1. The most general contextual realizations of meanings of
the nominalizing and emphatic articles. The means of expressing
their meanings in Ukrainian.

2. The most common contextual meanings of the definite arti
cle and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.

3. The most common contextual meanings of the indefinite
article and means of expressing them in Ukrainian.

4. Ways of conveying the rhematic and thematic contextual
meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles in Ukrainian.

5. Other possible contextual meanings of the definite and in
definite articles and means of their expression in Ukrainian.


Exercise I. Analyse the sentences and substitute the definite article for an appropriate Ukrainian demonstrative pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

I. This was the man Dorian Gray was waiting for. (O. Wilde) 2. He had met the woman at last - the woman he had thought little about, not being given to thinking about women. (Ibid.) 3. Eight Street Bridge is the place. (J.London) 4. - and at the instant he knew, he ceased to know. (Ibid.) 5. That's the Barney, that has the ugly daughter. (W. Maken) 6. «You've heard of Rancocanty?»- «I'm the man». (G. Byron) 7. «The Mr.Jardyce, sir, whose story I have heard?» (C. Dickens) 8. When she smiled, he saw the Pat he had known, the Pat smiling at him from worn photo, that still lay in the pocket-book against his heart. (J. Lindsay) 9. If I ever saw a man hopelessly hard up it was the man in front of me. (H. Wells) 10.1 was brought up by

my paternal aunt, Miss Frobisher, the Miss Frobisher of the Barton Chapel Case and the Woman's World Humanity movement. (Ibid.)

Exercise II. Substitute the definite article for an appropriate possessive pronoun. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. He had uttered a mad wish that he himself might remain young, and the portrait grow old - . (O. Wide) 2. It was his beauty that ruined him, his beauty and the youth that he had prayed for. (Ibid.) 3. «Take the thing off the face. I wish to see it.» (Ibid.) 4.1 know the age better than you do, though you will prate about it so tediously. (Ibid.) 5. The next night, of course, I arrived at the place again. (Ibid.) 6. At last, liveried in the costume of the age, Reality entered the room in the shape of a servant to tell the Duchess that her carriage was waiting. (Ibid.) 7. - and you have often told me that it is personalities, not principles, that move the age. (Ibid.) 8. «He began to talk about the house». (J.Fowles). 9. In England he never quite capitalized on the savage impact, the famous «black sarcasm» of the Spanish drawings. (Ibid.) 10. The friendship, the rapport (взаємовідносини) became comprehensible - . (Ibid.)

Exercise III. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Give your reasons for the choice of the indefinite pronoun (or cardinal numeral) to express the lexical meaning of articles.

1. «A Mr. Forsyte to see you, sir». (J. Galsworthy) 2. «By the way, have you any spare clothes you could give the wife of a poor snipe? -. (Ibid.) 3. He was moving slowly on the Bond Street, when a little light lady, coming from the backwater, and reading as she went, ran into him behind. (Ibid.) 4. Haviland looked at him for a moment and then hung up his hat and coat. (M.Wilson) 5. «I saw a Mrs. Danvers on the twelfth floor at two o'clock», he said. (D. du Maurier) 6. There was a woman sitting before the fire. (K.Mansfield) 7. There lay a young man, fast asleep - sleeping so soundly, so deeply, that he was far, far away from them both. (Ibid.) 8. In a few minutes a man came in, and George explained that the cook was sick. (E. Hemingway) 9. «We're going to kill a Swede. Do you know a big Swede named Ole Anderson?» (Ibid.) 10. As he swung, head down, into Talgarth Street he was conscious, suddenly, of a man running. (A. Cronin) 11. «- not to be acquainted with a Jarndyce is queer, ain't it, Miss Flite?» (C. Dickens). 12. Every old gang has a Billy in it. (S. Leacock) 13. «What a fool Rawdon Grawley has been to go and marry a governess!» (W. Thackeray) 14. After a pause Lord Henry pulled out his watch. (O. Wilde) 15. When all that is settled, I shall take a West End theatre and bring her out properly.

(О. Wilde) 16. A woman in a fluttering shawl was creeping slowly by the railings, staggering as she went. (Ibid.) 17. At last he heard a step outside, and the door opened. (Ibid.) 18. When a government makes a bad mistake of judgement, the electorate turns against it as soon as it feels the effect. (J. Galsworthy)

Exercise IV. Analyse the sentences below. Identify how the contextual meanings of the bold type articles are realized in Ukrainian (as an identifying pronoun, a relative adjective or any other semantically/contextually suitable word). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Desperately he came to a halt in front of one decent picture hanging on the walls. (A. Huxley) 2.1 honestly think if a person's an artist nobody ought to have any feeling at all about meeting him. (D. Parker) 3. Life worried and bored him, and time was a vexation. (J. London) 4. He is a man. (Ibid.) 5. He was over to San Francisco yesterday looking for a ship. (Ibid.) 6. «What's that?» he replied to a question from Olney that broke in upon his train of thought. (Ibid.) 7. «Yes, she is a peacock in everything but beauty», said Lord Henry. (O. Wilde) 8.1 have not laid eyes on him fora week. (Ibid.) 9. They are always telling that it (America) is the Paradise for women. (Ibid.) 10. Were people to gape at the mystery of his life? (Ibid.) 11. «An eternity», she tells me... (Ibid.) 12. There is hardly a single person in the House of Commons worth painting - . (Ibid.) 13.1 want to place her on a pedestal of gold, and to see the world worship the woman who is mine. (Ibid.) 14. Then he discovered Henley and wrote a series of sea-poems on the model of Hospital Sketches. (J. London) 15. For a generation ... the Old Hundredth (night club) has maintained a solid front against all adversity. (F. Fitzgerald) 16. So when a young man at the office suggested that we take a house together in a commuting town, it sounded like a great idea. (Ibid.) 17. «You can tell me the truth without giving me any of that lip.»(W. Saroyan)

Exercise V. Substitute the articles in bold type for the appropriate particles (вже, навіть, просто, саме, таки, ще, etc.). Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1.1 believe some pictures of mine had made a real success at the time... (O. Wilde) 2. It was the passions about whose origin we deceived ourselves that tyrannised most strongly over us. (Ibid.) 3. You are the type the age is searching for -. (Ibid.) 4. It seems to be the one thing that can make modern life mysterious or marvellous to us. (Ibid.) 5. Conscience is the trade-name of the firm. (Ibid.) 6. «You are the oneman in the world who is entitled to know everything about

me - . (Ibid.) 7. «Years ago, when I was a boy», said Dorian Gray -. (Ibid.) 8. The very thought of it stirs me. (J. London) 9. -when that was over and he had failed to kill his loneliness but only made it worse, he had written to her, the first one, the onewho left him. (E. Hemingway)

10. «I suppose, it's the thing to do», Macomber agreed. (Ibid.)

11. «She went into a house-» «Intoahouse!» Michael dived his ciga
rette-case. (J. Galsworthy) 12. -1 have this coloured laundress. She is
a real character. (D. Parker) 13. - He says he wouldn't sit down at the
table with one (Negro) fora million dollars. (Ibid.) 14. She is more than
an individual. (O. Wilde) 15. «That's better», the sheriff said. «That's a
civil answer». (W. Saroyan) 16. «You should go and see Claud Brains.
He's a real genius». (J. Galsworthy) 17.1 have no doubt it was not an
accident, Dorian. (O. Wilde) 18. What a girl! (T.Dreiser) 19.... «but I
shall have to ask them what the name of the country is, you know»
(L. Carroll) 20. It sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly
and simply arranged. (Ibid.) 21. That will be a queer thing, to be sure!
(Ibid.) 22. «Ah, that's the great puzzle!» (Ibid.) 23. «What a curious
feeling»! said Alice. 24. Either the well was very deep, or she fell very
slowly. (Ibid.)

Exercise VI. Point out the difference in the lexical meaning expressed by the indefinite and the definite articles signalizing respectively the rheme and theme in the sentences below. Pay attention to the place which the rhematic and thematic nouns occupy in their Ukrainian variants.

1. As he passed the bronze statue of the Four Moors a man's figureemerged from an old house on the opposite side of the shipping basin. 2. The manapproached unsteadily along the water side, shouting an English song. (E. Voynich) 3. As they passed by the gateway of the Uffizi, he crossed the road and stooped down at a dark bundlethat was lying against the railings. (Ibid.) 4. The bundlemoved, and answered something in a low, moaning voice. (Ibid.) 5. «What a fool Rawdon Grawley has been to go and marry a governess!»(W.Thackeray) 6. «But there was something about the governesstoo. Green eyes, fair skin, pretty figure». (Ibid.) 7. It was as John had said - he and she just wanted to live and the pastwas in their way - a pastthey had not shared in, and did not understand. (J.K.Jerome) 8. I've written a lot of them (his sayings) down in a bookfor fear of losing them. 9. It is only fair that at the back of the bookI would be allowed a few pages to myself to put down some things (Ibid.) 10. It was an early morningof a sunny day. (Ibid.) 11. He remembered suddenly the early morningwhen he slept on

the house-boat after her father died-. (J.Galsworthy) 12. He wrote a pamphleton Malt on returning to England - . (Ibid.) 13. She ... took an interest in the pamphleton Malt: was often affected, even to tears. (Ibid.) 14. There came a morningat the end of September when aunt Ann was unable to take from Smither's hands the insignia of personal dignity. (Ibid.) 15. The morningafter a certain night on which Soames at last asserted his rights and acted like a man he breakfasted alone. (J.Galsworthy)

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