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Text 1. The International Olympic Committee



 

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is a Swiss non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Greek Demetrios Vikelas as its first president. Today its membership consists of 100 active members, 33 honorary members, and 1 honour member.

The motto of the IOC is Faster, Higher, Stronger (Citius, Altius, Fortius). The IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in Summer and Winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics organized by the International Olympic Committee were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896; the first Winter Olympics were in Chamonix, France, in 1924.

The IOC has the type of sport federation.

Membership: 105 active members, 32 honorary members. The Official languages are French, English and host country's official language when necessary.

Mission and role of the IOC

Encourage and support the promotion of ethics and good governance in sport as well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned:

Encourage and support the organization, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions.

Ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games.

Cooperate with the competent public or private organizations and
authorities in the endeavor to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace.

Take action in order to strengthen the unity, to protect the indepen-dence of the Olympic Movement, and to preserve the autonomy of sport.

Act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement.

Encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women.

Lead the fight against doping in sporting.

Encourage and support measures protecting the health of athletes.

Oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes.

Encourage and support the efforts of sports organizations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes.

Encourage and support the development of sport for all.

Encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly.

Promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries.

Encourage and support initiatives blending sport with culture and education.

Encourage and support the activities of the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.

Financing of the IOC

The only source of funding for the IOC – is the private sector. Most of the funding comes from television companies and sponsors. Thanks to these partners, the IOC may greatly help to organize the Olympic Games, yearly activities of the national Olympic committees and international sports delegations.

Text 2. Sony

 

Sony is multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Mintao, Japan. It is one of leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video game consoles and information technology products for the consumer and professional market.

Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. The company's slogan is «Sony. Like no other; and recent is make believe». Sony is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group which is engaged in business through its five operating segments, these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world.

Sony’s principal business operations include:

- Sony Corporation;

- Sony Pictures Entertainment;

- Sony Computer Entertainment;

- Sony BMG Music Entertainment;

- Sony Ericsson;

- Sony Financial Holdings.

The name «Sony» was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words. One was the Latin word Sonus, which is the root of «sonic» and «sound» and the other, was «sonny», a familiar term used in 1950s America to call a boy. Morita pushed for a word that does not exist in any language so that they could claim the word «Sony» as their own.

Mission:

- Sony is working to create value for our stake holders, and improve the quality of life for the next generation through our innovations.

Vision:

- We must seek new approaches to transform our ability to achieve both profitable and sustainable growth.

Sony Corporation was founded by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita in 1946.

The main facts of Sony’s History:

May 1946 Tokyo – Tsushin Kogyo K.K. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation), also known as Totsuko, established in Nihonbashi;

1947 – Company head office and factory relocated to Shinagawa, Tokyo;

1950 – Japan's first magnetic tape recorder, the G-Type, order launched;

1954 – Announcement of Japan's first PNP alloy-type transistor and germanium diode;

1955 – Decision made to use SONY logo on Totsuko products. Japan's first transistor radio, the TR-55launched;

1958 – Company name changed to Sony Corporation;

1960 – Sony Corporation of America (SONAM) established in the United States. World's first direct-view portable TV, the TV8-301, launched. Sony Overseas S.A. established near Zurich, Switzerland;

1962 – The world’s smallest and lightest all-transistor TV, TV5-303, launched;

1963 – World’s first compact transistor VTR, the PV-100, launched;

1966 – Sales launch of Sony’s first cassette tape recorder, the «Magazine-matic 100» TC-1001979-Sales launch of the TPS-L2, the first stereo cassette player «Walkman»;

1982 – World’s first CD player, the CDP-101, launched;

1989 – Compact and lightweight passport-sized 8 mm camcorder, «Handycam» CCD-TR55, launched;

1994 – New company structure introduced at Sony Corporation;

2005 – Sales launch of new «BRAVIA» brand HDTV-compatible flat-screen TVs;

2007 – World’s first OLED TV released;

2010 – Sony introduces Sony Internet TV, powered by Google TV – the world's first television with Google TV platform. Sony introduces
e-book reader. Sony launches new digital music service Music Unlimited powered by Qriocity.

Awards

21 Sony products were recognized with an iF Product Design Award.

Sony won Good Design Awards continuously from last 11 years for that different products.

third consecutive Gold Award for BRAVIA televisions and the second for a (alpha) E-mount series DSLRs.

The red dot Design Award is a worldwide design award given in recognition of superior product design and communication design. Design Zentrum Nordrheim Westfalen sponsors the red dot Design Award. Sony has won 16 «red dot» awards including 1 «best of the best».

Weakness:

Sony’s plants located in inconvenient locations;

Too expensive and far away from consumers;

High shipping and long deliver process;

This all effects Sony’s operating performance.

Opportunities:

Applied acquisition and alliances strategy;

Joint venture with Sharp and Hon Hai Precision Industry;

In order to provide LCD TV’s to American Region;

Focus on emerging market’s economies;

Sony has gained success in India Market;

Sony’s growth depends on performance in emerging markets.

Threats:

Unfavorable foreign exchange rate.

Sony’s international market sales value 75,8%.

Japan’s currency appreciated against US dollar and Euro.

Sony’s products more expensive; sales to drop.

Worsening economic situation.

Sony’s main markets are US, Japan, and Europe; all suffered economic downturn.

Laws and regulations.

Protect environment, human health, and safety.

Conclusion

Although other electronics firms are taking market shares and profits, the innovative spirit and quest of excellence and perfection cannot be
copied.

Sony’s main task is to integrate its talent by placing common goals and priority for this increasing competitive market.

With strategy and luck, Sony could become a great firm as it was and will be.

Text 3. The World Wide Fund

For a Living Planet (Motto of WWF).

 

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world’s largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1 300 conservation and environmental projects. WWF is a foundation, in 2010 deriving 57% of funding from individuals and bequests, 17% from government sources (such as the World Bank, DFID, USAID) and 11% from corporations.

History

The idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was initially proposed by Victor Stolan to Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the Observer. This proposal led Julian Huxley to put Victor Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person that had had thirty years
experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank. Max Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, and its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland. Godfrey A. Rockefeller also played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff. Its establishment marked with the signing of the founding document called Morges Manifesto that lays out the formulation ideas of its establishment.

The group says its mission is «to halt and reverse the destruction of our environment». Currently, much of its work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world's biodiversity: forests, freshwater ecosystems, oceans and coasts. Among other issues, it is also concerned with endangered species, pollution and climate change.

WWF has set up offices and operations around the world. It originally worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations, based on the best-available scientific knowledge and with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, and climate change. The organization also began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns, and by the 1980s started to take a more strategic approach to its conservation activities.

In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, to better reflect the scope of its activities, retaining the WWF initials. However, it continues to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada.

That year was the 25th anniversary of WWF’s foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organisation’s International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religious authorities representing Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism. These leaders produced The Assisi Declarations, theological statements showing the spiritual relationship between their followers and nature that triggered a growth in the engagement of those religions with conservation around the world.

In the 1990s WWF revised its mission to: Stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by:

• conserving the world's biological diversity;

• ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable;

• promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

WWF scientists and many others identified 238 ecoregions that represent the world's most biologically outstanding terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, based on a worldwide biodiversity analysis which the organization says was the first of its kind. In the early 2000s (decade), its work was focused on a subset of these ecoregions, in the areas of forest, freshwater and marine habitat conservation, endangered species conservation, climate change, and the elimination of the most toxic chemicals.

We shan't save all we should like to, but we shall save a great deal more than if we had never tried.

In 1996, the organization obtained general consultative status from UNESCO.

Panda Symbol

The Giant Panda mascot of WWF originated from a panda named Chi Chi that was transferred from the Beijing Zoo to the London Zoo in the same year of the establishment of WWF. As the only giant panda residing in the Western area at that time, along with its physical features and status as an endangered species, panda is seen to serve the need of a strong recognizable symbol of the organization. Moreover, the organization also needs an animal that would have an impact in black and white printing. The logo was then designed by Sir Peter Scott from the preliminary sketches made by a Scottish naturalist, Gerald Watterson.





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