ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

UNIT 11. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS



AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Man is a child of his environment.

I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the words properly:

Ancient, environment, civilization, byproducts, to pollute, to breathe, vast, to upset, oxygen balance, species, to befall (befell, befallen), to
increase, disaster, crisis, to preserve, onward, acid rain, vehicle, to threaten, disease, carbon dioxide, poisoning, uninhabitable, particle, sign,
ocean, micro.

1.2. Remind some geographical names and translate them:

Ukraine, Chernobyl, Belarus, Ukrainian, Belorussian, the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk, Lake Baikal, Canada, Norway, Finland, Arctic and Subarctic regions.

1.3. State the part of speech and translate into Russian:

Since, ancient, thousand, development, civilization, large, byproduct, to pollute, to breathe, grain, dust, harmful, substance, rare, species,
ultraviolet, normally, acid, anything, to increase, traffic, vehicle, toxic, to melt, dangerous, air, another, fewer, safe, to swim, urgent, measure, careless, nowadays, into, space, temperature.

1.4. Make up adjectives with the appropriate suffix:

Harmony, environment, nature, civil, industry, radiation, danger, importance, interaction, ecology, horror, agriculture, atom, tragedy, universe, creation.

1.5. Make up adjectives with the prefix un-. Translate them into Russian:

Important, usual, real, wise, kind, intelligent, able, easy, clever,
common, reasonable, eatable, changeable, ready, comfortable, popular,
suitable, successful.

1.6. Find the Russian equivalents for the following:

Man’s interference in nature; industrial enterprises; the land we grow grain; harmful substances; are cut and burn in fire; some rare species of animals; a number of rivers and lakes dry up; ecological disaster; the consequences of this explosion; universal concern; man’s careless interaction with nature; a sign of the ecological crisis; ecologically poor regions;
initial steps; must be carried onward; urgent measures; ozone layer; numerous conferences have been held; is co-operating; joint project; permafrost zone; green house effect; skin cancer.

Всеобщая проблема; парниковый эффект; совместный проект; рак кожи; зона вечной мерзлоты; были проведены многочисленные конференции; сотрудничает; срочные меры; озоновый слой; первые шаги; надо двигаться вперед; экологически неблагополучные регионы; небрежное обращение человека с природой; признак экологического кризиса; вмешательство человека в природу; некоторые редкие виды животных; вредные вещества; вырубаются и сжигаются; земля, на которой мы выращиваем пшеницу; последствия этого взрыва; промышленные предприятия;, экологические бедствия; ряд рек и озер высыхают.

1.7. Make up all possible forms of the Infinitive from the following verbs:

Model: to involve – to be involved – to be involving – to have involved – to have been involved.

To increase, to pollute, to grow, to cause, to hold, to drink, to breathe, to fall, to appear, to do.

1.8. State the form and the function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences:

1. With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase.

2. Nowadays the heat cannot go into space.

3. The international organization Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.

4. These are only the initial measures to be taken to protect nature.

5. It was very important to have discussed the serious ecological problems at the conference.

6. I was the last to know the news.

7. There are letters to be answered.

8. To pass exams well you must work hard.

9. Our plan was to carry out number of experiments.

10. To be properly understood is the only thing I want.

II. Reading

 

Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the deve-lopment of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The byproducts of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about
1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up. Air pollution influences the health of people. For example: ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to the earth.

The acid falls to earth in form of rain or snow that can damage anything from the monuments to living organism. The increase in traffic is threatening another serious air pollution in our cities, because vehicles, not factories, produce most of toxic micro-particles, which do most harm. Toxic gases in the atmosphere in critical concentration could change the world’s climate. The most dangerous air pollution comes from the cigarette smoke, which pollutes public places.

Water pollution is another important problem. In several years tourists will find fewer beaches where it’s safe to swim. Urgent measures must be taken if we don’t want to leave a dangerous planet to future generations. The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crisis. The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilization.

Also one of the most serious problems is green house effect. It works like this: sunlight gives us heat, some of the heat warms the atmosphere and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the heat cannot go into space. That is why winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher. If the temperature continues growing up the snow on the mountains and ice will melt, so the most of the earth will be under
water.

The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl tragedy in April 1986. About 18 percent of the territory of Belarus was also polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests and people's health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are tragic for the Ukrainian, Belorussian and other nations.

Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries - members of the UNO - have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organization Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment. Russia is co-operating in the field of environmental protection with the United States, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries. Russia and the United States are carrying out joint projects to study and protect the environmental systems of the Arctic and Subarctic regions, and also to study some of the natural processes in the permafrost zone.

But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only at the present but also for the future generations. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

III. After you have read

3.1. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the reason of man's interference in nature?

2. What does appear all over the world today?

3. Why is the oxygen balance upset?

4. What is the result of this process?

5. What is the problem of the increase in traffic?

6. Why could toxic gases change the world’s climate?

7. What are the bad effects after the Chernobyl tragedy?

8. What measures are being taken to create a system of ecological
security?

9. What project are the USA and Russia carrying out?

10. Why must the serious measures be carried onward to protect nature?

3.2. Look through the text again and say what is true and what is false? Correct the false statements:

1. With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to decrease.

2. Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises disappear all over the world today.

3. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about
1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances.

4. The acid falls to earth in form of rain or snow that can create the new living organisms.

5. Toxic gases in the atmosphere in critical concentration could change the world’s climate.

6. The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after explosion at the atomic power-station in Japan in 2011.

7. As many as 159 countries – members of the UNO – have set up environmental protection agencies.

8. Russia is not co-operating in the field of environmental protection with the United States, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries.

9. Russia and the United States are carrying out joint projects to destroy the environmental systems of some regions.

10. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

3.3. Arrange the sentences according to the order in the text:

1. Russia is co-operating in the field of environmental protection with the United States, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries.

2. The pollution of air and the world’s ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man’s careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.

3. The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl tragedy in April 1986.

4. Nowadays the heat cannot go into space.

5. As many as 159 countries – members of the UNO – have set up environmental protection agencies.

6. Toxic gases in the atmosphere in critical concentration could change the world’s climate.

7. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

8. The byproducts of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

9. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited.

10. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire.

3.4. Make up your own sentences (not taken from the text) with the following word-combinations. Pay attention to the usage of the
Infinitive:

To live in harmony with environment; man’s interference in nature; the increase in traffic; to leave a dangerous planet to future generations; to be polluted with radioactive substances; to discuss problems facing eco-logically poor regions; to save life on the planet, one of history’s greatest dangers to human life.

3.5. Put the verb in the brackets into the appropriate form of Infinitive. Pay attention to the Passive and Active Voice and using of to. State the function of the Infinitive:

1. I was glad … to this meeting by my colleague (to invite).

2. My dream is … home as soon as possible (to return).

3. This student was the first …by our professor (to examine).

4. Russia and the United States are carrying out the projects … and … the environmental systems of the ecologically poor regions (to study, to protect).

5. The teacher made students … two articles (to translate).

6. Do you know anybody … this project already? (to finish)

7. I am glad … with him now (to speak).

8. … life on the planet is one of the main mankind’s tasks (to save).

9. Nowadays the heat cannot … into space (to go).

10. It was very pleasant … with my friends again (to travel).

11. Let him … this work (to do).

12. My friends will … this project next week (to start).

13. Ann asked the teacher … this difficult rule again (to explain).

14. She was the last … about it (to tell).

15. Не intended … to Moscow (to move).

3.6. Translate the sentences with the Complex Object and
Complex Subject into Russian:

1. We know him to be the best specialist in the field of the environmental protection.

2. He considers this question to be of great importance.

3. They believed him to be a very experienced researcher.

4. The climate on our planet is known to have changed greatly.

5. These measures are expected to be taken to protect the ecological poor regions.

6. The international organization Greenpeace is reported to be doing much to preserve the environment.

7. Russia and the United States are likely to start the joint projects to protect the environmental systems of the Arctic and Subarctic regions.

8. The holes in the ozone layer let ultraviolet radiation get to the earth.

9. We don’t want the byproducts of the industrial enterprises to pollute the air and the water.

10. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are considered to be very tragic and dangerous for the Ukrainian, Belorussian and other nations.

3.7. Transform these sentences using the Complex Subject with the verb in the appropriate form. Translate them:

Model: e.g. It is known that our colleague is a very good specialist. – Our colleague is known to be a very good specialist.

1. It is thought that this idea has no practical purpose.

2. It is said that a number of rivers and lakes are drying up.

3. It is known that ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes skin
cancer.

4. It is considered that the green house effect is one of the most serious problems on the planet.

5. It is reported that Greenpeace has conducted an unauthorized acti-vity recently.

6. It is expected that some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever.

7. It is believed that our manager is doing his best to help us.

8. It is supposed that serious measures have been taken to create a system of ecological security.

3.8. Complete the sentences using the Complex Object:

1. Nobody wanted our planet to … .

2. We expected our scientists to … .

3. What made you … .

4. I didn't notice her … .

5. She saw him … .

6. Don’t let them … .

7. We know the air pollution to …

8. Do you think the serious measures … .

9. Have you ever seen your friend … .

10. They don’t consider this project to … .

3.9. Complete the sentences using the Complex Subject:

1. This company is known to … .

2. The ecological problems seem to … .

3. The consequences of this ecological disaster are unlikely to … .

4. This matter is considered to … .

5. Our project is supposed to … .

6. These data are found to … .

7. This method appears to … .

8. All these activities are expected to … .

9. An international environmental research centre is reported to … .

10. Greenpeace is said to … .

IV. Grammar Review

4.1. Give the comparison degrees of the following adjectives and adverbs:

High, near, great, large, dangerous, good, few, fast, much, serious,
little, horrible, poor.

4.2. Translate the word combinations with the possessive
pronouns:

Man’s interference, men’s interaction, world’s ocean, people’s health, history’s dangers, child’s dog, children’s dogs, student’s book, students’ books, woman’s bag, women’s bags.

4.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions:

1. … thousands … years people lived … harmony … environment.

2. Many cities suffer … smog.

3. The acid falls … earth … form … rain or snow.

4. Nowadays the heat cannot go … space.

5. The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its
people … the Chernobyl tragedy … April 1986.

6. …18 percent …the territory of Belarus was also polluted … radioactive substances.

7. Numerous conferences have been held … these agencies.

8. An international environmental research center has been set up … Lake Baikal.

4.4. Look through the text and point out the sentences with the Passive Voice. Give the negative and question forms.

4.5. Look through the text and point out the sentences with
Progressive and Perfect Tenses. Give the negative and question forms.

4.6. Look through the text and point out the sentences with the Participle. State its functions.

V. Speaking





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