ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Top 10 Universities in the World
List of Top 10 Universities in the World. Here is a list of some of the top-rated Universities in the world. Before coming to any conclusion about the quality of education offered by these universities, one should remember that rankings of universities can differ with the use of different criteria.
1. California Institute of Technology. The California Institute of Technology, also known as Caltech is set in a suburban area of Pasadena, California. Caltech stood 1st in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). Thirty-one of Caltech's alumni (including the faculty) have received the Nobel Prize. The number of students that get enrolled for undergraduate programs in this university is 978.
2. Harvard University.Established in 1636, Harvard University is one of the members of the Ivy League. Every year, 7181 students take ad-mission for graduate programs; 14 044 students take admission for postgraduate programs. Harvard has the largest academic library in the United States. It is also the oldest institute in USA for higher studies; the university completed 375 years in 2011. Harvard's financial endowment is higher than that of any other university in the world. Its September 2011 figures for financial endowment were $32 billion. This university is named after its first benefactor, John Harvard.
3. Stanford University. This university was established in 1891; the Stanford University or Leland Stanford Junior University was named after Leland Stanford's son, Leland Stanford Jr. who died of typhoid at an early age of 15 years. The university enrolls around 8 300 graduates and 6 800 undergraduates annually. Students from Stanford have been placed in reputed organizations like Google, Sun Microsystems, Cisco Systems and Hewlett-Packard, to name a few. The different schools which form the Stanford university are «Stanford School of Medicine», «Stanford Law School», Stanford School of Engineering' and «Stanford Graduate School of Business». Larry Page and Sergey Brin, the founders of Google Inc. are the alumni of Stanford university.
4. University of Oxford. The exact year of establishment of Oxford is not known. However, it is said to date back to 1096. Oxford is the oldest surviving university from the English-speaking countries. The total number of students enrolling for different courses in the University of Oxford annually is over 21 000. There is always a great competition between Oxford and Cambridge to gain the top spot in UK's top universities' list. The University of Oxford's endowment for 2011 was $5.33 billion.
5. Princeton University. Founded in 1746, Princeton University is the 4th oldest university in USA; it is one of the members of the prestigious Ivy League. This university offers undergraduate and graduate programs in humanities, engineering, natural sciences and social sciences. The number of students admitted for undergraduate and graduate programs in the Princeton University is 5 000 and 2 500 respectively.
6. University of Cambridge. The University of Cambridge was founded in 1209. An association formed by a group of scholars grew into what is today's University of Cambridge. The number of students enrolled in the University of Cambridge annually is 18 396. Cambridge is the
7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) Located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT is considered as one of the best universities for higher education. The 68 hectare campus of MIT houses a college and
8. Imperial College London. Established on July 8, 1907, the Imperial College London admits 13 500 full-time students for different programs. This public research university houses 40 departments grouped under
9. University of Chicago. Founded by the American Baptist Education Society in 1890, the University of Chicago spreads over an area of
10. University of California. The University of California offers
Other Important Universities in the World
There are many institutions and colleges, apart from those mentioned above, that offer quality education. Not all of them make it to the list of top 10 universities in the world. Here are the details of few such universities.
Cornell University.The Cornell University, which is located in Ithaca, New York, was founded by Ezra Cornell in 1865. Every year, 20,633 students are admitted for different courses in the Cornell university. A variety of courses that range from agriculture, liberal arts, engineering to hotel administration are offered by the university. There are 7 graduate divisions and an equal number of undergraduate colleges in the Cornell University.
Yale University. Yale is the 3rd oldest university in USA. Located in New Haven, Connecticut, the university is set in a sprawling 339 hectare campus. Many prominent personalities including 5 presidents of USA have studied in Yale. The university was established in 1701.
Shanghai Jiao Tong. University One of the oldest universities in China, Shanghai Jiao Tong is a member of the C9 League. This league is formed of top universities from China. Shanghai Jiao Tong University is
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoBased in Mexico City, the «Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico» or «National Autonomous University of Mexico» is the largest university in America in terms of student enrollment. For the academic year 2011-12, 324 413 students were admitted for different courses in the university. Justo Sierra founded this university on 22nd September, 1910. The campus of Universidad
To be read after Units 7 – 8
Text 1. Joseph Monier (1823 – 1906)
Joseph Monier, born 1823 was a French gardener and one of the principal inventors of reinforced concrete. Joseph was one of ten children born to a family of horticulturists. All hands being needed in the fields, Joseph was not sent to school. By the age of 17 he had proved his worth as a gardener, and the duke offered him a post at his mansion in Paris. Joseph took the opportunity to attend evening classes and learned to read and write.
As a gardener, Monier was not satisfied with the materials available for making flowerpots. He began making cement pots and tubs, but these were not stable enough. In order to strengthen the cement containers, he experimented with embedded iron mesh. He was not the first to experiment with reinforced concrete, but he saw some of the possibilities in the technique, and promoted it extensively.
Monier exhibited his invention at the Paris Exposition of 1867. He
Another application in 1878 covered reinforced concrete railway sleepers. When granted, this became the basis for a series of further additions. It contained a clear statement that the cement protected the iron against rusting.
As municipalities expanded their water supply and sewerage networks, there was a growing need for pipes, but a diminishing need for reservoir tanks. Monier was obliged to go further from urban areas in search of clients. In 1886 he was granted Patent for a system applicable to housing. Monier described the house as proof against earthquakes, ice, humidity, heat, and fire and received a commission to build such a house in Nice, possibly as a result of a recent earthquake. Monier’s second son Paul asked to work on this project.
On 24 November 1887, Paul was killed when he fell from the scaffol-ding. As Monier’s eldest son, Pierre, had severed his relationship with his father over a family argument, Joseph found himself with no sons of
In June 1888, the firm of J Monier constructeur was declared bankrupt, and in April 1889 went into liquidation. However, in 1890 he formed
Monier took out patents in many countries, throughout Europe and overseas. Some of these were registered in the name of the patent agent, in accordance with local law, the British patent of 1883 being in the name of John Imray. Typically, patents were valid for 15 years, but it was necessary to pay a significant yearly fee to maintain them. Monier opted to sell his rights outside France to local businessmen and engineers.
Reinforced concrete is one the most important inventions of the
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