Speak about the UK using all information you have got.

5.3*. Role-play the following situation:

1. One of you is a manager of the international travel agency. Another person is a tourist, who wants to choose the route for travelling.
A manager is offering the UK as the country for travelling. A man/a
woman is asking some questions about the geographical position, the
capital, the climate, big cities, etc.

2. British and Russian students exchange opinions about their countries.

5.4*. Make projects. Use tips given in the appendix 1:

1. The UK is a country with beautiful countryside. (The nature of
the UK).

2. London is the capital of Great Britain.

3. The main parts of the country: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland. Their symbols.

4. The peculiarities of the Britain’s climate.

5. The biggest cities of the UK. What are they famous for?

6. The state structure of the UK.

7. The outstanding politicians of the country.

8. The culture of the UK.

9. English traditions and customs.

10. The places of interest in London.

11. The places of interest in the UK.


So many countries, so many customs.

I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the following words properly:

a) the United States of America; the Atlantic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean; Alaska; Hawaii; George Washington; the District of Columbia; Alaska; Minnesota; the Mississippi; the Missouri; the Rio Grande; the Rocky Mountains; the Cordillera; Sierra Nevada;

b) New York; Boston; Chicago; San Francisco; Los Angeles; Philadelphia; Detroit; Hollywood;

c) Congress; Chamber; the Democratic Party; the Republican Party.

1.2. Words and expressions to learn:

To be situated in; to stretch from … to; to border on; sea border; total area; to be founded; to be adopted; to be made up of; to vary greatly; to be rich in something; natural and mineral resources; to produce smth.; copper; oil; iron ore; manufacturing industries; aircraft industry; car industry; textile industry; armaments; to plant; spring wheat; to raise corn; plain; beef cattle; to be famous for smth.; to consist of; to be elected for; the world leading country.

1.3. Read the words and choose metals:

Cotton, iron, wheat, rubber, coal, oats, rye, zinc, bronze, copper, gold, oil, silver, nickel.

1.4. Choose the necessary word:

1. It was a (beautiful, beautifully) song. Ann sang (beautiful, beautifully) yesterday. 2. They were moving (slow, slowly) towards the hill. The boy was a (slow, slowly) runner. 3. The boys all sleep in (separate, separately) beds. Please, tie up these books (separate, separately). 4. Is this river (deep, deeply)? The boy (deep, deeply) interested in math.


1.5. Arrange the words in pairs of opposites:

Finish, thin, forget, peace, buy, early, war, remember, thick, sell, late, start.

II. Reading


The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the North and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea border with Russia. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The population of the USA is 313 million. Most of the population lives in towns and cities.

The United States of America was founded in 1776. The Constitution was adopted in 1787. The first President of the USA was George Washington. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where Washington, D.C., the capital of the country, is situated.

The climate of the USA varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the North. The climate of Alaska is arctic; the climate of the central part is continental, and the South has subtropical climate. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

The United States is a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is a land of 10,000 lakes. The longest rivers in the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. There are five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and Sierra Nevada.

The USA is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. Among the most important industries are aircraft, cars, textile,
radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper industries.

American farmers plant spring wheat on the cold western plains; raise corn and wheat; have fine beef cattle in the Midwest. Florida and California are famous for their vegetables and fruits, and the northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.

There are many large cities in the USA. They are Washington (the capital of the country), New York (the city of contrasts and the financial and business centre of the USA), Boston (which has three universities), Chicago (one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA), San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia; Detroit (one of the biggest centres of the automobile industry); Hollywood (the centre of the US film industry).

The USA has an Academy of Sciences. There are many scientific institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and other interesting places in the country.

The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fifty states. Each of these states has its own government. Congress is the American parliament which consists of two Chambers.

The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected for four years. There are two main political parties in the USA. They are the Democratic Party (organized in the 1820s) and the Republican Party (organized in the 1850s).

The USA became the world leading country at the beginning of the twentieth century. On the whole, the United States of America can be of great interest both to tourists and to people studying its life and territory.

III. After you have read

3.1. Answer the following questions:

1. What can you say about the geographical location of the United States of America?

2. What is the total area and the population of the USA?

3. What countries does the United States border on?

4. When was the United States of America founded?

5. The Constitution was adopted in 1787, wasn`t it?

6. How many states is the USA made up of?

7. What is the climate of the United States like?

8. Why is the USA called a land of rivers and lakes?

9. Is the USA a highly developed industrial and agricultural country?

10. How can you characterize the natural and mineral resources of the country?

11. What are the major cities in the United States?

12. Is the USA a federal republic?

13. Who is the head of the state?

14. How many parties are there in the USA? What are they?

3.2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

1. Соединенные Штаты Америки расположены в центральной части материка Северная Америка и омываются Тихим и Атлантическим океанами.

2. США граничат с Канадой на cевере и с Мексикой на юге.

3. Общая площадь страны составляет около 9,5 млн квадратных километров.

4. Население США насчитывает 286 млн человек.

5. Большинство населения страны проживает в крупных и маленьких городах.

6. США были основаны в 1776 году.

7. Конституция была принята в 1787 году.

8. Первым Президентом США был Джордж Вашингтон.

9. США богаты природными ресурсами и полезными ископае-мыми.

10. Столица США – Вашингтон.

11. Крупнейшими городами Соединенных Штатов являются Нью-Йорк, Чикаго, Лос-Анджелес, Филадельфия, Детройт и другие.

12. США – высокоразвитая промышленная и аграрная страна.

13. США состоят из 50 штатов и независимого округа Колумбия.

14. Климат в США разнообразный – от арктического до континентального и субтропического.

15. Самые высокие горы в Соединенных Штатах – Скалистые
горы, Кордильеры и Сьерра-Невада.

16. Крупнейшими реками являются Миссисипи, Миссури и Рио-Гранде.

17. США включают центральную часть Северной Америки, Аляску и Гавайи.

18. Соединенные Штаты – высокоразвитая страна, одна из ведущих производителей меди, нефти, железной руды и угля.

19. Ведущие отрасли обрабатывающей промышленности – самолето- и автомобилестроение, производство текстиля, вооруже-
ний и др.

20. Американские фермеры выращивают на равнине отличную кукурузу.

21. В США есть Академия наук.

22. В начале XX столетия США стали ведущей мировой дер-жавой.


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