Current conservation approach

WWF’s current strategy for achieving its mission specifically focuses on restoring populations of 36 species (species or species groups that are important for their ecosystem or to people, including elephants, tunas, whales, dolphins and porpoises), and ecological footprint in 6 areas (carbon emissions, cropland, grazing land, fishing, forestry and water).

The organization also works on a number of global issues driving biodiversity loss and unsustainable use of natural resources, including
finance, business practices, laws, and consumption choices. Local offices also work on national or regional issues.

WWF works with a large number of different groups to achieve its goals, including other NGOs, governments, business, investment banks, scientists, fishers, farmers and local communities. It also undertakes public campaigns to influence decision makers, and seeks to educate people on how to live in a more environmentally friendly manner.

Notable programs and campaigns:

- Debt-for-Nature Swap;

- Earth Hour;

- Healthy Grown;

- Marine Stewardship Council;

- WWF global initiatives.

In 2008, through the Global Programme Framework (GPF), WWF is now focusing its efforts on 13 Global Initiatives:

- Amazon;

- Arctic;

- China for a Global Shif;

- Climate & Energy;

- Coastal East Africa;

- Coral Triangle;

- Forest and Climate;

- Green Heart of Africa;

- Heart of Borneo;

- Living Himalayas;

- Market Transformation;

- Smart Fishing;

- Tigers.

To be read after the Unit 14

Mars Science Laboratory

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. The overall objectives include investigating Mars' habitability, studying its climate and geology, and collecting data for a manned mission to Mars. The rover carries a variety of scientific instruments designed by an international team.

The Mars Science Laboratory mission is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort for the robotic exploration of Mars that is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of California Institute of Technology. The total cost of the MSL project is about $2.5 billion.

NASA called for proposals for the rover’s scientific instruments in April 2004, and eight proposals were selected on December 14 of that year. Testing and design of components also began in late 2004, including Aerojet’s designing of a monopropellant engine with the ability to throttle from 15–100 percent thrust with a fixed propellant inlet pressure.

By November 2008 most hardware and software development was complete, and testing continued. At this point, cost overruns were approximately $400 million. In the attempts to meet the launch date, several instruments and a cache for samples were removed and other instruments and cameras were simplified to simplify testing and integration of the rover. The next month, NASA delayed the launch to late 2011 because of inadequate testing time. Eventually the costs for developing the rover did reach $2.47 billion, that for a rover that initially had been classified as
a medium-cost mission with a maximum budget of $650 million,
yet NASA still had to ask for an additional $82 million to meet the planned
November launch.

Between March 23–29, 2009, the general public ranked nine finalist rover names (Adventure, Amelia, Journey, Perception, Pursuit, Sunrise, Vision, Wonder, and Curiosity) through a public poll on the NASA website. On May 27, 2009, the winning name was announced to be Curiosity.

Previous successful U.S. Mars rovers include Spirit and Opportunity, and Sojourner from the Mars Pathfinder mission. Curiosity is about twice as long and five times as heavy as Spirit and Opportunity.

The MSL mission has four scientific goals: Determine the landing site's habitability including the role of water, the study of the climate and the geology of Mars. It is also useful preparation for a future manned mission to Mars.

To contribute to these goals, MSL has five main scientific objectives:

1. Determine the nature and inventory of organic carbon compounds.

2. Investigate the chemical building blocks of life (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur).

3. Identify features that may represent the effects of biological pro-cesses.

4. Investigate the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical composition of the Martian surface and near-surface geological materials.

5. Interpret the processes that have formed and modified rocks and soils.

As part of its exploration, it also measured the radiation exposure in the interior of the spacecraft as it traveled to Mars, and it is continuing radiation measurements as it explores the surface of Mars. This data would be important for a future manned mission.

To be read after the Unit 15

Text 1. Types of computers

The types of computers range from the Hybrid to the Analog types. The computers you come across in the daily course of your day range from laptops, palmtops and towers, to desktop computers, to name a few. But the very word «computers» reminds one of the desktop computers used in offices or homes. Different categories of computers have been devised in keeping with our varied needs.

According to the classification based on operational principle the types of computers: analog and hybrid.

Analog Computers: The Analog computer is almost an extinct type of computer these days. It is different from a digital computer in respect that it can perform numerous mathematical operations simultaneously. It is also unique in terms of operation as it utilizes continuous variables for the purpose of mathematical computation. It utilizes mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy or operation.

Hybrid computers: These types of computers are, as the name suggests, a combination of both Analog and Digital computers. The Digital computers which work on the principle of binary digit system of «0» and «1» can give very precise results. But the problem is that they are too slow and incapable of large scale mathematical operation. In the hybrid types of computers the Digital counterparts convert the analog signals to perform Robotics and Process control.

Apart from this, computers are also categorized on the basis of physical structures and the purpose of their use. Based on capacity, speed and reliability they can be divided into three categories of computers:

1. The Mainframe Computer – These are computers used by large organizations like meteorological surveys and statistical institutes for performing bulk mathematical computations. They are core computers which are used for desktop functions of over one hundred people simultaneously.

2. The Microcomputer – These are the most frequently used computers better known by the name of «Personal computers». This is the type of computer meant for public use. Other than Desktop Computer the choice ranges as follows: Hand-held (HPC), PDA, Tablet PC, Laptop, Desktop, Tower, Workstation.

A desktop is a PC that is not designed for portability. The expectation with desktop systems is that you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.

Laptops, also called notebooks, are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an
average hardcover book.

Palmtops, more commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology fox user input. Palmtops are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reaso-nable battery life. A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer.

A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. Its touchscreen or graphics
tablet/screen hybrid technology allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. The form factor offers a more mobile way to interact with a computer. Tablet PCs are of notebooks are impractical or unwieldy, or do not provide the needed functionality.

A workstation is a desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

3. The Mini computer – Mini computers like the mainframe computers are used by business organization. The difference being that it can support the simultaneous working of up to 100 users and is usually maintained in business organizations for the maintenance of accounts and finances.

Yet another category of computer is the Super Computers. It is somewhat similar to mainframe computers and is used in economic forecasts and engineering designs. Today life without computers is inconceivable. Usage of different types of computers has made life both smooth and fast paced.

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