ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Translation by Choosing Genuine Idiomatic Analogies



An overwhelming majority of English idiomatic expressions have similar in sense units in Ukrainian. Sometimes these lexically corresponding idiomatic expressions of the source language may also contain easily perceivable for the target language speakers com­binations of images as well as similar or identical structural forms. These idiomatic expressions, naturally, are in most cases easily given corresponding analogies in the target language. As a matter of fact, such expressions are sometimes very close in their connotative (meta­phorical) meaning in English and Ukrainian as well. Any common or similar traits of idiomatic expressions are the main proof of their be­ing genuine analogies. The latter in each of the two languages com­prise also proverbs and sayings as well as the so-called standard­ized and stable collocations: he that mischief hatches mischief catches хто іншим лиха бажає, сам лихо має/хто іншим яму копає, сам у неї потрапляє; to nave the ready tongue за словом у кишеню не лізти; to keep body and sole together жити надголодь/зводити кінці з кінцями; like mistress, like maid яблуко від яблуні недалеко падає; fnere is no use crying over spilt milk що з воза впало, те пропало; beaf a dead horse товкти воду в ступі.

Many of such and the like idiomatic expressions may often have two and more analogous by sense variants in the target language. The choice of an analogy rests then with the translator and is predetermined by the style of the text: not for love or money ні за що в світі/ні за які скарби в світі; don'f teacn your grandmother to suck eggs не вчи вченого; не вчи рибу плавати; яйця курку не вчать, etc.; ne that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas з ким поведешся, того і наберешся; скажи мені, хто твій друг, і я скажу тобі, хто ти; a crooked stick throws a crooked shadow який Сава, така й слава/який батько, такий син, яка хата, такий тин; don't cross the bridges before you come to them не поспішай поперед батька в пекло; не кажи гоп, доки не перескочиш; first catch you hare then cook him не скуби, доки не зловиш; скажеш «гоп», як перескочиш. The number of analogous (similar by sense) expres­sions for an idiom in the target language may reach a regular row as it is the case with the Ukrainian phraseological expression і на сонці є плями/людини без вад не буває. This idiom may have the follow­ing substitutes in different contextual environments: every man nas a fool in his sleeve; every man has his faults; every bean has its black; every man has his weak side; Homer sometimes nods/sleeps; no man is wise at all times; it is a good horse that never stumbles; a horse stumbles that has four legs, etc.

4. Translating Idioms by Choosing Approximate Analo­gies

Some source language idiomatic and stable expressions may have a peculiar nature of their componental parts or a peculiar com­bination of them and thus form nationally peculiar expressiveness and picturesqueness of componental images. The latter constitute some hidden meaning, which is mostly not quite explicit and com­prehensible, not transient enough for the foreigner.

As a result, there exist no genuine phraseological analogies for the units in the target language. Since it is so, their lexical mean­ing can be expressed by means of only approximate analogies or through explication, i.e., in a descriptive way. These analogies are only to a slight degree similar to the source language idioms, al­though they may be no less picturesque and expressive than the source language variants: Wnd words butter no parsnips годувати байками солов'я; to lose one's breath кидати слова на вітер; to make a cat's paw of something чужими руками жар вигрібати; а joint in one's armour ахіллесова п'ята (вразливе місце); fne sow loves bran better than roses кому що, а курці просо; more power to your elbow ні пуху, ні луски!; to come off scot free вийти сухим з води; to be finger and thumb водою не розлити (cf. нерозлийвода); to be from Missouri (Amer.) вірити тільки своїм очам; it is six and half a dozen не вмер Данило, так болячка задавила; what's Hecuba to me моя хата скраю; to get the blues місця собі не знаходити/ сумувати, etc.

No need to emphasize that selection of approximate analo­gies for a translator is no easy task, as the source languages idioms/ phraseologisms often bear some characteristics of a language's traits having no correspondence^ the target language. Cf.: The answer's a lemon так не буде, такне вийде.

Many idioms have obscure origin/etymology and selecting of approximate equivalents as any other corresponding semantic vari­ants often requires a linguistic investigation on the part of the trans­lator. For example: to be in the cart means to be closed in a cage as a convict (for some crime) and be exposed to general scorn of one's compatriots (as in old times in England). It may be translated into Ukrainian as бути в стані/ситуації хоч круть хоч верть, потрапити в безвихідь.

5. Descriptive Translating of Idiomatic and Set Expres­sions

The meaning of a considerable number of idiomatic as well as stable/set expressions can be rendered through explication only, i.e., in a descriptive way. Depending on the complexity of meaning con­tained in the source-language idiom, it can be expressed in the tar­get language in some ways:

1) by a single word: out of a clear blue.of the sky раптом, зненацька; to pall and peel (to peel and pall) грабувати/оббирати; poor fish йолоп, бевзь, нікчема; red blood мужність, відвага, хоробрість; to sell smoke піддурювати, підманювати; to seta-limit to smth. обмежувати, стримувати; to set at large звільнювати (випустити на волю); to go aloft померти;

2) undoubtedly the most frequent is rendering the sense of idiomatic/phraseological expressions with the help of free combina­tions of words as in: to run amock нападати зненацька на першу-ліпшу людину; school miss школярка, соромлива, недосвідчена дівчина; to sell someone short недооцінювати когось; to sham Abraham удавати з себе хворого (прикидатися хворим); to shoot Niagara вдаватися до ризикованих дій, short odds майже рівні шанси; to sit above the salt сидіти на почесному місці; the sixty-four dollar question найважливіше, вирішальне питання; a stitch in time своєчасний захід/вчинок, своєчасна дія; to go to rack (wrack) ruin загинути; зовсім розоритися; to go west/West пропасти, зникнути, зійти зі сцени (переносно);

3) when the lexical meaning of an original idiomatic expres­sion is condensed or when it is based on a nationally specific notion/ structural form alien to the target languages, the idiomatic expres­sion may be conveyed by a sentence or a longer explanation: a wet blanket людина або обставина, що розхолоджує; well day (well-day) день, коли у хворого не погіршувався стан здоров'я (час між приступами гарячки, малярії тощо); wise behind млявий, що погано міркує; white elephant подарунок, якого важко позбутися (те, що приносить більше турбот, ніж користі); yes man (yes-man) людина, що з усіма згоджується, тільки підтакує (підтакувач); to cut off with a shilling залишити без спадщини; fight like Kilkenny cats битися до взаємного знищення; to accept (the Stewardship) of the Chiltern Hundreds (Parliament) скласти з себе обов'язки члена британського парламенту.

It must be added in conclusion that some English idiomatic/ set expressions have a rather transparent lexical meaning and are easy for our students to translate into Ukrainian: to treat one like a lord щедро частувати (як лорда) когось, цяцькатися з кимось; with all one's steam/with all speed щодуху, дуже швидко; with a founded air ображено, з виглядом ображеного; with flags flying/with flying colours тріумфально, переможно; with a good reason не без підстав, недаремно; to be half way between something посередені (бути на середині між чимсь), іти назустріч комусь/чомусь; not born yesterday досвідчений (у житті).

Depending on the speech style of the passage/work, in which the idiomatic/phraseological expressions are used, and taking into account the nature of them (literary, colloquial, historical) some modi­fications of the above-given methods of translations and even new variants of translation may be suggested by the translator. Neverthe­less, the aim of translation will always remain the same, viz. to fully render in the target language the lexical meaning and where possi­ble also the structural peculiarities, the picturesqueness, the expres­siveness, and the connotative meaning (if any) of the source lan­guage idiomatic or stable expressions in the target language. How it may be achieved can be seen on the examples of rendering the meaning of some national idioms.





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