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Make up the presentations on the topic «Non-governmental organizations». Use tips given in the appendix 1.



UNIT 14. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS

TEXT 1. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

Help yourself and others will help you.

I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the words properly:

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST); a Space Shuttle; Earth orbit; the Large Space Telescope; Edwin Hubble; Milky Way; the United States space agency NASA; the European Space Agency; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory; the Chandra
X-ray Observatory; the Spitzer Space Telescope; the Andromeda galaxy;
the Big Bang; a Cepheid variable; the Magellanic Clouds; Andromeda Galaxy; Jupiter; Saturn; Pluto; Shoemaker-Levy; Mike Griffin; the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

Find out all international words in the text.

1.3. Words and expressions to learn:

To carry into orbit; in honour of; distortion; breakthrough; the universe; contribution; a proposed launch; to beset; to elevate; to peer; to make smth. similar; to capture; to gauge; to circle the planet; to crash; collision; to reveal.

1.4. Translate the following expressions:

Extremely high-resolution images; background light; visible-light
images; a deep view into space and time; the rate of expansion of the universe; a vital research tool; a public relations boon; the telescope’s capabilities; a servicing mission; remote objects; a seemingly-empty patch of sky; the clouds of dust, a scientific successor.

1.5. Give the opposites to the following words and translate them into Russian. Use the model:

Model: undress – раздеваться; dress – одеваться.

Unkind, unlearned, undone, unhappy, unmade, unheard, unimportant, uninvited, unjust, unknown, unnatural, unnecessary, unpleasant, unpo-pular.

Model: inequality – неравенство; equality – равенство.

Independence, infamous, indifferent.

 

1.6. Translate the following adjectives hearing in mind. Remember the meaning of the given prefixes:

Anti-: antimonopoly, anticompetitive, antitrust, antidumping;

im-: impossible, immoderate, immovable, impatient, impassable;

super-: superrich, supernormal, supernatural;

inter-: interbank, intercompany, intercorporate, interpersonal, inter-regional;

multi-: multinational, multifunctional, multicurrency, multicommodity, multilingual.

II. Reading

 

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation.
A 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) aperture telescope in low Earth orbit, Hubble’s four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectra. The Large Space Telescope was renamed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in honour of Edwin Hubble, an American astronomer who, among other things, determined that the universe extended beyond the borders of Milky Way.

Hubble’s orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images with almost no background light. Hubble’s Deep Field has recorded some of the most detailed visible-light images ever, allowing a deep view into space and time. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency, and is operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute. The HST is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space
Telescope.

Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When
finally launched in 1990, Hubble’s main mirror was found to have been ground incorrectly, compromising the telescope's capabilities. The optics were corrected to their intended quality by a servicing mission in 1993.

The Hubble Space Telescope’s elevated perspective and advanced optics allow it to peer farther away than previous ground-based optics are able to see. Because light takes time to travel long distances, the range of the HST makes it function similar to a time machine; the light it views from remote objects only reveals how that object appeared when the light left it, not how it appears today. Thus when we look at the Andromeda galaxy, 2.5 million light-years from Earth, we see it as it was 2.5 million years ago.

When astronomers pointed the HST to a seemingly-empty patch of sky, for instance, they captured an image of over 3,000 galaxies too distant to be detected by other telescopes. Some of the galaxies were so young, they had not yet begun serious star formation. Other deep field observations have since been taken, providing a wealth of information.

In addition to gazing at the early universe, Hubble also helped astronomers gauge how much time had passed since the Big Bang. By measuring a special kind of pulsing star known as a Cepheid variable, they were able to narrow down the age of the universe from its pre-HST range of
10 to 20 billion years to a more precise 13.7 billion years.

In addition to galaxies, the Hubble Space Telescope also examines individual stars in various stages of their evolution – from the clouds of dust that form infant stars to the corpses of those long since detonated, and those in between. It has even been able to peer outside of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and into its neighbours, the Magellanic Clouds and Andromeda Galaxy.

The Hubble Space Telescope may spend much of its time peering light-years from Earth, but on occasion it takes the time to photograph the planets travelling around our sun. High resolution images taken of Jupiter, Saturn, and even Pluto can provide insights that can only be topped by planetary probes circling the planets. Images from the HST allow scientists on Earth to monitor changes in the planet’s atmosphere and surface. When the comet Shoemaker-Levy crashed into the Jupiter in 1994, the Hubble Space Telescope photographed the fatal collision. The aftermath revealed
a great deal about the gas giant's atmosphere.

In orbit for more than two decades, the Hubble Space Telescope has provided scientists with a greater understanding of the planets, galaxy, and the whole universe.

Hubble is the only telescope designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. Between 1993 and 2002, four Space Shuttle missions repaired,
upgraded, and replaced systems on the telescope; a fifth mission was canceled on safety grounds following the Columbia disaster. However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved one final servicing mission, completed in 2009. The telescope is now expected to function until at least 2014, and possibly 2020. Its scientific successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is currently scheduled to be launched in 2018.

 

III. After you have read

3.1. Answer the following questions:

1. What is this text about?

2. What is the Hubble Space Telescope?

3. The Large Space Telescope was renamed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in honour of Edwin Hubble, wasn’t it?

4. What did Edwin Hubble determine?

5. Has Hubble’s Deep Field recorded some of the most detailed
visible-light images?

6. When were space telescopes proposed?

7. When was Hubble funded?

8. What did Hubble help astronomers gauge?

9. The Hubble Space Telescope also examines individual stars in various stages of their evolution, doesn’t it?

10. Is Hubble the only telescope designed to be serviced in space by astronauts?

3.2. Look through the text again and say what is true and what is false? Correct the false statements:

1. A 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) aperture telescope in high Earth orbit, Hubble's two main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectra.

2. The Large Space Telescope was renamed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in honour of Edwin Hubble.

3. Hubble’s Deep Field has recorded some of the most detailed visible-light images ever, allowing a deep view into space and time.

4. Hubble is one of the smallest and least versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.

5. The HST was built by the Russian space agency.

6. Because light takes time to travel long distances, the range of the HST makes it function similar to a time machine.

7. When astronomers pointed the HST to a seemingly-empty patch of sky, for instance, they captured an image of over 5,000 galaxies too distant to be detected by other telescopes.

8. The Hubble Space Telescope also examines individual stars in various stages of their evolution.

9. It takes the time to photograph the planets travelling around our sun.

10. The telescope is now expected to function until at least 2014, and possibly 2040.

Write the plan of the text.

3.4. Read and analyze the sentences with the Object Clause:

1. The young engineer is not quite sure what he should do with this new device.

2. The majority of the searchers don’t know who allows to carry on such dangerous experiments.

3. The head engineer doesn’t know when the new equipment will be delivered.

4. You may rely on it that I will give you a full account.

5. I think we will complete our project in time.

6. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry simultaneously.

7. I am not sure whether he will take part in this conference.

8. Are you aware that your time is nearly up?

9. Mary phones us every day and says she intends coming on Saturday.

10. Everybody knows that one must study hard to master foreign languages.

3.5. Read and translate the sentences with the Attribute Clause:

1. The length of time Eskimo dogs can go without food seems beyond belief.

2. Is there anything you want that you have got?

3. The waters of the lake which is twenty miles in circumference were burnished by the setting sun.

4. Most houses are lighted by electricity which is very convenient and cheap.

5. There are times when everyone feels a little sad.

6. I heard of it from my wife who had heard of it from a friend of hers.

7. I know the way she speaks.

8. We went to the hotel which was located in the centre of the city.

9. At this moment the tall girl who had gone a few yards off came back, and said something which produced a strong effect.

10. Life has a purpose that must be fought for.

3. 6.* Read the sentences with the Attribute Clause. Fill in the
suitable connecting words:

1. My youngest daughter ... was born in the south, cannot bear the northern climate.

2. All ... is written here is true.

3. The river … flows through London is called the Thames.

4. The buildings and the people ... we saw abroad seemed so strange.

5. This, it not such an answer ... we expected.

6. This is not the same road ... we passed an hour ago.

7. Is this the best room … you can offer me?

8. I enjoy walking in the old part ... still surrounds the former manor-house used as a school-building now.

9. The dog frightens all ... come near the house.

10. We have now exhausted all ... can be got in the library.

11. The space ... she had been standing was empty.

12. He’s always talking about that railroad ... he works.

3.7. Find out some sentences with Clauses in the text. Analyze them.

IV. Grammar Review

4.1. Write down these sentences using the Present or Future Perfect
Tense
. Translate them into Russian:

1. Keynes’s ideas (to influence) the economic policies of many go-vernments since the World War II.

2. By the end of the next year the company (to sign) this contract.

3. This program (to provide) tens of millions of retired people with
substantial income.

4. For the last twenty years the saving rate in this country (to be) very low.

5. In recent years foreign competition (to become) extremely important in many countries.

6. The nature of work (to change) from farming to manufacturing to service jobs.

7. The company (to complete) the construction of the plant by the end
of the previous year.

4.2. Translate the time prepositions in brackets:

1. I won’t be at home (в) 7 o’clock.

2. He will come back (через) half an hour.

3. I hope you’ll do this work (за) a month.

4. My brother has English lessons (no) Fridays.

5. I will be in the library (c) 2 o’clock.

6. He returned home (в) half past eleven.

7. The bridge was built (за) several months.

8. I always repeat new words (перед) the lesson and (после) the
lesson.

9. I t is usually very cold (в) January.

10. The Chinese delegation came (в) the end of the month.

4.3. Change the active sentences to the passive ones:

1. We have already obtained necessary results.

2. They have determined the main properties of the substance.

3. He does everything properly.

4. They will carry out the plan next week.

5. They had solved all the problems by the beginning of the negotiations.

6. He was presenting the report at the conference from 10 till 11 a.m.

7. We will have recorded the data by 5 o’clock.

8. They checked the devices two days ago.

9. He will have tested the equipment before it starts working.

10. He is preparing instruments for the experiment now.

4.4. Translate the sentences with the Absolute Participle Construction from English into Russian:

1. The experiment finished, we may have a break.

2. The problem having been settled, he could go on with his work.

3. The letter having been delayed, the news came to us too late.

4. The work having been done, they went home.

5. Specialists use computers widely, the latter helping them in many
spheres.

6. The journal was brought yesterday, his article being published on the first page.

7. We had several lectures today, the last one being on physics.

8. New machine-tools were delivered to the pant, all of them being in good order.

9. The examination was over, most students getting good marks.

10. The experiment was a success, our group achieving the necessary results.

V. Speaking

5.1. Speak about:

1. Your own opinion about the possibilities of the international scientific projects.

2. The use of some international scientific projects in our daily life.





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