Ask different types of questions to the text «Higher Education in Great Britain».


3.5. Find in the text some sentences with verbs in the Simple Passive. Give negative and question forms.

Write the plan of the text.

Give the summary of the text.

3.8*. Translate into Russian. Ask different types of questions to it:

Colleges of Education in New Zealand

There are five autonomous, state-funded Colleges of Education in New Zealand and one School of Education which is part of the University of Waikato. These six institutions have the note of training teachers for primary and secondary schools, early childhood education centres and special educational institutions. They also provide continuing education courses for practising teachers who wish to gain advanced qualifications and in-service courses to up-date teachers when curriculum changes are made. The aim of the Colleges is to maintain and improve the quality of teaching in schools and institutions at all levels.

The major qualifications provided by Colleges of Education are a three - year Diploma of Education and a four-year Bachelor of Education degree, awarded jointly by the local university and the College of Education. In the case of secondary teacher training, a one-year postgraduate diploma is awarded. A Higher Diploma of Teaching and an Advanced Diploma of Teaching are available for practising teachers.

Various specialist courses and qualifications are offered in some of the Colleges. These include postgraduate certificates, diplomas in special education (for teaching children with physical, visual, hearing or intellectual impairments), reading recovery, educational management, librarianship, information technology, guidance, teaching English as a second language, social work and bilingual education.

Conjoint programmes leading to the Bachelor of Education degree and Diploma of Teaching are available at several universities in association with their local colleges of education.

IV. Brush up your talk

4.1. Read and dramatize the dialogues with your partners. Make up your own dialogues on these models:

1. Taking Classes

A.: Kate, I’m so glad you have some time to give me some pointers for beginning my first term here.

B.: Oh, it’s no problem at all. I know just what it’s like, moving from
a small town into a big city, like this. And starting college is a real change.

A.: I don’t really know what I want to major in, but I saw a huge line in the Union for undecided majors, so I just picked something for the record. The lines were much shorter in the English department.

B.: So what classes are you taking this semester?

A.: I have a biology class that sounds real interesting – it’s called eco-logy, society and evolution.

B.: Yeah, I took that. I think everyone takes those introbiology classes – it’s the easiest way to get you two semesters of the same science.

A.: That’s good to know.

B.: So what else are you taking?

A.: Some Greek civilization class, German and American History.

B.: So you’re taking 12 hours, then?

A.: Yeah, but I placed out of freshman English, so I’ll get credit for
taking 15 hours.

B.: Sounds like you’re on the right track.


2. A Rough Week

A.: You don’t know how ready I am for the weekend. This has been
a rough week.

B.: You’re not kidding – it must be midterm’s week for everyone.
I don’t know why all the teachers give exams the same week.

A.: At least it’s over. I’m gonna party all weekend.

B.: Sounds great, man.


3. Changing the Major

A.: Dr. Williams, I need to talk with you about changing my major.

B.: Oh, hello, Sarah. Come on in.

A.: Thanks.

B.: Let me look at your file. Have you declared your major yet?
Officially, I mean?

A.: Yes, I’m majoring in chemical engineering.

B.: Oh yes, here’s the form. And what do you want to change to?

A.: Business. It’s not because engineering is hard, though,
Dr. Williams. I’ve finished all the math courses already. I just like the
business courses I’m taking.


B.: Well, you have eighteen hours in engineering, Sarah, and only six hours in business. And the problem is you don’t need any more electives, so the eighteen hours in engineering will be extra work for you on your program. I just don’t have any place to put them except under additional electives.

A.: I see. So how much longer will it take me to graduate if I change to business?

B.: One semester, full time. You’ll have to take twelve hours of business courses that term including accounting.

A.: That’s okay. I really want to do this.

4.2*. Play the following situations:

1. A freshman is discussing the classes he/she is taking his/her term at the University with a sophomore who is eager to give some useful advice.

2. Two students are discussing a «rough» week and their plans for the weekend.

3. You are discussing the reasons for and the possibility of changing your major with your academic faculty adviser.

4.3. Read and translate the proverb:

It’s never late to learn.

Discuss the importance of education. Say what it is giving you now and what it will give you in future. Explain why every country needs more highly educated people.

Text 2. Higher Education in the USA


I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the words properly:


Categories, technical training institutions, requirements, applicants, subjects, maximum, consideration, recommendations, amount, tuition,
major, adviser, community, transfer, degree.

1.2. Give all possible derivates, compounds and word combinations with the following words:

Teacher, book, examination, test, mistake.

1.3. Write down forms of the following words, which are necessary to find in the vocabulary:

Applicants, divided, lowest, requirements, getting, specializes,
assigned, offering, overall.

1.4. Choose the right translation of the following words:

recommendation – рекомендовано, рекомендация,


adviser – советовать, советник, совет

compulsory – обязательно, обязательный

technical – техника, технически, технический

private – частно, частный, часто

1.5. Study this information and remember it:

a) The periods into which the year is divided at schools, universities:

• term – one of the three periods that the year is divided into at British schools and most British universities: the autumn/spring/summer term;

• semester – one of the two periods that the year is divided into
at American schools and most American universities: the first/second

e.g. I took four classes in the first semester and five in the second;

• quarter – one of the four main periods that the year is divided into at some American schools and universities;

• school year/academic year – the period of the year when there are school or university classes;

e.g. In Russia the school year starts on September 1.


b) The periods in which students are taught a particular subject:

• class – a period of time usually about thirty minutes to one hour, in which a teacher teaches a group of students;

e.g. Hurry up – we have our first class in five minutes!

• lesson – a period in which someone teaches one person or a small number of people, used especially about particular skills such as music, swimming, or driving;

e.g. She gives English lessons to business people in the evening;

• lecture on, to give a lecture on;

e.g. a lecture on the causes of World War II, to give a series of lectures on Russian painting;

• seminar on;

e.g. to have a seminar on modern political theory.


c) Someone who teaches:

school teacher, a university teacher/a professor (АmЕ);

subject teacher, a maths/chemistry, etc. teacher, a teacher of English/ an English teacher;

principle (АmЕ)/headteacher, headmaster/headmistress (BrE);

• a vice-principal (АmЕ)/deputy headteacher/senior master/senior
mistress (BrE);

• assistant teacher/instructor, a senior teacher/instructor;

• good, poor, bad, excellent, experienced, mediocre, born, superior, great teacher;

• tutor – someone who gives lessons to just one student or a small group of students;

e.g. They hired a private tutor to help Mary with her French;

• The basis of tuition in Oxford is the tutorial for which students are required to meet with their tutor once or twice a week, individually or perhaps, with one or two other students.

• A tutor in Cambridge is called an adviser;

• lecturer (BrE) – someone who teaches at university or college;

e.g. a lecturer in World Politics;

• professor – a university teacher of the highest rank in Britain, any university teacher in the USA who has a higher degree such as a Ph. D.:
a linguistics professor;

e.g. He's a professor of biology at Cambridge;

• faculty (АmЕ)/teaching/academic staff (BrE)- all the teachers
working at a certain school/ university.


d) Tests and examinations:

• a test – a set of spoken or written questions or practical activities, which are intended to find out how much someone knows about a subject or skill;

• a spelling/vocabulary/grammar/biology, etc. test;

• an oral/written test, an end-of-term test, a test in Literature, a test on the use of articles;

• to give smb a test/to test smb on smth, to retest smb on smth;

• to take a test on the term's work/in History;

• to have a test on smth;

• to revise for a test;

• to pass a test, to fail a test;

• test-paper, to mark test-papers;

• student's record book, to sign smb's record book;

• examination (formal) exam – an important test that you do at the end of a course of study or at the end of the school year;

e.g. How did you do in your exams? Students are not allowed to talk
during the examination;

• French/biology/history, etc. exam, an exam in Psychology;

• entrance exam, an oral/written exam, school-leaving exams;

• graduate/final exam;

• final (singular) – an important exam that is taken at the end of a set of classes in the US;

e.g. I have a final in biology tomorrow;

• finals (plural) – the last exams that you take at the end of a university course in the UK;

e.g. During my finals, I was revising till 3 o’clock in the morning most days;

• to take/sit for an examination – to do a test or exam;

• to pass an examination – to achieve a good enough standard to be successful;

e.g. Only 30% of students who took the exam passed it. «Did you pass?» – «Yes, I got an A»;

• to scrape through an exam;

e.g. He scraped through his history paper;

• to fail/flunk (AmE coll.) an exam;

e.g. I failed my French exam two times. He thought he was going to flunk History but he got a C;

• to study (AmE)/revise (BrE) for an exam;

• to be examined in, to be re-examined in;

• examiner, an examinee;

• examining board;

• transcript – an official list of all courses taken by a student in the USA at a school or college showing the final grade received for each course, with definitions of the various grades given at the institution.


e) Admission to colleges and universities:

• to admit – to allow entry; to give entrance or access;

• to be admitted to a university, to be accepted by a university;

• admission – the act or process of admitting; the state or privilege of being admitted;

• to apply for admission;

e.g. She applied for admission to Moscow University;

• admission application, to submit an admission application;

• applicant/a candidate;

• university admission board, an admission office;

e.g. Before she took her entrance exams, she had submitted her
admission application and her school leaving certificate to the Moscow
University admission board;

• to enroll in (AmE), to enter (BrE) (a) school/university;

• reference – a statement (letter) regarding a person's character,
abilities, etc.;

• referee – someone who writes a letter about someone else, describing
their work or personal qualities.

1.6. Match the columns:

1. факультативный 1. a private college
2. высшие учебные заведения 2. to transfer to universities
3. рекомендации 3. state education institutions
4. обязательный 4. advanced programs
5. назначать советника (куратора) 5. optional
6. план обучения   6. to complete the requirements for a bachelor’s degree
7. частный колледж 7. subject
8. общепринятый вступительный экзамен 8. technical training
9. государственный университет 9. higher education institutions
10. степень 10. points
11. переводиться в университет 11. private education institutions
12. школьный экзамен на проверку способностей 12. points, score
13. завершить обучение для получения степени бакалавра 13. a plan of study
14. техническое обучение 14. recommendations
15. предмет 15. a state university
16. государственные учебные заведения 16. compulsory
17. продвинутые программы 17. the Scholastic Aptitude Test
18. приёмная комиссия университета 18. degree
19. баллы 19. a standard entrance exam
20. частные учебные заведения 20. to assigned an «academic adviser»



II. Reading


The system of higher education in the USA consists of four categories of institutions: universities, four-year colleges, technical training institutions and two-year community colleges.

In their last year of high school, students often apply to more than one college or university. Each college or university in the USA has its own requirements for admission. Most colleges and universities require applicants to take a standard entrance exam: the American Collegic Test (ACT) or the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). SAT must be taken in your senior year in high school. It is given on a certain day in December or January at a local college. The test takes a whole day. There are three parts: Math, English and Logic. Every student gets a book with questions. The book is divided into sections, with about 70 questions each. Each of the three
subjects has a maximum of 800 points. The lowest score for getting into
university is 550.

The University Admission Office takes into consideration:

1. The applicants’ high school grades (transcripts).

2. Recommendations from high school teachers.

3. Applicants’ scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and ACT.

4. The impression they make during interviews at the university.

Depending on the source of financing higher education institutions may be either public (state-supported) or private. The amount of money you have to pay depends on whether you go to a private college or a state university. At a private college the tuition is higher. Overall they are much the same as state universities. The subjects are divided into compulsory and optional. The subject the student specializes in is called a «major». Optional subjects are called «electives». Every student is assigned an «academic adviser» or a «faculty adviser» who will help the student decide on a plan of study based on his/her goals and the requirements for
a degree.

Four years of undergraduate study at a university’s «undergraduate schools» or colleges lead to a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree. «Graduate schools», which are part of a university or are separate institutions, offer advanced programs which lead to a master’s (M.A. or M.S.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) degree.

Junior colleges, technical colleges, and community colleges are two-year institutions, usually public, offering technical training and a basic academic program.

Some junior and community colleges award only an Associate of Arts (A.A.) degree without specifying a major. Other junior, technical and community colleges award A.A. degrees to liberal arts students and A.S. (Associate in Science) or A.A.S. (Associate in Applied Science) degrees to students who major in science or practical technology. After receiving an A.A., A.S. or A.A.S. degree, many students transfer to four-year colleges or universities to complete the requirements for a bachelor’s degree.


American Collegic Test (ACT) (originally an abbreviation of American College Testing) is a standardized test for high school achievement and college admissions in the United States produced by ACT, Inc.

Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is a standardized test for most college admissionsin the United States.

The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board,
a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still
administers the exam. The test is intended to assess a student's readiness for college. It was first introduced in 1926, and its name and scoring have changed several times. It was first called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, then the Scholastic Assessment Test.

The current SAT Reasoning Test, introduced in 2005, takes three hours and forty-five minutes to finish, and costs US $51 (US $91 International), excluding late fees. Possible scores range from 600 to 2400, combining test results from three 800-point sections (Mathematics, Critical Reading, and Writing). Taking the SAT or its competitor, the ACT, is required for freshman entry to many, but not all, universities in the United States.

The Associate of Arts (A.A.) is a two-year undergraduate degree offered by many community colleges or junior colleges in the United States.

Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) is a technical degree designed to prepare the student in a specific occupational area. Persons receiving the A.A.S. normally enter directly into employment in the area of speciali-zation.

III. After you have read

3.1. Answer the following questions:


1. What types of higher education institutions are there in the USA?

2. What are general requirements for admission to US colleges and universities?

3. What examination is taken by all school-leavers in their senior year in high school?

4. What does the University Admission Office take into consideration?

5. Who helps high school students choose electives?

6. What do you know about public and private higher education institutions?

7. What degrees do American colleges and universities award after four years of study?

8. What degrees do junior colleges and community colleges award?

3.2. Find in the text the English equivalents:

Условия приема; общепринятый вступительный экзамен в американские вузы; приемная комиссия университета; школьный экзамен на проверку способностей; четырехгодичный колледж; государственные вузы; частные вузы; основной предмет; назначать советника (куратора); продвинутые программы; доктор образования; колледж начального высшего образования; местный колледж; степень (диплом) выпускника гуманитарного местного колледжа или колледжа начального высшего образования с двухлетним курсом обучения; общеобразовательный курс в американских колледжах и университетах; переводиться в вузы с четырехлетним курсом обучения; завершить обучение для получения степени бакалавра.

3.3. Supply full word combinations for the following initial abbreviations:

1. ACT 5. M.A. 9. A.A.

2. SAT 6. M.S. 10. A.S.

3. B.A. 7. Ed.D. 11. A.A.S.

4. B.S. 8. Ph.D.

3.4. Fill in the gaps:

1. I’d like to tell you about … .

2. … four categories of institutions: universities, four-year colleges, technical training institutions and two-year community colleges.

3. In their last year of high school, students often apply to … .

4. SAT must be taken in … .

5. The University Admission Office takes into consideration … .

6. Depending on the source of financing higher education institutions may be … .

7. The subjects are divided into … .

8. … is called a «major».

9. Optional subjects are called … .

10. Every student is assigned … .

11. «Graduate schools», which are part of a university or are separate institutions, offer advanced programs which lead to … .

12. … only an Associate of Arts (A.A.) degree without specifying
a major.

3.5. Try to ask different types of questions to the following sentence:

The system of higher education in the USA consists of four categories of institutions: universities, four - year colleges, technical training institutions and two-year community colleges.

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