioms: appetite comes while eating апетит приходить під час їжі; kings go mad and the people suffer from it королі божеволіють, а народ страждає (cf. пани скубуться, а в мужиків чуби тріщать); the last drop makes the cup run over остання краплина переповнює чашу; let the cock crow or not, the day will come співатиме півень, чи ні, а день настане; money is the sinews of war гроші - «м'язи» війни; of two evils choose the least із двох лих вибирай менше; out of the mouths of babies speaks the truth (wisdom) устами немовлят говорить істина/мудрість; the pen is mightier than the sword перо могутніше за меч; Caesar's wife must be beyond suspicion (Caesar) Цезарова дружина не повинна бути під підозрою/повинна бути поза підозрою; the inva­sion of armies is resisted, the invasion of ideas is not (Hugo) вторгненню армій можна чинити опір, вторгненню ідей – ніколи etc.

As has been said, the target language variants of phraseo­logical monoequivalents may sometimes slightly differ in their struc­ture or in the order of words from the source language idioms (cf. let the cock crow or not співатиме півень чи ні). These minor changes in the structural form, however, do not influence in any way the mean­ing and the expressiveness or picturesqueness of absolute equiva­lents in the target language.

Not only regular idioms but also many so-called standardized word-combinations, which may often originate in the two languages from a common source, can be translated by absolute equivalents.

Due to this, they retain in the target language the semantic identity and the componental structure of the source language units: fo give help подавати/надавати допомогу; fo win/gain a victory здобути/ здобувати перемогу; to make an attempt зробити спробу; to throw light проливати світло, etc.

Standardized word-combinations, as will be shown below, can also be translated in some other ways, which is an obvious testi­mony to the unchangeable inconsistency of the way identified as «translation by means of loans» («кальки», «калькування»).

2.Translation of Idioms by Choosing Near Equivalents

The meaning of a considerable number of phrase idioms and sentence idioms originating in both languages from a common source may sometimes have, unlike absolute equivalents, one or even most of their components different, than in the target language. Hence, the quality of their images is not identical either, though not neces­sarily their picturesqueness and expressiveness (if any): baker's/print­er's dozen чортова дюжина; the devil is not so black as he is painted не такий дідько/чорт страшний, як його малюють; a lot of water had flown/run under the bridge багато води спливло відтоді; love is the mother of love любов породжує любов; too much knowledge makes the head bald від великих знань голова лисіє; in broad day­light серед білого дня; as snort as a dog's tale короткий, як осінній день; as pale as paper блідий мов стіна, measure twice cut once сім раз одміряй, один раз одріж.

The slight divergences in the near equivalents as compared with the source language idioms can manifest themselves also in some other aspects, as for example:

a) in the structure of the target language variant (cf. to make a long story short сказати коротко);

b) in the omission (or adding) of a componental part in the target language (cf. a lot of water had run under the bridge since then багато води спливло відтоді);

c) in the substitution of a feature (or image) of the source lan­guage phraseological/idiomatic expression for some other (more fit­ting or traditionally expected) in the target language: as pale as pa­per блідий мов стіна; baker's/printer's dozen чортова дюжина; eve­rything is good in its season все добре в свій час (cf. добра ложка до обіду);

d) in the generalization of the features of the source language idiomatic expression: one's own flesh and bone рідна кровинка;

e) in the concretization of some features of the original: a voice in the wilderness глас волаючого в пустелі; you can nof eaten an old bird with chaff старого горобця на полові не впіймаєш; to fol­low like St. Anthony's рід ходити (за кимось) як тінь/переслідувати когось.

Similar componental substitutions, both semantic and struc­tural, can be observed in regular standardized collocations and in comparative proverbs or saying as: to do harm завдати шкоди; to do one's duty виконувати свій обов'язок; to throw/shed light проливати світло; (asj busy as a bee працьовитий, мов бджола; (as) slippery as an eel слизький як в'юн; as cool as a cucumber холодний як крига (лід); golden opportunity чудова можливість, to shed crocodile's tears плакати крокодилячими слізьми.

Therefore, faithful translation may be achieved by different methods. Moreover, it must be evident now that «translating by means of loans» may refer to any method of rendering phraseologisms/idi-oms which are or may become regular loans in the target language.

Consequently, translation of idiomatic expressions «by means of loans» does not always fully justify the essence of the term as such.


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