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UNIT 13. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS



TEXT I. International Organizations: definition and classification

I. Before you read

Make sure you know the words given in the text in italics.

1.2. Read and translate the names of the international organizations properly:

United Nations Educational; Scientific and Cultural Organization;
International Olympic Committee; World Wide Fund for Nature; Red Cross; Translators Without Borders; Google Inc.; Microsoft Corporation;
Toyota Motors Corporation; Adidas AG; Nike Inc.; Apple Inc.; Samsung Group; United Nations Organization (UNO); the World Trade Organization (WTO); the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC);
European Union (EU); International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ; the International Criminal Court (ICC).

II. Reading

The formation of the international organizations has been a notable event of the international relations since 1945. Perhaps the main feature of international scene today, in comparison with a century ago, is the proli-feration of international organizations of all types. This growth has responded in part to the need for maintaining international peace and security, and in a greater part to the pressing demandsof nations for cooperation in the economic, social and technical fields.

Definition and Classification of International Organizations:

The term «international organization» is usually used to describe an organization established by agreement between two or more states. It has international character and scope, its functions transcend national boundaries, and it is a subject of International Law.

There are two main types of the international organizations:

1. Intergovernmental organizations, known as public international
organizations.

2. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO)which are divided into two types:

a) non-profit organizations (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International Olympic Committee, World Wide Fund for Nature, Red Cross, Translators Without Borders etc.);

b) international corporations or multinational corporations(Microsoft Corporation, Google Inc., Toyota Motors Corporation, Adidas AG, Nike Inc, Apple Inc., Samsung Group and many others).

The intergovernmental organizations (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations. Intergovernmental organizations are an important aspect of public international law. IGOs are established by treaty that acts as a charter creating the group. Treaties are formed when lawful representatives (governments) of several states go through
a ratification process, providing the IGO with an international legal
personality.

The most known examples for the intergovernmental organizations include United Nations Organization (UNO), World Trade Organization (WTO), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), European Union (EU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Criminal
Court (ICC), etc.

Designation as a nonprofit does not mean that the organization does not intend to make a profit, but rather that the organization has no owners and that the funds realized in the operation of the organization will not be used to benefit any owners.

A multinational corporation (MNC) is a large corporation which both produces and sells goods or services in various countries.

The international organizations serve many diverse functions, inclu-ding collecting information and monitoring trends (United Nations Environment Program), delivering services and aid (World Health Organization), and providing forums for bargaining (European Union) and settling disputes (World Trade Organization). By providing political institutions through which states can work together to achieve common objectives,
international organizations can help to foster cooperative behavior.

2.1. Fill in the schedule:

Type of the organization Definition Examples
     
     

 

2.1. Answer the following questions:

1. When did the formation of the international organizations start?

2. What does the term «international organizations» mean?

3. What are two main types of the international organizations?

4. What is the definition of the intergovernmental organization?

5. What are two types of the nongovernmental organizations?

6. What are the most known examples of the international organizations?

7. What other international organizations do you know?

8. What functions do the international organizations serve?

TEXT 2. Intergovernmental organizations:

United Nations Organization

It’s your world! (the motto of the UNO).

I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the following words and word combination pro-perly and translate them into Russian:

Humanitarian, nature, encouragement, Chinese, representatives, majo-rity, budget, proposal, requisitioning military forces, twice, health, though, to strengthen, judicial, headquarters, to adjudicate, advisory opinion, procedure, to ensure, non-self-governing territories, neighbouring,
statute.

1.2. Give the nouns for the following verbs:

To maintain, to promote, to encourage, to achieve, to secure, to elect, to fulfill, to appoint, to recommend, to decide, to admit, to establish.

1.3. Find synonyms:

To found, easy, cooperation, to build, language, to include, collaboration, main, simple, decision, important, solution, aim, tongue, purpose, to involve, dispute, to mean, conflict, to repeal, to stand for, to defeat.

1.4. Translate some proper and geographical names:

General Assembly, Security Council, The Economic and Social Council, The International Court of Justice, Secretariat, Trusteeship Council, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Chief Coordinating Agency, UN Charter, World Court, Hague, the Netherland, Court's statute, League of Nations, Afro-Asian region.

1.5. Find the Russian equivalents:

Main aims; to maintain international peace and security; promotion and encouragement of respect for human rights; to approve the budget; to allocate; «Veto» power; to settle disputes; to strengthen the economic relations; to vote against the proposal; advisory opinion; statute; non-self-governing territories; nations defeated at the end of the World War II; attained; to suspend.

Главные цели; обращаться за помощью к вооруженным силам; поддерживать всеобщий мир и безопасность; одобрять бюджет; размещать; содействие и поддержка в соблюдении прав человека; право «вето»; укреплять экономические отношения; голосовать против проекта; несамоуправляющиеся территории; устав государства; консультативное заключение; государства, потерпевшие поражение во Второй мировой войне; достигнутый; временно приостановить; разрешать споры.

 

II. Reading

 

The United Nations Organization (UNO) was founded in 1945 after the World War II. The main aims of UNO are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations. Also the UNO should support the international cooperation in solving problems of economic, social and humanitarian nature; promotion and encouragement of respect for human rights and fundamental freedom and to be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations. The UNO consists of about 200 member states. The headquarters is located in Manhattan, New York City, U.S.A. The official languages are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish. The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the UN Secretary General. It provides studies, information, and all facilities needed by United Nations bo-dies for their respective meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the United Nations Security Council, the United Nations General Assembly, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, and other U.N. bodies.

The six principal organs of UNO are:

1. The General Assembly.

2. The Security Council.

3. The Economic and Social Council.

4. The International Court of Justice.

5. The Secretariat.

6. The Trusteeship Council.

UN General Assembly

It is the main organ of the UN consisting of representatives of all the members of the U.N. Each member state has a single vote and all members are equally placed, unlike in the case of the Security Council. It generally holds regular annual session in September. Decisions are taken based on simple majority, but in cases of peace security, election of new UN members and budget, a two-thirds majority vote is required.

UN General Assembly elects the ten non-permanent members of the Security Council. It elects members of The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and Trusteeship Council. It elects along with the Security Council Judges of the International Court of Justice. It appoints UN Secretary General, based on the recommendation of the Security Council. It
approves the UN budget. It receives and considers reports from the other
UN organs.

UN Security Council

It is responsible for the maintenance of World Peace. It has 15 countries as members. Five of them are permanent members – the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Russia, France and China. The remai-ning ten are non-permanent members, who are elected for a two-year term by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Out of these ten seats, five are allocated to Afro-Asian region, two seats to Latin America, one seat to Eastern Europe and remaining two seats to Western Europe and others.

The five permanent members of the Security Council have special vo-ting rights known as «Veto» power. Any decision in the Security Council can be taken only with the support of at least nine members including that of five permanent members. Thus, no decision can be taken in the Council, even if one permanent member votes against the proposal.

Decisions taken by the UN Security Council are binding on all the members of the UN, since the UN charter provides that the Council's decisions are made in the name of all UN members.

The Council powers include taking decisions to settle disputes among member states, requisitioning military forces; from the members for peace keeping operations, approving admission of countries as new members, recommending to the General Assembly on appointment of Secretary General, etc.

The Nobel Peace Prize was given to the UN Security Council in 1988 for its role in establishing peace in the World by means of resolution of conflicts.

Economic and Social Council

The ECOSOC is the Chief Coordinating Agency of the UN in the
economic and social sectors between the UN and the specialized institutions of the UN. It consists of 54 members, meets twice a year. Its main activities include conducting studies and making recommendations on social, economic, educational, health and related matters in the world with special focus on the least developed countries. It carries its activities through nine functional commissions, five regional commissions and various standing committees. The nine functional commissions were set up to focus on specific areas like human rights, population and social development, status of women etc. The main purpose of these commissions are to assist in raising the level of economic activity in their respective regions and to strengthen the economic relations of the States among themselves and with others.

International Court of Justice

The ICJ is established in 1945 by the UN Charter. It is the main judicial organ of the UNO. It is also commonly known as the World Court. ICJ has its headquarters at Hague, the Netherland. It is composed of fifteen judges elected to six year terms by the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Security Council. It is meant to adjudicate on the disputes referred to it by the members and to give advisory opinion on matters referred to it by the UN Security Council or General Assembly. As stated in the UN Charter, all 192 member states of UN are parties to the Court's statute.

UN Trusteeship Council

The United Nations Trusteeship Council is one of the six principal organs of the U.N formed in 1945. It was established to ensure that non-self-governing territories were governed in the best interests of the people
living in there and of international peace and security. Most of the trust territories were those former mandates of the League of Nations or the territories taken from nations defeated at the end of the World War II and which have now attained independence or self-governments, either as separate
countries or by joining their neighbouring independent nations. The Trusteeship Council was suspended from operation on 1 November 1994 as its mission was fulfilled. Its future role and existence remains uncertain.

Ш. After you have read

3.1. Make up sentences from these words:

1. It, also, known, is, commonly, as, the , Court, world.

2. The, aims, of, main, among, UNO, are, maintain, to, peace, and,
develop, security, to, friendly, relations, nations.

3. Security, any, the, decision, in, Council, can, be, only, taken, with, the, support, of, at, least, nine, including, members, that of, members, five, permanent.

4. It, composed, is, of, judges, to, six, elected, year, terms, by, the, General, Nations, United, Assembly, Nations, and, the, fifteen, United,
Security, Council.

5. The, remaining, non-permanent, are, who, are, for, elected,
a, two-year term, by, a, two-thirds, members, majority, of, ten, the General
Assembly.

3.2. Choose the right version:

1. The United Nations Organization (UNO) was founded in … after the World War II.

a) 1945

b) 1994

c) 1953

2. The headquarters is located in … .

a) Minnesota

b) Michigan

c) Manhattan

3. ICJ has its headquarters at … .

a) Hague

b) Prague

c) New York City

4. The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the … .

a) League of Nations

b) Security Council

c) UN Secretary General

5. The main organ of the UN is … .

a) UN Trusteeship Council

b) UN General Assembly

c) International Court of Justice

6. UN Security Council is responsible for the maintenance of … .

a) economic activity

b) World Peace

c) status of women

7. One of the permanent members of the UN Security Council is … .

a) Germany

b) Chile

c) China

3.3. Fill in the gaps with the information taken from the text:

1. The main aims of UNO are … peace and security, to develop …
relations … nations.

2. It … UN Secretary General, … … the recommendation … the Security Council.

3. Any … in the Security Council can be … only with the … of at … nine members … that of five … members.

4. It is … of fifteen judges … to six year terms … the United Nations General … and the United Nations … Council.

5. The United … Secretariat is … by the UN … General.

6. The United Nations Trusteeship Council is … of the six … organs of the UN … in 1945.

7. The Trusteeship Council was … from operation … 1 November 1994 … its … was ... .

3.4. Match one of the six principal organs of UNO with its fun-ction:

1. It is responsible for the maintenance of World Peace.

2. It was established to ensure that non-self-governing territories were governed in the best interests of the people living in there and of international peace and security.

3. It is meant to adjudicate on the disputes referred to it by the members and to give advisory opinion on matters referred to it by the UN Security Council or General Assembly.

4. Its powers include taking decisions to settle disputes among member states, requisitioning military forces; from the members for peace keeping operations, approving admission of countries as new members, recommending to the General Assembly on appointment of Secretary General.

5. Its main activities include conducting studies and making recommendations on social, economic, educational, health and related matters in the world with special focus on the least developed countries.

6. It elects members of The Economic and Social Council and Trus-teeship Council. It elects along with the Security Council Judges of the
International Court of Justice. It appoints UN Secretary General, based on the recommendation of the Security Council. It approves the UN budget.
It receives and considers reports from the other UN organs.

3.5. State the principal and secondary parts of the following simple sentences:

1. I saw a film yesterday.

2. Everybody liked the idea of going on an excursion.

3. Не has invited me to his birthday party.

4. It was very difficult for him to solve the problem.

5. Anybody can answer this question.

6. Is your father sleeping now?

7. They read sport texts at their English lessons.

8. Will your friend have an English lesson tomorrow?

9. The train leaving from platform six goes to London.

10. The match planned for tomorrow must be put off.

3.6. Make up a composite sentence from two simple ones using the words in brackets. State the type of the sentence:

1. She had only a cup of tea. She was not hungry (because).

2. It was raining. It was warm (but).

3. I wonder. He hasn’t come (why).

4. Go home at once. Mother will be angry (or).

5. I was out. He came (when).

6. He looked at his watch. It was four o'clock (-).

7. Everything went fine. She was happy (and).

8. He is very old. His mind is as sharp as ever (yet).





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