Tell about engineering using all information you have got.




Genius is 1 percent inspiration

and 99 percent perspiration.

TEXT 1. IVAN KULIBIN (1735 – 1818)

I. Before you read

1.1. Read the words properly:

Mechanic, inventor, childhood, mechanisms, special interest, prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, Catherine II, to assign, pocket-clock,
current, month, design, miniature, microscopes, girder, push-cycle cart,
lantern, source, industrially, lighthouses, flywheel, gearbox, roller bearing, prosthetic device, entrepreneur, screw, feasible, cargo, poverty.

1.2. Give the Russian equivalents:

Mechanical tools, clock mechanisms, prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, complex automatic mechanism, to be in charge of, the Academy of Sciences, «planetary» pocket-clock, miniature clock-in-a-ring, push-cycle cart, one-arch bridge, roller bearing, sailing upstream, to display an inte-rest, realization, to inspire, current moon phase, to facet, flywheel, screw mechanisms, prosthetic, to reject, span.

Богатая фантазия, часы овальной формы, часовой механизм, механические станки, быть ответственным за что-л., Академия наук, «планетарные» карманные часы, миниатюрные «часы в кольце»,
механический экипаж с педальным приводом, автоматический механизм, роликовый подшипник, одноарочный мост, плыть против течения, проявить интерес, осуществление, способствовать, винтовой механизм, текущая фаза луны, совершенствовать, маховое колесо, пролёт (моста), протезный, отклонять.

1.3. State the part of speech and translate it into Russian:

Mechanic, inventor, mechanical, mechanism, prolific, imagination, to inspire, planetary, complex, automatic, current, miniature, optical, during, model, commission, wooden, three, light, device, later, over distance,
to return, poverty.

1.4. Analyze the use of modal verbs and their equivalents.
Translate the following sentences:

1. Who can answer my question?

2. Nobody could translate this text.

3. He ought to do this task at once.

4. He is to go home at 7 p.m.

5. The students were permitted to do this test again.

6. I asked him to help me, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last semester we would often go to the swimming pool.

9. He will be able to do this project next week.

10. Ivan Kulibin had to leave the academy.

11. Your friend should give up smoking.

12. May I leave for a while? – Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. Must I attend this meeting? – No, you needn't.

15. You needn't come so early.

II. Reading


Ivan Petrovich Kulibin was a Russian mechanic and inventor. He was born in 1735 in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a trader. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools. Soon, clock mechanisms became a special interest of his. His realizations as well as his prolific imagination inspired the work of many.

During 1764 – 1767 he built an egg-shaped clock, containing a complex automatic mechanism. In 1769 Kulibin gave this clock to Catherine II, who assigned Kulibin to be in charge of the mechanical workshop in the Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg. There, Kulibin built a «planetary» pocket-clock, which showed not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the current moon phase. Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature «clock-in-a-ring» types and others. He also worked on new ways to facet glass for use in microscopes, telescopes and other optical instruments.

During the 1770s he designed a wooden one-arch bridge over the Neva river with a span of 298 metres, offering to use an original girder with a cross grate. In 1776 a model was tested by a special commission of academics. Kulibin’s project was praised by Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, but was never realized. After 1780 Kulibin worked on possibilities for a metallic bridge, but these projects were also rejected by the government. Kulibin designed three projects for wooden and three projects for metallic bridges.

In 1779 he built a lantern that could emit a powerful light using a weak light source. This invention was used industrially for lighting workshops, lighthouses, ships, etc. In 1791 Kulibin constructed a push-cycle cart, in which he used a flywheel, a brake, a gearbox and roller bearing. The cart was operated by a man pressing pedals. In the same year, he also designed «mechanical legs», a prosthetic device, which was later used by a French entrepreneur. In 1793 Kulibin constructed an elevator that lifted a cabin using screw mechanisms. In 1794 he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

In 1801 Kulibin was fired from the academy and returned to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of sailing upstream and built
a ship which he had started to design back in 1782. Tests indicated that such ships were indeed feasible, but they were never used. During the same time, Kulibin had projects on using steam engines to move cargo ships, different kinds of mills, pianos and other projects.

Kulibin died in 1818 after spending his last years in poverty.

III. After you have read

3.1. Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false statements:

1. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools.

2. During 1764 – 1767 he built a steam-engine.

3. Ivan Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature clock-in-a-ring types and others.

4. Kulibin’s project was awarded the Nobel Prize.

5. In 1793 he constructed the four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine.

6. In 1794 he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

7. In 1801 Ivan Kulibin was appointed the rector of the academy in Nizhny Novgorod.

3.2. Fill in the blanks with words from the text:

1. He was born in 1735 in ... in the family of a ... .

2. In 1769 Kulibin ... this clock to Catherine II, who ... Kulibin to be ... of the mechanical ... in the ... of Saint Petersburg.

3. There, Kulibin … a «planetary» …, which … not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the … moon phase.

4. He also … on new ways to … glass … use in …, telescopes and other … instruments.

5. During the 1770s he … a wooden … bridge … the Neva river with
a … of 298 metres, offering to use an original … with a cross grate.

6. After 1780 Kulibin worked … possibilities … a metallic bridge, but these projects … also … by the government.

7. In 1791 Kulibin … a …, in which he used a …, a brake, a … and roller bearing.

8. In 1801 Kulibin … from the academy and … to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of … and … a ship which he … to design back in 1782.

9. Tests … that such ships … indeed …, but they … never … .

10. During the same time Kulibin had projects … using … to move … ships, different kinds of …, pianos and other projects.

3.3. Substitute the modal verbs for the possible equivalents:

1. The special commission of engineers must test a new device.

2. My friend can play tennis very well.

3. The students may attend the scientific conference.

4. We can’t prepare this report in time.

5. You make take my laptop till tomorrow.

6. She must go to Nizhniy Novgorod for several days.

3.4. Insert the modal verbs may or can:

1. The mechanic ... repair the brakes tomorrow if no one bothers him any more.

2. ... we come and see the head engineer next Monday at four o'clock in the afternoon?

3. What time is it? – It ... be about five o'clock, but I am not sure.

4. Only a person who knows the language very well ... answer such
a question.

5. Let me look at your diploma project. I ... be able to help you.

6. The computer class is quite free, and anyone who likes ... work there.

7. ... I take your text book on Higher Mathematics till tomorrow?

8. Take your umbrella with you: it ... rain today.

9. Do you think you ... draw these diagram?

10. My grandfather … very well when he was 10 years younger.

3.5. Insert the necessary modal verb or its equivalent:

1. I ... not go to the cinema with them yesterday, I ... to work on my term paper.

2. My friend lives not far from the university and ... go by foot.

3. All of us ... be in time for classes.

4. ... you ... to work hard to do well in special subjects?

5. One … know a foreign language.

6. My friend … to make a report at the conference at 10 a.m.

7. Nobody … answer my question.

8. The scientist … … to carry on this experiment in the university laboratory.

9. … you … to start this program at once?

10. This is the most necessary information you … to know.

IV. Grammar Review

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