﻿ Read, translate, retell the text
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Gearbox

The gearbox is placed between the clutch and the propeller shaft. I lie principal function of the gearbox is to vary the speed of the car movement to meet the road conditions. The gearbox provides four for­ward speeds and one reverse, as follows: 1) First or low gear; 2) Second gear; 3) Third gear; 4) Fourth or top gear; 5) Reverse gear.

There are many constructional arrangements of gearboxes, which can be classified as follows:

1. Sliding-mesh type;

2. Constant-mesh type;

3. Epicyclic (planetary) type.

The sliding-mesh type is the simplest one and is the oldest histori­cally. The constant-mesh type is the most widely used type. They are termed "ordinary" gearing, the characteristic feature of which is that I lie axes of the various gears are fixed axes. The gears simply rotate about their own axes.

The characteristic feature of epicyclic (planetary) gearing is that one gear rotates about its own axis and also rotates bodily about some other axis.

To secure the several speeds of the car the clutch shaft is mounted In direct line with the gearbox shaft. The gearbox shaft carries on it the sliding gears which are used for shifting to secure the forward speeds and the reverse drive.

1. Where is the gearbox situated?

2. What is the function of the gearbox?

3. What speeds does the gearbox provide?

4. What types of gearboxes do you know?

5. Why is the clutch shaft mouned in direct line with the gearbox shaft?

Read, translate and learn the dialogues

Mike: Peter, do you remember what our teacher told us last time? What do you know about gearboxes?

Peter: I know that the gearbox is used to change the speed of the car.

M.: And how many speeds does the gearbox provide?

P.: It can provide four forward speeds and one reverse.

M.: Into what types are the gearboxes divided according to their arrangements?

P.: They are divided into sliding-mesh type, constant-mesh type and epicyclic type.

M.: What type is the simplest?

P.: The sliding-mesh one.

M.: Thank you very much for you help.

Translate new words into Kazakh and learn them:

assemble

axis

axle

breather channel

constant-mesh gearbox

disassemble

drain hole

epicyclic (planetary) gearbox

forward speed

gearbox

gearbox casing

gearing

get into trouble

lubrication

oil level

repair

repairing shop (workshop)

reverse drive

shifting

sliding-mesh gearbox

stand

thin oil

2. Grammar:

Third conditional

Шартты сөйлемдердің үшінші түрі.

Шартты сөйлемдердің үшінші түрі өткен шақтағы істің орындалу шартын көрсетеді. Реальсіз шартты өткен шақта көрсету үшін басыңқы сөйлемнің етістігі – should, would+ Perfect Infinitive формасында, ал бағыңқы сөйлем етістігі .

Past Perfect Subjunctive формасында қолданылады.

Мысалы: If the weather conditions had been favorable, the construction of the bridge would have been completed in time.

Егерде ауа райы қолайлы болғанда, көпір құрылысы уақытында аяқталған болар еді.

 If + past perfect + would have + past participle

Exercise 1: Open the brackets in the conditional sentences making necessary changes.

Example: If he (come) yesterday, he would have helped us. — If he had come yesterday, he would have helped us.

Exercise 2:Read and translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the mood of the verb.

Exercise 3: Use the correct mood of the verbs in brackets.

1. It (be) nice if our lives (be) like VCRs! 2. If the storm not (rage) so furiously last night, many trees not (break). 3. I (go) and (live) in the tropics if only I (can). 4. What we (do) if television not (invent)? 5. If the laws of nature not (break), the situation (be) different. 6. Australia (be) a delightful country to live in if it not (be) so far. 7. He not (catch) a cold if he not (drink) so much cold beer in the pub yesterday. 8. If I (live) long enough, I (can) do so many great things! 9. If I not (pay) all my bills before leaving the hotel, I not (be) penniless now. 10. If the fellow not (leave) the city, the police (arrest) him. 11. If Mel not (be) so light-minded, Hilda not (leave) him! 12. If the case not (be) so interesting, the inspector not (take) it up. 13. If we (know) how dangerous the expedition was, we (refuse). 14. Ratchel (pass) the interview on Friday if she (know) a second foreign language. 15. She (wear) this frock tonight if she not (put on) so much weight lately.

Week 13

1. Text “Brakes”

2. Grammar: Complex Subject

Brakes

Brakes are used to slow or stop the car where it is necessary. It is one of the most important mechanisms of the car as upon its proper performance the safety of passengers depends. Car brakes can be di­vided into two types, namely: drum brakes and disc brakes. The drum type may be either a band brake or a shoe brake. Depending on their functions, the automobile has foot brakes and hand brakes (parking brakes). According to their mode of operation, the brakes are classi­fied as: mechanical brakes, hydraulic brakes, airbrakes, electric brakes. Brakes are controlled by the brake pedal.

Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic. This system con­sists of a master cylinder mounted on the car frame and wheel cylin­ders. When the driver pushes down on the brake pedal, it forces the piston to move in the master cylinder and brake fluid is delivered from 11 to the wheel cylinders. The piston movement causes brake shoes to move and the brakes are applied (the brake shoes are pressed against the brake drums).

The air brake uses compressed air to apply the braking force to the brake shoes.

Electric brakes use electromagnets to provide the braking effort against the brake shoes.

Formerly brakes were applied only to the two rear wheels, but now all cars are equipped with all-wheels brakes. Today many improvements are being made in brakes.

1. What is the function of the brakes?

2. What types are brakes divided into?

3. What brakes do you know according to their mode of opera­tion?

4. What braking systems are used today?

5. By what are brakes controlled?

6. When are brakes applied?

Read, translate and learn the dialogue:

Alex: Why are brakes used?

Boris: They are used to stop or to slow the car.

A.: Well, it is one of the most important mechanisms of the car, isn't it?

B.:Of course, the safety of the passengers depends upon their proper performance.

A.:What types of brakes are used today?

B.:Drum brakes, disk brakes and others.

A.:And in what way are they applied?

B.:They are applied by the brake pedal. When the driver pushes down on the pedal they are applied.

A.:Thank you. It was very nice of you to tell me this information.

B.:Don't mention it. I was glad to serve you.

Translate new words into Kazakh and learn them:

brakes

force the fluid

performance

under pressure

safety

slow

braking effort

push down on the brake pedal

drum brakes

band brake

disk brakes

shoe brake

hydraulic assisted brakes

brake shoes

brake fluid

brake pedal

master cylinder

2. Grammar:

Complex Subject

«Атау септігі инфинитивпен» немесе «күрделі бастауыш» құрылымы жалпы септіктегі зат есім немесе атау септігіндегі есімдік және инфинитив арқылы беріледі.

Complex subject қолданылады:

1)To see, to hear …, to order, to cause, to allow …, to expect, to know, to suppose … , to say, to report, to annaunceхабарлау және басқа етістіктер ырықсыз етісте баяндауыш ретінде тұрса:

Мысалы:They were seen to go home together.

Олардың бірге үйге бара жатырғанын көрді.

He was said to be writing a new play.

Оның жаңа пьеса жазып жатырғанын айтты.

2)To seem, to appear, to prove, to happen, to chanceетістіктері негізгі етісте баяндауыш ретінде қолданылса:

Мысалы: The doctor happened to be at home.

3) Келесі күрделі атаулы баяндауыштар болса:

Likely

IS liable мүмкін

Apt

Is unlikely мүмкін емес

sure күмәнсіз, әрине

IS certain міндетті түрде

bound мүмкін

Мысалы:They are likely to return on Sunday.

Олар жексенбі күні келуі мүмкін.

Exercise 1: Translate into Russian using Complex Subject

1. Many books are known to be published in our country every year. 2. You are supposed to graduate in four years. 3. Radium is said to be very radioactive. 4. This device was known to have been designed in that laboratory. 5. His invention is considered to be of great importance. 6. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases. 7. The new rocket is reported to go into operation next year. 8. This type of rocket is supposed to have many advantages. 9. For a long time the atom was thought to be indivisible. 10. The helium atom was found to have two electrons. 11.1 did not know what I was expected to say to that, so I said nothing. 12. He was said to be one of the most promising nuclear physicists. 13. He is said to be a good translator. 14. Roberta was known to be an honest and hardworking girl. 15. Clyde was expected to arrive at the weekend. 16. Becky and Tom were supposed to have stayed at the widow Douglas'. 17. The number of the unemployed is reported to be increasing with every year. 18. Many new textbooks are expected to be published soon. 19. The Moscow Underground is said to be the finest in the world. 20. A hare is known to run very fast. 21. The man was seen to take off his coat. 22. The diamond content of the mines in Western Yakutia is said to be in no way inferior to that of the world-famous South African mines. 23. That power station is known to be situated on the Angara River. 24. These devices are considered to be very effective.

Exercise 2: Use Complex Subject

E.g. We heard that a car stopped outside the door. A car was heard to stop outside the door.

It is believed that the poem was written by Byron. The poem is believed to have been written by Byron.

1. People consider the climate there to be very healthful. 2. It was announced that the Chinese dancers were arriving next week. 3. It is expected that the performance will be a success. 4. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young. 5. It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier. 6. It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy. 7. It is reported that the flood has caused much damage to the crops. 8. It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year. 9. It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver. 10. Scientists consider that electricity exists throughout space. 11. It is said that the weather in Europe was exceedingly hot last summer. 12. It was reported that five ships were missing after the battle.

Week 14

1. Text “Steering system”
2. Grammar: Complex Object
3. Presentation “Profession”

Steering System

То guide the car, it is necessary to have some means of turning the front wheels so that the car can be pointed in the direction the driver wants to go. The steering wheel in front of the driver is linked by gears and levers to the front wheels for this purpose. The front wheels are on pivots so they can be swung to the left or right. They are attached by steering knuckle arms to the rods. The tie-rods are, in turn, attached (o (he pitman arm.

When the steering wheel is turned, gearing in the steering gear as- sembly causes the pitman arm to turn to the left or right. This move­ment is carried by the tie-rods to the steering knucle arms, and wheels, musing them to turn to the left or right.

The steering system incorporates: the steering wheel and column, steering gear, pitman arm, steering knuckle arm, front axle, steering knuckle pivot, tie-rods.

There are several different manual steering gears in current use, such as the rack and pinion type and the recirculating ball type. The rack and pinion steering gear is widely used. Another manual steering gear which is popular in imported cars is the worm and sector type.

The steering wheel and column are the source of injury to the driver, air bags and other devices being developed now to safe the life of a driver.

Energy-absorbing columns must stop the steering wheel and col­umn from being pushed to the rear as the front of the car is crushed in an impact.

Energy-absorbing columns must also provide the driver with a tolerable impact as he moves forward and strikes the wheel with his chest.

1. What mechanism is necessary to guide the car?

2. How is the steering wheel connected to the front wheels?

3. Why can the front wheels be swung to the left or to the right?

4. What does the manual steering system incorporate?

5. What types of manual steering gears in use do you know?

Translate new words into Kazakh and learn them:

guide the саг

means of turning

front wheels

steering wheel

steering column

pivot

swing (swang, swung)

steering knuckle arm

tie-rod

pitman arm

rack and pinion assembly

ball joint

leverage

hose

steering gear assembly

rack and pinion type

recirculating ball steering

worm and sector

steering box

2. Grammar:

Complex Object

«Объектік септік инфинитивпен» немесе «күрделі толықтауыш» құрылылымы ағылшын тілінде кейбір етістіктерден кейін бағыныңқылы сөйлемдердің орнына қолданылады. Ол объектік септіктегі есімдіктің немесе жалпы септіктегі зат есімнің инфинитивпен байланысы арқылы беріледі.

Күрделі толықтауыш негізгі етісте келесі етістіктерден кейін қолданылады:

1. to want, to wish, to desireт.б. есімдіктері жәнеI should like құрылымы

Мысалы: He wants me to help him.

Ол менің көмектескенімді қалайды.

2. To see, to hear, to feel, to observe, to notice және т.б. сезім және қабылдау етістіктері. Инфинитив «to» бөлшегінсіз қолданылады.

Мысалы: We did not see the teacher enter the room.

Біз оқытушының бөлмеге кіргенін көрген жоқпыз.

3. to order, to allow, to let, to cause, to force, to make (мәжбүр ету) және т.б. бұйрықты, рұқсатты және өтінішті білдіретін етістіктер. Тo make(мәжбүр ету) және to let (рұқсат ету) етістіктерінен кейін инфинитив «to» бөлшегінсіз қолданылады.

Мысалы: The teacher made him rewrite the exercise.

Мұғалім оны жаттығуды қайта жазуға мәжбүр етті.

4. To expect – күту, to believe to suppose, to know, to find, to consider санау және т.б. етістіктері.

Мысалы:We knew him to be right. Біз оның дұрыс екенін білдік.

We believe him to finish this work tomorrow. Ол мына жұмысты ертең бітіреді деп біз сенеміз.

Exercise 1: Write the sentences using Complex Object

E.g. "Bring me a book," said my brother to me.

My brother wanted me to bring him a book.

1. The teacher said to the pupils: "Learn the rule." — The teacher wanted ...

2. "Be careful, or else you will spill the milk," said my mother to me. — My mother did not want ...

3. "My daughter will go to a ballet school," said the woman. — The woman wanted ...

4. The man said: "My son will study mathematics." — The man wanted ...

5. "Oh, father, buy me this toy, please," said the little boy. — The little boy wanted ...

6. "Wait for me after school," said Ann to me. — Ann wanted ...

7. "Fix the shelf in the kitchen," my father said to me. — My father wanted ...

8. "It will be very good if you study English," said my mother to me. — My mother wanted ...

9. "Bring me some water from the river, children," said our grandmother. — Our grandmother wanted ...

10. "Come to my birthday party," said Kate to her classmates — Kate wanted ...

11. The biology teacher said to us: "Collect some insects in summer." — The biology teacher wanted ...

12. "Don't eat ice cream before dinner," said our mother to us. Our mother did not want ...

Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences using Complex Object

E.g. I expect that she will send me a letter.

I expect her to send me a letter.

I know that he is a great scientist.

I know him to be a great scientist.

1. I know that my friend is a just man. 2. I expect that he will understand your problem and help you to solve it.3. I expected that she would behave quite differently. 4. I did not expect that my brother would forget to send her flowers. 5. He knows that my mother is a very kind woman. 6. She expected that her brother would bring her the book. 7.1 know that your uncle is an excellent mathematician. 8. People expect that the 21st century will bring peace on the Earth.

Week 15

1. Dialogue “Steering system”
2. Grammar revision
3. The Intermediate control

Stas: Look here. I have some troubles with the steering system.

S.: The first is excessive free play of the steering wheel.

V.: You should check free play of the steering wheel and steering gear performance.

S.: The second problem is oil leakage from the steering gear case.

V.: Check the steering gear case for oil leakage visually. Anything else?

S.: Sure. It is disadjustment of the steering gear. And I don't know what to do.

V.: You see, in this case it is better for you to go to a repairing shop. Good specialists should do this job.

S.: Thank you very much.

V.: Not at all.

Notes: look here послушай; troubles — неисправности, неполадки; excessive free play — чрезмерный свободный ход; check — проверять; performance — работа, характеристики; steering gear case — картер коробки передач, anything else — что еще; in this case —в этом случае

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