ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read, translate and retell the text.



 

The frame is a structural centre of any car as it provides support for the engine, body, wheels and power-train members.

Cross members reinforce the frame and provide support for the engine and wheels. The frame is extremely rigid and strong. The en­gine is attached to the frame in three or four points and insulated in I liese points by some rubber pads to prevent vibration and noise from passing to the frame and thus to the passengers. There are two types of frames: conventional construction and unibody one.

Read, translate and learn the dialogue

Stas: Hi! Seen you for ages! How are you?

Vlad: Hi! I'm perfectly well! I am working at a repairing shop. Very interesting I can tell you.

S.: What are you doing there?

V.: Now, we are testing the frame. You see, the driver has got into trouble. Something is wrong with his car. He thinks it is the frame.

S.: Has the car a conventional frame or a unibody frame?

V.: Unibody frame.

S.: I think you have to do a lot of work as body parts strengthen the entire car.

V.: Sure. We are testing all parts in order to find out the damage.

S.: I think you will cope with the problem.

Notes: seen you for ages — не видел тебя сто лет; perfectly well — прекрасно; get into trouble — попасть в беду; be wrong with — что-то не так; sure — конечно (без сомнения); find out the damage — отыскать повреждение;

соре with — справиться (с проблемой).

Translate new words into Kazakh and learn them:

aligment

attach

conventional frame

extremely rigid

fasten

firm structure

frame

heavy steel

integral frame

pad

provide

reinforce

rivert

rubber insulator

strengthen

suspension system

weld

2. Grammar:

The Gerund. Герундий.

Герундий етістік пен зат есімнің ерекшеліктерін байланыстыратын етістіктің жіктелмеген формасы. Герундий кез-келген ағылшын етістігінің инфинитив формасына – іng жалғауын жалғау арқылы жасалады.

Мысалы: increasing-көбею, obtaining-ұлғаю, heating-қыздыру.

 

Герундий нысанының кестесі.

  Active Passive
Indefinite Perfect Writing Having written Being written Having been written

Герундийдің синтаксистік қызметі

Қызметі Мысалы Аударма
1. бастауыш 1. Smoking is not allowed here. Мында темекі тартуға мында рұқсат жоқ.
2. Атаулы курделі бастауыш құрамында 2. His hobby is driving a car. Оның сүйген кәсібі машина жүргізу.
3. толықтауыш А) тура Б) жанама A) The car needs repairing В) They spoke about their traveling to the north. Машинаны жөндеуді қажет етеді. Олар солтүстікке жол сапар туралы айтты.
4. анықтауыш There are different ways of obtaining this substance. Бұл затты алудың әртүрлі жолы бар .
5. пысықтауыш After receiving good results they stopped experiments. Жақсы қортынды алып олар эксперементті тоқтаты.

Қорытынды:

1) Бастауыш, атаулы курделі баяндауыш құрамында тура толықтауыш ретінде герундий зат есім немесе тұйық етістік арқылы аударылады.

2) Жанама толықтауыш функциясында герундий зат есіммен немесе бағыныңқы сөйлеммен аударылады.

3) Пысықтауыш функциясында герундий зат есіммен, көсемше немесе бағыныңқы сөйлеммен аударылады.

4) Құрмалас герундий нысандары жиі бағыныңқы сөйлеммен аударылады.

Мысалы: І know of his having been appointed a new jоb.

Оның жаңа жұмысқа тағайындалғанын мен білемін.

 

Exercise 1: A. Write the Gerunds of the following verbs

1. to еspend 2. to shop 3. to play 4. to clean 5.to read 6. to travel 7. to collect 8. to use 9. to swim 10. to save 11.to watch 12. to listen 13. to see 14. to do 15. to be

B. Now put the Gerunds in the sentences

1. ___ coins is an interesting hobby. 2. ___ waste glass and paper again is called "recycling". 3. ___ is a healthy sport. 4. ___ money has become a mania with her. 5. ___ too much television gives me a headache. 6. ___ to such loud music is bad for your ears. 7. ___ time with your kids is the best thing you can do for them. 8. ___ is my life! As well as gardening! 9. ___ tennis has become fashionable lately. 10. ___ my rooms is so boring. 11. ___ authentic literature improves my English. 12. ___ broadens your horizons.

Exercise 2: Use the right form of the Gerund of the verbs in brackets.

1. We insist on (do) the work right now. The customers insist on the work (do) at once. 2. I enjoy (go) to her parties. But I dislike (take) there by my boyfriend. 3. Stop (talk) about it. The incident isn't worth (mention). 4. — Have you finished (correct) the composition? — No, it still needs (brush up). 5. Sue admitted (tell) a lie. And she didn't mind (reprimand) for it. 6. I am used to (remind) by my mother that life is great and I should keep (smiling), 7. Ted couldn't imagine (abuse) anyone, or (abuse) by anyone. 8. He is very secretive. He avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by his closest friends. 9. I remember (beat) once by my elder brother for cheating. 10. They suspected the inspector of (get) some more evidence and were afraid of (call) to the police station. 11. He wasn't used to (ignore).

 

Week 10

Tasks / Тапсырмалар:

1. Text “Clutch”

2. Grammar: Conditional sentences. Type I

Read and translate the text

Clutch

The clutch is a friction device. It connects the engine to the gears in the gearbox. It is used for disconnecting the engine from the gear­box, for starting the car and for releasing the engine from the car wheels.

The clutch is fixed between the flywheel of the engine and the gear­box und consists of two plates (discs): the friction disc and the pressure disc. The friction disc is situated between the flywheel and the pressure plate and has a hard-wearing material on each side.

The basic principal operation of the clutch is a frictional force acting between two discs. The clutch is controlled by the clutch pedal. When the pedal is at rest the clutch is engaged and the running engine is connected to the gearbox. When the pedal is pressed down the clutch is disengaged and the engine runs idly.

Answer the questions:

1. What device is the clutch?

2. What units does it connect?

3. What is the clutch used for?

4. Where is the clutch placed?

5. What plates does the clutch consist of?

6. What is the basic principal operation of the clutch?

7. What is the clutch controlled by?

8. What takes place when the clutch pedal is at rest?

9. When does the engine run idly?

Choose the right variant:

1. The clutch is a device connecting ....

a) the rear axle and axle shafts b) the gearbox and differential. c) the engine and the gearbox.

2.The clutch is situated between ....

a) the gearbox and cardan shaft. b) the flywheel and the gearbox. c) the gearbox and rear axle.

3.The clutch is controlled by ....

a) the brake pedal b) the clutch pedal. c) the gearbox and rear axle.

4.The clutch is engaged ....

a) when the clutch pedal is pressed down. b) when the clutch pedal is at rest.

5.The clutch is disengaged ....

a) when the clutch pedal is at rest. b) when the clutch pedal is pressed down.

Learn new words:

friction device

pressure disc

hard-wearing material

connect

gearbox

frictional force

start the car

clutch pedal

release the engine

at rest

fix

flywheel

friction disc (plate)

run idly

 

2. Grammar:

First conditional

Шартты сөйлемдердің бірінші түрі.

Шартты сөйлемдердің бірінші түрі келер шақты істің орындалу шартын көрсетеді. Бағыныңқы сөйлемде етістік Present Indefinite-те, ал басыңқы сөйлемде Future Indefinite-те тұрады.

Басыңқы сөйлемнің етістікгі бұйрық райда да тұруы мүмкін.

Мысалы: If the weather is good, we shall go skiing.

Егер қүн жақсы болса, біз шаңғы тебеміз.

If + present simple + will

Exercise 1: Open the brackets in the conditional sentences making necessary changes.

A Example: If he (come) tomorrow, he will help us. — If he comes tomorrow, he will help us.

1. If you (put) salt on ice, it will melt. 2. If he (leave) now, he will miss the rush hour. 3. Provided that she (service) the car, we'll be able to drive to the country. 4. Unless he (do) his homework, he'll stay at home. 5. Providing that we (get up) early, we'll reach the place of destination in time. 6. They will let us know if they (see) him.

 

Week 11

Tasks / Тапсырмалар:

1. Dialogue “Function of the clutch”

2. Grammar: Conditional sentences. Type II

 

Read and translate the text

Function of the clutch

A.: What is the function of the clutch?

В.: You see, it serves three functions. It is used for freeing the en­gine from the gearbox, for starting the car and for freeing the engine from car wheels.

A.: Is it a friction device?

В.: Yes, of course. It is fixed between the flywheel of the engine and the gearbox and usually consists of two discs.

A.: What discs?

В.: The friction disc (driven disc) and the pressure disc.

A.: I suppose the principle of operation of clutches is a frictional force between discs. Am I right?

В.: Yes, you are. When the clutch is fully engaged the frictional force makes discs rotate at the same speed.

A.: And by what is the clutch controlled?

B: By the clutch pedal. When it is at rest the clutch is engaged and when it is pressed down the clutch is disengaged and the engine is disconnected from the car wheels.

A.: Thank you. And what types of clutches do you know?

B.: Positive clutches and gradual engagement clutches.

A.: Thank you very much for your information.

B.: Not at all. Glad to help you.

Learn new words:

car wheels

clutch

clutch pedal

connect

control

disconnect

disengage

engage

fix

flywheel

friction plate (disc)

frictional force

gear

gearbox

hard-wearing material

press down the pedal

pressure plate (disc)

principle of operation

release

 

2.Grammar:

Second conditional

Шартты сөйлемдердің екінші түрі.

Осы немесе келер шақта істің іске асуына күмән білдіру үшін қолданылады.

Бағыңқы сөйлемнің етістігі Past Subjunctive формасында, ал басыңқы сөйлемде should/would+Indefinite Infinitive қолданылады.

Мысалы: If the plant landed, they would let us know about it.

Егер ұшақ жерге қонса, олар бізге хабарлар еді.

If + past simple/continuous + would

Exercise 1: Open the brackets in the conditional sentences making necessary changes.

Example: If he (come) tomorrow, he would help us. — If he came tomorrow, he would help us.

1. If you met the president, what you (do)? 2. If he (live) nearer, we would see each other more often. 3. I might go for a walk if the weather (be) nice. 4. I would call him up if he (come) tomorrow. 5. If I were as young as you are, I (sail) in a boat round the world. 6. I would go skiing if there (be) more snow. 7. She would play tennis if it (be) not so hot. 8. If I (be) in his shoes, I wouldn't invite the Browns. 9. If we (not have) to study, we would go out tonight. 10. Where you (go) if you were on leave?

Exercise 2: Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form. Pay attention to the adverbial modifiers of time.

1. If he (book) tickets yesterday, he (lie) on the beach now. 2. She (not forgive) him if she (not be) his mother. 3. If you (drink) less last night, you (not feel) so bad today. 4. If he (be) cleverer, he (not behaved) so foolishly yesterday. 5. If I (know) English well, I (translate) the article long ago. 6. I (take) part in the last competition if I (be) younger. 7. If he (do) work yesterday, he (be) free today. 8. If you (take) into account his behavior then, you (not have) so much trouble now. 9. You (may be) a star now if you (be offered) the part in the film then. 10. If she (not decide) to change a job last year, she (go) to China next month. 11. He (not go) to sleep over that book if it (not be) so dull. 12. If he (be) a good musician, he (take part) in yesterday's concert.

 

Week 12

Tasks / Тапсырмалар:

1. Text “Gearbox”

2. Grammar: Conditional sentences. Type III

 





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