ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Make up 5 questions you’d like to ask an engineer about his career, life and interests.
4.4. Discuss the following. Use the formulas of expressing your opinion:
1. Why have you chosen engineering as a career?
2. Who has influence your choice of profession?
3. Have you heard about any ideal engineer in your life?
4. What is the role of an engineer in a modern life?
4.5. Do projects:
1. My parents’ profession.
2. Why I want to be an engineer.
3. My favourite subject at the university.
4. The role of right choosing a profession for a young person.
TEXT 2. WHAT IS ENGINEERING?
Professionalism: it’s not the job
you do, it’s how you do the job.
I. Before you read
1.1. Pronounce the international words properly:
Engineering, profession, practice, terminology, material, operator, individual, technician, inspector, topographical, mechanical, specialty, socioeconomic.
1.2. Words and expressions to learn:
To apply, to gain, experience, efficient, loosely, latter, aid, draftsman, large-scale, to involve, scope.
1.3. Add the suffixes -er, -or to the following words to make nouns which describe people and professions:
Model: produce – producer
Drive, office, visit, edit, build, engine, act, write, photograph, teach, bake, hunt, navigate, excavate, custom, own, read.
1.4. Match the columns to form English proverbs. Translate them:
Use a monolingual dictionary to define the term «engi-neering». Then answer the question: «What is engineering?». Discuss your answers in the group.
1.6. What do the word groups have in common? Try to translate them:
1) knowledge, person, occupation, science;
2) craftsperson, tradesperson, draftsmen;
3) natural, typical, pure, modern, technical, military;
4) engineering, training, increasing;
5) is used, are known, was recognized, is applied, was performed;
6) applied, gained, involved, widened.
Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades. Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians, inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the building efforts and docks. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing-use of machinery in the 19th century, mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining engineering was similarly recognized.
The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and introduced a large number of engineering specialities, and the rapidly changing demands of the socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.
III. After you have read
3.1. Answer the following questions:
1. What is this text about?
2. What are the main branches of engineering?
3. Does the term engineer properly denote a person who has received professional training in pure and applied science?
4. Was large-scale construction work usually placed in the hands of military engineers before the middle of the 18th century?
5. Did military engineering involve such work as the preparation of topographical or geographical maps?
6. When does the term civil engineering come into use to describe engineering work?
7. When was mechanical engineering recognized as a separate branch of engineering?
8. The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and introduced a large number of engineering specialities, didn’t they?
3.2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
Математические и естественные науки; силы природы; профессиональное обучение; в современной терминологии; ремесло; крупномасштабная строительная работа; военные инженеры; подготовка топографических карт; местонахождение; строительство дорог и мостов; техническое продвижение.
3.3. Fill in the gaps:
1. Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied … .
2. … denotes a person who has received professional training in pure and applied science.
3. In … terminology … occupations are known as crafts or trades.
4. Before the middle of the 18th century … .
5. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of
6. The term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed … .
7. With the increasing-use of machinery in the 19th century, mechanical engineering … .
8. The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and introduced … .
3.4. Find in the text words with the following suffixes: -tion, -al,
3.5. Translate the sentences with Past Perfect and Future Perfect Active:
1. Extensive railway construction in Russia had developed by the end of the 19th century.
2. They had reequipped the plant before the reconstruction began.
3. We had not gone far when a terrible storm broke out.
4. The group will have carried out the plan by next summer.
5. By the time they had reached the road, the rain stopped.
6. The workers will have built a new house by next month.
7. They will have made necessary calculations before the experiment begins.
8. My mother had already planted roses when I came home.
9. They had installed the new apparatus by yesterday evening.
10. A new house had been built by the workers by last month.
3.6. Put in the right forms of the verbs in the Past Perfect and
1. We had (have) a lot of sugar on the table before you came.
2. The engineer (complete) his project by the end of the next year.
3. Before they went to the cinema they had (have) dinner at «Holiday
4. He (test) the equipment before it starts working.
5. When we got to the cinema, the film had already (begin).
6. I had (book) the seats before you called.
7. We (record) the data by 5 o'clock.
8. By the time you came Ann had (cook) pizza.
9. The programmers (check) the devices by tomorrow.
10. I gave you my doctor’s telephone number after you had (ask) me.
3.7. Compare the translation of the sentences. Pay attention to the different forms of the Passive Voice:
1. The experiment was completed a month ago.
The experiment had been completed by last month.
The experiment will have been completed by next month.
2. Her plans are changed every day.
Her plans have been already changed.
The chief’s plans had been changed by the beginning of the negotiations.
3. The explanation of this fact was given long ago.
The explanation of this fact hasn't been given yet.
The explanation of this fact will have been given by tomorrow.
4. This book is written by a famous scientist.
Many new books have been written by this scientist lately.
Many new books had been written by this scientist before he got the Noble Prize.
5. The text will be translated tomorrow.
The text will have been translated by tomorrow.
The text had been translated before my friends came.
6. The theory was developed in 1920.
The theory has been just developed.
The theory had been developed by the end of the year.
7. New theories are developed very often.
New theories have been already developed by our team.
New theories will have been developed by our team before the projects starts.
8. The documents are usually signed in the morning.
The documents are being signed now.
The documents will have been signed by the end of the week.
3.8. Put in the right prepositions:
a) 1. Have you ever been … Sochi?
2. I am the student … the university.
3. Your seat is … front … the door.
4. Tom spent his summer holidays … the seaside.
5. My mother likes to pick up mushrooms … the forest.
6. Have you forgotten … my birthday?
7. There is a postcard … my friend.
8. I reminded you about it the day ... yesterday.
9. Had you written a letter … 5 o’clock yesterday?
10. We are going … the restaurant now.
b) Dear Stuart,
Many thanks for your letter … May 3 and … your offer to meet me … the airport. I am flying … Atlanta … Moscow … Monday, the
IV. Grammar Review
4.1. Point out sentences with the Simple Passive in the text.
4.2. Change the active sentences to the passive ones:
1. The head engineer is conducting negotiations now.
2. The laboratory assistant is making all the necessary measurements.
3. The workers are installing various apparatus and devices.
4. We are preparing instruments.
5. The computer is processing the data.
6. They were building the house for 5 years.
7. The device was making computations at that moment.
8. They were registering the voters from 3 to 5 yesterday.
9. When we entered the room they were checking the contract.
10. The specialists were studying new materials for many years.
V. Brush up your talk
5.1. Read the proverb and say:
The workman is known by his work.
Yes, a man is known by his work. We are proud of those who have made a name for themselves as outstanding workers in their trade or
Say how young persons can become leading engineers in their
5.2. Read and dramatize the dialogues with your partners. Make up your own dialogues on these models:
1) - Hello, Peter!
- Hi, Andrew! Where are you hurrying?
- To our university. You know, we are meeting today.
- The lectures are over. What are you going to do?
- By the way, I’m a member of our optional class in Engineering. Our professor promised to show us some experiments in his lab.
- That sounds very inviting, and what kind of work do you do there?
- Generally, we take a deep study of certain topics and problems we are interested in. Sometimes we carry out experiments.
- Oh, it’s a series work, isn’t it? So, I see you’ve definitely made up your mind to take up engineering as a career, haven’t you?
- I believe so. It really attracts me.
2) - I say, Ann, why have you chosen engineering as a career? You know, it’s a very difficult job and a bit boring to my mind.
- Nothing of the kind. It’s the most stimulating and rewarding job.
- Are you fond of solving technical problems?
- Yes, of course. I’m fond of repairing mechanical items.
- Oh, fine! You seem to have a talent for technique.
- I hope I have. I believe I should be a good engineer.
5.3*. Role-play the following situations:
1. A father/a mother and a son/a daughter are discussing his/her future career. The student is willing to become an engineer, the parents are trying to talk him out of it. Both are giving pros and cons of the engineering
2. Two people are discussing the profession of an engineer. The question is: may a woman be a good engineer?
3. The profession of an engineer is for those who enjoy solving various technical problems. Do you agree with it?
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