ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the following quotes from different articles about the problems of the higher education in Russia. Formulate the main idea of each statement. Do you agree with these opinions?



1. «One of the major problems of the Russian higher education today is the relatively small number of graduates who find employment that matches their qualification. The statistical information varies considerably depending on the source. However, at present, around 40% of Russian students remain unemployed on graduation, a situation is aggravating (обостряется) by low salaries; only 25%–30% find a position that matches their qualification, while, realistically, some 20% of graduates are not equipped to fill a position demanding a high-level of knowledge».

W. John Morgan & Grigori A. Kliucharev.

«Higher Education and the Post-Soviet Transition in Russia».

2. «Competition between higher education institutions in Russia changed most dramatically after introduction of the Unified State Examination (EGE) and changing the admissions process. This exam gave the prospective students a much wider choice of schools where they could
apply, while universities now had to compete for the best students and the educational market share. The government has also started the process of changing the legal status of educational institutions to give them more
financial autonomy and has mandated (санкционировало) the creation of quality management systems in the universities to use the available money more efficiently. Just like many other governments in the world, the
Russian policymakers have been trying to develop market».

Natalia Forrat, PhD student in Sociology

at Northwestern University. «Global Trends

or Regime Survival the Reforms in Russian Higher Education».

3. «The Unified State Examination may have played a role in setting up anticorruption barriers between schools and universities. But in terms of assessing (оценка) the quality of education, in particular in humanita-rian subjects, it is clear that the Unified State Exam does not give a clear and accurate assessment of the real capabilities of university applicants, their analytic abilities and creativity, in spite of all the efforts to improve the exercises in section C of the tests».

Alexei Vlasov, a deputy dean,

Moscow Lomonosov State University,

Faculty of History. «What is wrong with higher

education in Russia?»

4. «Russia is still not capable of raising the quality of its training of specialists. And even though we have apparently (очевидно) entered the «knowledge economy» phase, it is unclear as yet how competitive Russia really is in this field. The main problem we come up against is borrowing from the «progressive» Western experience, which is not always particularly suitable to the reality on the ground in Russia. As an example, take the transition to a two-stage model, as set out in the Bologna Process, when training graduates is carried out in the absence of any real demand for such people».

Alexei Vlasov, a deputy dean,

Moscow Lomonosov State University,

Faculty of History. «What is wrong with higher

education in Russia?»

5. «The programs of targeted funding for large schools serve to ensure the loyalty of the politically important group – the top administrators of the large universities. These people not only have administrative access to students, a potentially active political group, but they also provide the go-vernment with expert support in formulating social and economic policies. Although the possibilities for corruption embedded in these programs are high, loyalty will be achieved even if the money is not stolen. Finally, the quality assurance mechanisms, namely state licensing and accreditation, serve as a constant threat to the universities becoming an effective repression tool of the regime».

Natalia Forrat, PhD student in Sociology

at Northwestern University. «Global Trends or Regime

Survival the Reforms in Russian Higher Education».

4.2. Study the advantages and disadvantages of the higher education in the transitional period in Russia.Do you agree or disagree with them? Begin your answer with phrases:I agree/disagree with this statement, To my mind it is true, As for me I am for it, I'm not sure, in fact, I'm afraid I entirely disagree with, I don't think that's right, I'm exactly of the same opinion, That's one way of looking at it, but… I think it goes further than that.

You may continue the schedule of the advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages of higher education system of the transitional period Disadvantages of higher education system of the transitional period
Efficiency of using the state funded places Bachelors are half-educated persons
Much wider choice of higher schools for the prospective students Master’s program is not clear enough
Involving of employers in forecasting of requirements for education The equipment which is used at universities is not modern enough
Expanding the participation of the employers in professional training financing Lack of educational materials in the university library
Easier to get a good job after graduating from the higher school Reducing of the state funded places at the higher schools
Opportunity for students to continue study without problems in any higher school of Europe Not adequate teachers’ salaries at the higher school
Easier to get a job abroad. Scholarship is low
Setting up anticorruption barriers between schools and universities Tuition fees are rising
Training of the competitive professionals Getting job on the specialty after graduating from the higher school

 

4.3. *Discuss these topics using all information you have got:

1. The transition to a two-stage model: pro and contra.

2. Is the higher education a way to success?

UNIT 6. HIGHER EDUCATION ABROAD

You may lose your money

but not your knowledge which

will always provide for you.

Text 1. Higher Education in Great Britain

 

I. Before you read

 

1.1. Pronounce the words properly:

Qualifications, currently, equivalent, elsewhere, centuries, specialized, undergraduates, require, postgraduates, reflecting, quarter.

 

1.2. Translate some geographical names:

Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester, Lancaster, Birmingham, Warwick,
Durham, Essex, Ulster, Sheffield.

1.3. Words and expressions to learn:

The Advanced Level of the General Certificate of Education, the stage of education, the qualifying examinations, specialized colleges, graduates, undergraduates, postgraduates, to require, to offer research degrees, a very limited taught element, to undertake research, to be keen, research-based
universities, the very high level, distance learning program.

 

1.4. State the part of speech paying attention to the suffixes:

Education, currently, general, generally, examination, qualification, universal, early, development, institution, formal, nearly.

1.5. Give the words and word combinations synonymous to the given ones:

1. to arrange an examination

2. to read for an examination

3. to conduct an examination

4. to copy or to crib in an examination

5. an examination candidate

6. to take an examination

7. to take an examination again resist an exam

8. to give smb.

1.6. Study the use of the verbs teach, study, learn in the following collocations:

to teach smth, to teach smb, to teach smb smth, to study smth at school, university; to study to be a doctor; to study for a test/diploma/an examination; to learn smth, to learn to do smth, to learn how to do smth, to learn smth by heart.

1.7. Fill in the blanks with the right verb teach, study, learn in the correct form:

1. My mother … at the local high school. 2. You remember Mr. White – he used … us mathematics. 3. It was my grandmother that … me how to cook. 4. He … … French now. 5. Tom is at business school, he … to be an accountant. 6. Ann … to be a lawyer. 7. Young children … … much more easily than adults. 8. His son … … to drive. 9. Mary … to read when she was five. 10. On this course, you … … how to deal with communication problems. 11. He … … art at Berkley College in Boston. 12. «Is George coming with us?» «He can’t, he … … for his exams».

1.8. Decide which of the words from the list can be a suitable for one in the sentence:

We have one in two days.

guests a meeting

a conference a thunderstorm

a sale a presentation

spring a fire

a farewell party an accident

1.9. Decide which of the words from the list can be a suitable for it in the sentence:

It begins in two days.

the chess game the quarrel

the winter the exams

the barbecue the driving test

the summer holidays the English lesson

 

Note:

1. The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is an academic qualification that examination boards in the United Kingdom and a few of the former British colonies or Commonwealth countries confer to students. The GCE traditionally comprised two levels: the Ordinary Level (O Level) and the Advanced Level (A Level). More recently examination boards also offer an intermediate third GCE level, the Advanced Subsidiary Level (AS Level) replacing the earlier Advanced Supplementary level.

2. In the Scottish secondary education system, the Higher is one of the national school-leaving certificate exams and university entrance qualifications of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) offered by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.

3. The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)is an academic qualification awarded in a specified subject, generally taken in
a number of subjects by students aged 14–16 in secondary education
in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

II. Reading

«Higher Education» in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, which currently consists of some 96 universities and about 70 Colleges of Higher Education, means the stage of education which follows after one obtains qualifications equivalent to the Advanced Level of the General Certificate of Education.

In Scotland the qualifying examinations are called «Highers», and some students take a Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, which is similar to A-levels. The concept of universal education was accepted in Scotland as early as the sixteenth century, long before such views prevailed elsewhere in Britain. St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh Universities were established in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Universities in Britain are divided into three types:

1. The old established universities, such as Oxford (founded 1249), Cambridge and Edinburgh. Oxford and Cambridge together are often called Oxbridge.

2. The 19th century universities such as London and Manchester.

3. The new universities established after World War II, such as Essex, Lancaster, the New University of Ulster.

The higher education system consists of Universities, Colleges of Higher Education and a number of small specialized colleges in areas of study such as Fine Art, Music and Agriculture.

Students or undergraduates can complete their first (Bachelor’s) Degree in a minimum of three years. Law degrees and some others require four years of study, while, medicine takes longer. Students awarded their Bachelor’s Degree are called graduates.

Universities, and to a limited extent Colleges of Higher Education,
offer a wide range of one-year, or sometimes two-year, taught graduate courses leading to a Master’s Degree.

Universities also offer research degrees (Doctor’s Degrees), which have a very limited taught element, and are an opportunity to undertake research over a period of, generally, at least three years. The period for the award of a research degree is not laid out: it depends on the progress made. Students working for their Master’s and Doctor’s Degrees are called
postgraduates.

Most UK universities are keen to increase their numbers of postgraduate students. Many of the leading UK universities are looking forward to the development of Graduate Schools, Major research-based universities, such as Birmingham, Durham, Manchester, Sheffield and Warwick, have taken the initiative in setting up Graduate Schools, reflecting the very high level accorded to postgraduate activities in these institutions.

UK universities offer full time programs and also part-time and
distance learning programs. An academic year is divided into three terms
of about 10 weeks each.

In 1971 the Open University was established, where the formal qualifications GCSE (The General Certification of Secondary Education) are not necessary. Nearly a quarter of all adult part-time students participate in its degree courses on radio and television.

III. After you have read

3.1. Answer the following questions:

1. How many universities and colleges of higher education are there in Great Britain?

2. What qualifications are necessary for admission to university in the UK?

3. What are «Highers»?

4. When were the first Scottish universities established?

5. What are three types of universities in Britain?

6. What is the minimum period of time for completing a Bachelor’s Degree?

7. What is the difference between undergraduates, graduates and postgraduates?

8. How can one receive a Master’s degree?

9. What is the normal route for the award of a research degree (a Doctor’s Degree)?

10. What major research-based universities have set up Graduate Schools of a very high standard in the UK?

11. How is the Open University different from other universities?

3.2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

Понятие универсального образования; были основаны; требует четырёхгодичного обучения; предлагать научные степени; очень ограниченный обучающий элемент; зависеть от прогресса; главные университеты; основанные на научных исследованиях; предлагать полные программы; три семестра, по десять недель каждый.

3.3. Agree or disagree with the following statements (True/False):

1. Universities in Britain are divided into two types.

2. The higher education system consists of Universities, Colleges of Higher Education and a number of small specialized colleges.

3. Law degrees and some others require three years of study.

4. Students awarded their Bachelor’s Degree are called postgraduates.

5. Students working for their Master’s and Doctor’s Degrees are called graduates.

6. Most UK universities are keen to increase their numbers of postgraduate students.

7. UK universities offer full time programmes and also part-time and distance learning programmes.

8. An academic year is divided into three terms of about 12 weeks each.

 





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