ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Part 2. English as a World Language



 

The dominance of English in the contemporary world is explained by the appearance of lots of people who want to learn English not for pleasure or prestige but because English has become the key to international scientific, technological and commercial innovations of today.

Previously the reason for learning any foreign language was not well defined. Knowledge of foreign languages was regarded as a sign of a well-rounded education, but few had really questioned why it was necessary. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learnt it as their native language, those who have learnt it as
a second language in a society which is mainly bilingual and those who are force to use it for a practical purpose - professional or educational. In
a number of speakers (400 million) it is second only to Mandarin Chinese.

The total knowledge of mankind doubles every seven years. English is needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange. With the acceptance of English as the international language of technology and commerce a new generation of people appears who know why they are learning the language. Some people learn foreign languages because they need them in their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby. A modern engineer or even a worker cannot work with an imported instrument or a machine if he is not able to read the instruction how to do it. Ordinary people need language to translation the instruction or the manual to the washing-machine or a vacuum-cleaner, medicine or even food-products. Scientists and scholars need it to keep up with developments in their fields. Many students need English because their course of studies includes textbooks available only in English. Young
people around the world need English in order to be able to use the Internet, communicate with their partners in other countries, and understand films and songs. Every year thousands of people go to different countries as tourists or to work. They cannot go without knowing the language of the country they are going to.

As for basic characteristics of English there are following:

1. Simplicity of form. Old English, Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun.

2. Flexibility. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech, many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example work, phone, answer, visit, and watch. Adjectives also can be used as verbs: warm and to warm, clean and to clean.

3. Openness of vocabulary. This involves the free admission of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time, and the process is now being reversed. Purists of the French,
Russian, and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.

4. The future of English. Geographically, English is the most widespread language on Earth. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. It is the language of literature, education, modern music, international tourism,
science, trade and cultural relations, aviation, and international sport. It is also the major language of diplomacy. This will no doubt continue,
although the opinion that all other languages will die out is absurd.

At present no other language on Earth is better suited to play the role of world language.

 

III. After you have read

3.1. Choose the right variant (use the information taken from the texts 1 and 2):

1. A language that is used as a means of communication by people of different nations is called … .

a) national

b) international

c) local

2. The first international language that we know about was the language of the … .

a) Chinese

b) Japanese

c) Phoenicians

3. The … language replaced Phoenician as a means of international communication.

a) Greek

b) Latin

c) French

4. In the 19-th century… was the official language of our country.

a) French

b) English

c) Russian

5. … is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, and the South African Republic.

a) French

b) Spanish

c) English

6. In a number of speakers English is second only to ... .

a) German

b) Spanish

c) Chinese

7. Verbs now have very few … .

a) forms

b) tenses

c) inflections

8. … also can be used as verbs.

a) Nouns

b) Pronouns

c) Prepositions

9. … of the French, Russian, and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.

a) Purists

b) Writers

c) Teachers

10. The opinion that all other languages will die out is … .

a) true

b) absurd

c) controversial

3.2. Arrange the sentences according to the order in the text English as a World Language, Part II:

1. A modern engineer or even a worker cannot work with an imported instrument or a machine if he is not able to read the instruction how to
do it.

2. As for basic characteristics of English there are following.

3. Previously the reason for learning any foreign language was not well defined.

4. Old English, Greek, had many inflections to show singular and
plural, tense, person, etc.

5. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at
some time, and the process is now being reversed.

6. People who speak English fall into one of three groups.

7. The total knowledge of mankind doubles every seven years.

8. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge.

9. At present no other language on Earth is better suited to play the role of world language.

10. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech.

3.3. Make up adjectives:

Model: Russia – Russian.

Persia –

Germany –

Spain –

Japan –

China –

Scotland –

Wales –

Ireland –

Portugal –

Europe –

Greece –

Turkey –

Australia –

Canada –

3.4. Make up the derivative verbs with the suffixes -ize or -en from the following adjectives. Translate them into Russian:

Active, special, central, nation, personal, individual, deep, wide, weak, crystal, black, white, red, fast, computer, length.

3.5. Find in the texts the words with the following suffixes: -tion,
-al, -(i)ty, -ly
and translate them.

3.6. Point out the sentences with the verbs to be, to have in the texts and state its function.

3.7. Make up sentences matching the suggested parts. Pay attention to the participles:

Learning foreign languages English my friend the data the matter people can travel abroad.
Having learnt we can get a well-paid job.
Being busy didn’t call me back.
Knowing people are able to read the books in original.
Having discussed they make some more experiments.
we completed our job later.
they started to learn Spanish.
we write new words out.

 

3.8. Put the word in brackets into the appropriate form of participle:

1. (To speak) English our secretary always makes mistakes.

2. Have you received a fax (to send) from London?

3. We went home, (to look) through the documents.

4. The matter (to discuss) is very controversial.

5. While (to read) a book in a foreign language my friend usually uses the e-dictionary.

6. Where are the souvenirs (to bring) from Paris?

7. (To translate) this difficult text, my friend starts to learn it.

8. The new method of learning English (to use) by our teacher at the lesson is very useful.

9. I’ve got a few books (to publish) in France.

10. Do you know the student (to speak) with the dean?

3.9. Complete the sentences:

1. Having taken a taxi my colleague …

2. When speaking at the conference my friend …

3. Not knowing English language he …

4. Having been published this book …

5. While translating an article my brother …

6. Not having followed his parents' advice my brother …

7. The project being made by our students …

8. Not having been sent in time the fax …

9. Having been told the truth she …

10. Not having caught my idea my colleague …

IV. Grammar Review





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-06-23; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 35.153.39.7 (0.014 с.)