ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Summarize the text «My university».



4.5*. Read and translate the following sayings. Try to comment them:

1. It’s never late to learn.

2. Education is a treasure, labour is a key to it.

4.6*. Discuss1 these topics using all information you have got.

1. Your reasons for studying at the State University - ESPC.

2. Advantages and disadvantages of studying at the State University - ESPC. Difficulties, problems which you are facing with.

1Note:

1. Discussion is from the Latin word that means exchange of opinions.

Discussion is based on equal conditions for everybody. Each participant has the right both to ask and to state. The problem is not always solved during discussion, differences in opinions are left sometimes. It is necessary to use argumentation – statements and explanations. Each participant should hold certain discussion regulations:

– to be well-prepared;

– to speak clearly and logically;

– to explain arguments;

– to express opinions quietly;

– not to digress from the topic;

– not to speak too long;

– to listen to others without interrupting them.

2. Here you can see some discussion phrases. They may help you:

– May I put a word in? – Можно вставить слово?

– Generally speaking … – В общих чертах …

– Strictly speaking … – Честно говоря …

– That depends on … – Это зависит от …

– I want to press the point that… – Я хочу подчеркнуть, что …

– On the one hand... – С одной стороны…

– On the other hand... – С другой стороны…

– As far as I am able to judge ... – Насколько я могу судить…

– To sum it all up ... – Подведя итоги…

– On the whole ... – В целом …

– To be brief / In a short word ... – Короче говоря …

– If I am not mistaken ... – Если я не ошибаюсь …

– If my memory serves me rightly ... – Если память меня не подводит …

– As far as I know… – Насколько я знаю …

– There is no doubt. – Без сомнений.

– It is quite obvious / evident that ... – Cовершенно очевидно, что …

– It is common knowledge that... – Общеизвестно, что …

– It seems to me... – Мне кажется …

– To tell the truth... – По правде говоря…

– And what about you? – А ты?

– As for me... – Что касается меня…

– To begin with … – Начнем с …

– What for? – Зачем?

– Let’s drop the subject. – Давай оставим эту тему.

– Let’s clear it up. – Давай разберёмся.

– What are you talking about? – О чём ты?

– What are you driving at? – К чему ты клонишь?

– That’s not the point. – Это не относится к вопросу.

– It doesn’t prove a thing. – Это ничего не доказывает.

– That’s very well, but … – Это всё очень хорошо, но…

– So what? – Ну и что?

– You can take it from me. – Можешь мне поверить.

– What of it? – И что из этого?

– I have no idea. – Понятия не имею.

– I wish I knew. – Хотел бы я знать.

– It doesn’t matter. – Это не важно.

– It’s all the same to me. – Мне без разницы.

– It’s beside the point – Это не относится к вопросу.

– It’s out of place. – Это неуместно.

– It’s waste of time. – Это трата времени.

– It’s a lie. – Это ложь.

– It doesn’t make sense. – Это не имеет смысла.

– It’s new to me. – Первый раз слышу.

– Enough of it. – Довольно об этом.

– I mean it. – Я серьёзно.

 

UNIT 5. HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

Education develops abilities,

but doesn't create them.

I. Before you read

1.1. Read the words properly:

Highly-qualified, specialist, citizen, development, progress, architect, lyceum, gymnasium, higher education, Unified National Examination, score, typical, course, available, disabled, Bologna Process, government, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, equivalent, function, preparation, profound specialization, occur, research, completion, to receive, qualification, efficiency, forecasting, requirement, transition, scholarship, investigation, through, equipment, tuition fees, employer, society.

1.2. State the part of speech and translate it into Russian:

Higher, to play, play, important, every, eleventh, each, opportunity, academic, combination, first, to occur, third, to continue, second, scholarship, doctoral, efficiency, their, some, widely, to complain, knowledge, fundamental, science, to decentralize, any, freedom.

1.3. Give the verb for the following nouns:

Development, education, introduction, preparation, training, comp-leting, requirement, participation, transition, concentration, equipment,
investigation, decentralization.

1.4. What do the words have in common? Translate them:

a) citizen, school, education, bill, process, plant, objective, lecture,
report;

b) different, wide, disabled, industrial, secondary, various, scientific, young;

c) choose, complain, go, involve, keep, consider, develop, use, get,
receive.

1.5. State the difference:

Pay – to pay, play – to play, use – to use, work – to work, train – to train, function – to function, report – to report.

1.6. Match the equivalents:

1. higher education 1. обеспечивать
2. to go on in higher education 2. высшее образование
3. citizen 3. продолжать обучение в вузе
4. to pride 4. получить среднее образование
5. to train highly-qualified specialists 5. гражданин
6. to get secondary education 6. учиться без отрыва от производства (работы)
7. to take Unified National (State) Examination 7. готовить высококвалифицированных специалистов
8. to study without leaving their job 8. сдавать ЕГЭ
9. to be conducted by independent examining boards 9. получать высокие баллы
10. to get high scores 10. очная форма обучения
11. part-time or evening study 11. проводиться независимой комиссией
12. distance education system 12. очно-заочная форма обучения
13. full-time study 13. система дистанционного обучения
14. various number of courses or subjects within a field of specialization 14. поступать в аспирантуру
15. wide range of higher schools 15. широкий спектр вузов
16. disabled people 16. принять законопроект
17. within the Bologna Process 17. переход на двухуровневую систему образования
18. to approve the bill 18. в рамках Болонского процесса
19. transition to two-level higher education system 19. защищать диссертацию
20. to go for the doctoral programs 20. люди с ограниченными возможностями
21. to carry out independent research 21. несколько курсов или предметов в области специализации
22. to defend a dissertation 22. получить диплом
23. to keep training of specialists 23. выпускники медицинских, военных и технических вузов
24. graduates of medical, military and technical higher schools 24. проводить самостоятельное исследование
25. to receive the diploma 26. продолжать обучение специалистов
26. to involve employers in forecasting of requirements for education 26. недостаточно образованные люди («недоучки»)
27. to raise efficiency of use of cash means 27. вовлекать работодателей в прогнозирование требований к образованию
28. half-educated persons 28. расширять их участие в финансировании профессионального образования
29. to expand their participation in professional training financing 29. получать стипендию
30. get scholarship 30. углубленные знания
31. to obtain knowledge in the fundamental sciences 31. получать знания по базовым предметам
32. advanced knowledge 32. переходный период
33. transitional period 33. главные цели реформы
34. he main objectives of the reform 34. децентрализовать систему высшего образования
35. to decentralize the higher education system 35. считаются одними из лучших
36. are considered to be one of the best 36. широко обсуждаются в российском обществе
37. there are many problems we are facing in our higher education 37. жаловаться
38. to complain 38. плата за обучение
39. tuition fees 39. увеличить эффективность использования наличных средств
40. are widely discussed in Russian society 40. мы сталкиваемся со множеством проблем в системе высшего образования

1.7. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the different forms of the Passive Voice. Make up negative and question forms if it is
possible:

1. The new educational programs are developed by the experts every year. – New educational programs are being developed by the experts nowadays.

2. The new educational law was approved last year. The experts were discussing the new educational law from March till May. The new educational law was being discussed by the experts from March till May.

3. The Unified National Exam will be taken by the students next week. The students will be taking the Unified National Exams from the end of May till the mid of June.

4. The tests were checked by the independent examining boards two hours ago. The examining board was checkingthe teststhe whole mor-ning. The tests were being checked by the examining board from
9 till 11 a.m.

5. What is being done to improve the educational system? New educational standards are being developed at present.

6. The tuition fee is risen at the universities every year but the modern equipment isn’t used in the laboratories. The new laboratory equipment will be installed next year.

7. What issues are being discussed at the meeting now? What issues were discussed last week? What issues were being discussed when we came?

II. Reading

 

Higher education plays an important role in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress. It trains people to become engineers, doctors, architects, teachers and so on. There are more than 880 universities in Russia.

Every citizen of Russia has the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. Every boy or girl must get secondary education. After finishing the 11th form of secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium young people can go on in higher education. They take the Unified National (State) Examination. Each exam is conducted by the independent exami-ning boards. If a student gets high scores, such a result is considered to be good and he/she has an opportunity to enter some higher school. They can choose from a wide range of higher schools according to their will. The typical academic program for university students is composed of various number of courses or subjects within a field of specialization. Courses are a combination of lectures, seminars and the laboratory work. Many courses are available for disabled people.

In 2007 within the Bologna Processthe government of the Russian Federation has approved the bill of transition to two-level higher education system. The bill provides introduction in Russia such levels of higher education, as a bachelor’s degree (the first level) and a master’s degree (the second level). These degrees are equivalent to B.Sc and M.Sc degree provided in the US or Western Europe.

The first level prepares the student for performing functions in industrial, social, economic sphere (administrators, managers, experts in sales, etc.). Preparation at the first level passes in base directions, and profound specialization occurs at the second level. The persons with master's degree focuses on analytical, design, research activity. Training at the first level lasts 4 years, and at the second level – 2 years. After completing the Master’s students can go for the doctoral programs. For this they carry out independent research, prepare and defend a thesis. The Ph. D (candidate's degree) is a degree received as a result of completion of dissertation.

Some higher educational institutions keep training of specialists. Graduates of medical, military and technical higher schools receive the diploma with qualification «specialist» in 5-6 years. This is because the Russian system of a professional training for these specialties cannot keep within in 4 years.

The two-level system will allow to raise efficiency of using state funded places, to involve employers in forecasting of requirements for education and to expand their participation in professional training finan-cing. Now Russian students can continue study without problems in any higher school of Europe and easier get a job abroad.

But some people are not ready to joining Russia to Bologna Process. The opinion exists that bachelors are half-educated persons. Many students still wish to study 5 years and to end the higher school with the diploma of the specialist. But the bachelor has the full higher education. The transition to two-level system will make the Russian education system more dynamical and modern.

Higher educational institutions, that is, universities, institutes, and academies have the full-time, part-time (or evening) and distance education system. The evening and distance education departments give their students an opportunity to study without leaving their jobs. Some students of full-time departments get scholarship. Most of the students have to pay for their education.

The academic year in Russian higher schools starts in September and ends in June. The academic year is divided into two semesters: the autumn semester and the spring one. At the end of each semester students take their exams. Twice a year students have holidays.

The first- and second-year students obtain knowledge in the fundamental sciences. Specialization usually begins in the third year. Students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests so to say, their «major» subjects.

The profound study of theory is accompanied by practical training, first in specially equipped laboratories and workshops, then in various enterprises. Besides their studies students carry on research in different fields of science and technology and take part in students’ scientific and technical conferences where they make reports on their investigations.

The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. Between 2011 and 2015, 390 billion roubles (US $13.5 billion) has been allocated for upgrading facilities and technical equipment at Russian universities, and improving training for teaching staff. Although the standards of higher education in Russia are considered to be one of the best, there are many problems we are facing in our higher education. For instance, universities complain that the equipment which is used at universities is not modern enough, tuition fees are growing and many talented young people cannot receive higher education. All these problems are widely discussed in Russian society.

In the QS World University Rankings 2013/14, 18 Russian universities are ranked within the world's top 800. The leader is the Lomonosov Moscow State University (120 th), followed by the Saint Petersburg State University (240 th) and the Bauman Moscow State Technical Univer-
sity (334 th).

III. After you have read

3.1. Make up the sentence of two parts:

1. Every citizen of Russia has the right to education 1. young people can go on in higher education
2. After finishing the 11th form of secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium 2. provided in the US or Western Europe
3. If a student gets high scores, such a result is considered to be good 3. which is guaranteed by the Constitution
4. In 2007 within the Bologna Process the government of the Russian Federation has approved 4. and he/she has an opportunity to enter higher school
5. These degrees are equivalent to B.Sc and M.Sc degree 5. training of specialists
6. Some higher educational institutions keep 6. the bill of transition to two-level higher education system
7. The opinion exists 7. first in specially equipped laboratories and workshops, then in various plants
8. Transition to two-level system will make Russian education system 8. through a transitional period
9. The profound study of theory is accompanied by practical training, 9. more dynamical and modern
10. The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going 10. that bachelors are half-educated persons

 

3.2. Make up all possible questions to these sentences.Give the negative form:

1. At the end of each semester students take their exams.

2. The students are taking Unified National Exams in the classroom Nr. 27 now.

3. The new laboratory equipment will be installed in the building
2 next year.

3.3. Write the Passive Progressive of these sentences. Use words now, from … till, the whole month/morning etc:

1. All these problems are widely discussed in the Russian society.

2. The new educational standards were developed by the experts
last month.

3. Each exam is conducted by the independent examining boards.

4. A group of experts discussed a very serious matter yesterday.

5. We use these programs in our work.

6. The experts were discussing the transition to two-level system the whole academic year.

7. The teacher is correcting mistakes in our tests now.

8. This experiment was carried out by our professor last semester.

9. The dean is looking through the list of the applicants now.

10. Our group was examined in the room Nr. 224 yesterday.

3.4. Change the active sentences to the passive ones:

1. The head engineer is conducting negotiations now.

2. The laboratory assistant is making all the necessary measurements.

3. The workers are installing various apparatus and devices at present.

4. We are preparing instruments.

5. The computer is processing the data.

6. They were building the house from 2012 till 2014.

7. The device was making computations at that moment.

8. They were registering the voters from 3 to 5 yesterday.

9. When we entered the room they were checking the contract.

10. The specialists were studying new materials from February till July.

IV. Speaking





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