ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the following quotes of different people about the environmental problems. What is their position towards this problem? What opinion do you agree with?



1. We won’t have a society if we destroy the environment (Margaret Mead).

2. I really wonder what gives us the right to wreck this poor planet of ours (Kurt Vonnegut).

3. I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend? (Robert Redford).

4. The frog does not drink up the pond in which it lives (Unknown
Author).

5. The activist is not the man who says the river is dirty. The activist is the man who cleans up the river (Ross Perot).

6. It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment (Ansel Adams).

7. There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth. We are all
crew (Marshall McLuhan).

8. They kill good trees to put out bad newspapers (James G. Watt).

9. The wood is burnt, but the ashes are a nuisance (Unknown Author).

10. Nature is not a temple, but a workshop and man is a workman
in it (Ivan Turgenev).

5.2.Retell the text using all information you have got.

5.3*. Make projects. Use tips given in the appendix 1:

1. The most dangerous ecological tragedies of the world, its effects and measures of neutralization (Chernobyl 1986, Japan 2011 etc.).

2. Global warming and measures of its neutralization.

3. Ecological problems in our region.

4. Environmental protection organizations (Greenpeace, WWF etc).

5. Earth is in danger.

UNIT 12. GLOBALIZATION: ADVANTAGES

AND DISADVANTAGES

One day there will be no borders,

no boundaries, no flags and no countries

and the only passport will be the heart.

I. Before you read

1.1. Pronounce the following words and word combinations pro-perly and translate them into Russian:

Wardrobe, to sew, Chinese, Thai, Pacific, freighter, crew, Spaniard, harbor, Minneapolis, society, characteristics, friction, lessen, awareness, to perceive, diffusion, certain, issue, spread, unaffiliated, immediately, deba-table, outsourcing, foreign, vital, culture, burden.

1.2. Give the nouns for the following verbs:

To combine, to move, to integrate, to represent, to communicate,to connect, to investment, to develop, to grow, to know, to invent, to appear, to compete, ability, to interact.

1.3. State the part of speech and translate into Russian:

Harbor, to unify, single, to function, difficulty, globe, ability, to interact, additionally, enormous, growth, awareness, certain, what, more,
domestic, to thrive, complex, greater, last.

1.4. Match the columns:

1. tag 1. уменьшаться
2. to sew 2. рост осведомленности, информативности
3. French freighter 3. «стирание расстояния»
4. to unify into a single society 4. шить
5. «friction of distance» 5. спасаться бегством из опасных мест
6. to shrink 6. этикетка
7. to increase in awareness 7. французское грузовое судно
8. to flee (fled, fled) a place of danger 8. понимать
9. lower wages push individuals 9. объединяться в единое сообщество
10. lower standards of living 10. низкий уровень жизни людей
11. to perceive 11. низкий рост зарплаты людей
12. to pop up 12. рассматривать вопросы
13. unaffiliated 13. организовывать транснациональные корпорации
14. to deal with issue 14. отечественный
15. to form multinational corporations 15. всплыть, появиться
16. domestic 16. не являющийся филиалом, самостоятельный
17. outsourcing 17. процветать
18. to thrive 18. заботиться о, ориентироваться на
19. in the face of 19. привлечение сторонних ресурсов
20. to cater 20. настаивать
21. employment 21. на фоне
22. crucial advantages 22. сдерживать, контролировать цены
23. to keep in check prices 23. занятость
24. to contest 24. решающие преимущества
25. to insist 25. возникновение, появление
26. to acquire labor force 26. оспаривать
27. onset 27. продукт, товар, предмет потребления
28. disease 28. приобретать рабочую силу
29. income generation 29. отрицательно влиять
30. commodity 30. получение доходов
31. tapping the untapped markets 31. болезнь
32. to fetch hundreds of options 32. масштаб, границы
33. scope 33. использовать много возможностей
34. labor-intensive countries 34. освоение новых рынков
35. to prove 35. в последнюю очередь
36. to sustain 36. доказывать
37. the last but not least 37. с широким использованием ручного труда
38.to affect adversely 38. подтверждать; поддержать
39. to enhance 39. сдерживать, удерживать, сохранять
40. to retain 40. увеличить, усилить, расширить
41. hence 41. приемлемая цена
42. extent 42. сущность любой экономики
43. affordable pricing 43. следовательно; в результате
44. backbone of every economy 44. первоочередная важность
45. prime importance 45. объём, степень, размер
46. host country 46. таким образом
47. vital 47. иностранное государство, на территории которого создаются филиалы и открываются представительства
48. thereby 48. жизненный
49. supply chain 49. ограничение
50. Gross Domestic Product 50. обычный, стандартный
51. restriction 51. система снабжения
52. to familiarize 52. истоки, начало
53. HIV (human immunodeficient virus) 53. СПИД, синдром приобретённого иммунодефицита
54. customary 54. валовый внутренний продукт, ВВП
55. dawn 55. познакомить, ознакомить
56. AIDS (Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) 56. ВИЧ-инфекция, вирус иммунодефицита человека
57. wilderness 57. скоропортящийся
58. perishable 58. пустыня
59. to pose 59. с древних времен
60. health hazards 60. утрата культуры
61. loss of сulture 61. опасность для здоровья
62. from time immemorial 62. представлять собой, являться
63. to take a backseat 63. неравномерное распределение материального благосостояния
64. uneven wealth distribution 64. перспектива
65. outlook 65. отойти на второй план
66. mining 66. бурение скважин
67. drilling 67. уничтожать
68. to deplete 68. горное дело
69. on the verge of becoming extinct 69. вследствие
70. owing 70. на грани исчезновения
71. non-availability 71. бедствие, катастрофа
72. calamity 72. несоответствие, неравенство
73. disparity 73. неготовность
74. to owe 74. приписывать, быть обязанным
75. revenue 75. жесткая конкуренция
76. cut-throat competition 76. разработка и продвижение торговой марки, брэндинг
77. branding 77. бедственный, гибельный
78. fast-paced 78. доход, годовой доход
79. wherein 79. эксплуатировать
80. to exploit 80. быстро развивающийся
81. disastrous 81. в котором, там, где

 

1.5. Make up all possible forms of the gerund from the following verbs:

Model: to write – writing – being written – having written – having been written.

Study, build, increase, move, sew, develop, use, sell, apply, pay.

1.6. Translate the sentences, state the form and function of the Gerund:

1. Travelling abroad can be very interesting.

2. The main point of the discussion is applying the new methods.

3. I am not used to being treated in such a way.

4. What is the most effective method of transmitting information?

5. Before coming to any conclusion you should thoroughly analyze all the facts.

6. In spite of my being sick I finished my work, and I was ready to demonstrate it to my chief.

7. This performance is worth seeing.

8. I can’t help thinking about this matter.

9. We don’t feel like walking.

10. My friend can’t stand telling the lie.

11. Does anyone object to launching an investigation?

12. He doesn't like having been invited to their party.

13. We regret our not having rented a car abroad.

14. In discussing the problem they touched upon some very interesting items.

15. Making a program for the computer will be the next question of the discussion.

 

II. Reading

 

If you look at the tag on your shirt, chances are you would see that it was made in a country other than the one in which you sit right now. What’s more, before it reached your wardrobe, this shirt could have very well been made with Chinese cotton sewed by Thai hands, shipped across the Pacific on a French freighter crewed by Spaniards to a Los Angeles harbor. This international exchange is just one example of globalization,
a process that has everything to do with geography. Globalization
integrates trade, technology, investments, and the mobile factors of
production like labor and capital. All types of goods ranging from Coca-Cola, Sprite, Louis Philippe shirts, Marie Claire bags, Police sunglasses, to
Adidas and Nike shoes are all available in every market globally, all credit to globalization. McDonalds in Japan, French films being played in Minneapolis, and the United Nations, are also representations of globalization.

Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces. It’s a movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to
increased economic integration.

The idea of globalization may be simplified by identifying several key characteristics:

Improved Technology in Transportation and Telecommunications

In years past, people across the globe did not have the ability to
communicate and could not interact without difficulty. Nowadays, a mobile phone, fax, e-mail, Skype can easily be used to connect people.
In short, the world begins to metaphorically shrink.

Movement of People and Capital

A general increase in awareness and transportation technology has
allowed for people to move about the world in search of a new home,
a new job, or to flee a place of danger. Most migration takes place within or between developing countries, possibly because lower standards of
living and lower wages push individuals to places with a greater chance for
economic success.

Additionally, capital (money) is being moved globally with the ease of electronic transference and a rise in perceived investment opportunities. Developing countries are a popular place for investors to place their capital because of the enormous room for growth.

Diffusion of Knowledge

The word «diffusion» simply means «to spread out», and that is
exactly what any new found knowledge does. When a new invention or way of doing something pops up, it does not stay secret for long. A good example of this is the appearance of automotive farming machines in Southeast Asia, an area long home to manual agricultural labor.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Multinational Corporations

So called non-governmental organizations bring together people unaffiliated with the government and can be nationally or globally focused. Many international NGOs deal with issues that do not pay attention to
borders (such as global climate change, energy use, or child labor regulations). Examples of NGOs include Amnesty International or Doctors without Borders.

As countries are connected to the rest of the world (through increased communication and transportation) they immediately form what a business would call a market. As more and more markets are opening up, business people from around the globe are coming together to form multinational corporations in order to access these new markets. Another reason that businesses are going global is that some jobs can be done by foreign
workers for a much cheaper cost than domestic workers, this is called
outsourcing.

Is Globalization a Good Thing?

Globalization has been quite a debatable subject. While some are of the opinion that it has a lot of ill-effects upon the society, there exist others who feel exactly the opposite. Some opine that it has made life extremely easier and comfortable. It has however affected the consumers and businesses differently. For a better picture, let us take a look at some of the
advantages and disadvantages of globalization.

Positive Aspects of Globalization:

1. Employment.

Considered as one of the most crucial advantages, globalization has led to the generation of numerous employment opportunities. Companies are moving towards the developing countries to acquire labor force. This obviously caters to employment and income generation to the people in the host country. Also, the migration of people, which has become easier has led to better jobs opportunities.

2. Education.

A very critical advantage that has aided the population is the spread of education. With numerous educational institutions around the globe, one can move out from the home country for better opportunities elsewhere. Thus, integrating with different cultures, meeting and learning from various people through the medium of education is all due to globalization. Developing countries or labor-intensive countries have benefited the most.

3. Product Quality.

The onset of international trade has given rise to intense competition in the markets. No longer does one find limited number of commodities available. A particular commodity may fetch hundreds of options with different prices. The product quality has been enhanced so as to retain the customers. Today the customers may compromise with the price range but not with the quality of the product. Low or poor quality can adversely
affect consumer satisfaction.

4. Competitive Prices.

Globalization has brought in fierce competition in the markets. Since there are varied products to select from, the producer can sustain only when the product is competitively priced. There is every possibility that
a customer may switch over to another producer if the product is priced
exorbitantly. «Customer is the King», and hence can dictate the terms to
a very large extent. Therefore, affordable pricing has benefited the
consumer in a great way.

5. Free Movement of Capital.

Capital, the backbone of every economy, is of prime importance for the proper functioning of the economy. Today, transferring money through banks is possible just by the click of a button, all due to the electronic transfer that has made life very comfortable. Many huge firms are inves-ting in the developing countries by setting up industrial units outside their home country. This leads to Foreign Direct Investment, which helps in promoting economic growth in the host country.

6. Communication.

Information technology has played a vital role in bringing the countries closer in terms of communication. Every single information is easily accessible from almost every corner of the world. Circulation of information is no longer a tedious task, and can happen in seconds. The Internet has significantly affected the global economy, thereby providing direct access to information and products.

7. Transportation.

Considered as the wheel of every business organization, connectivity to various parts of the world is no more a serious problem. Today with various modes of transportation available, one can conveniently deliver the products to a customer located at any part of the world. Besides, other
infrastructural facilities like, distribution, supply chain, and logistics have become extremely efficient and fast.

8. Advantage in cooperation.

Governments are able to better work together towards common goals now that there is an advantage in cooperation, an improved ability to inte-ract and coordinate, and a global awareness of issues.

9. International Trade.

Purchase and sale of commodities are not the only two transactions
involved in international trade. Today, international trade has broadened its horizon with the help of business process outsourcing. Sometimes in order to concentrate on a particular segment of business it is a practice to outsource certain services. Some countries practice free trade with minimal restrictions on EXIM (export-import) policies. This has proved beneficial to business.

10. GDP Increase.

Gross Domestic Product, commonly known as GDP, is the money value of the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during an accounting year. As the market has widened, the scope and demand for a product has increased. Producers familiarize their products and services according to the requirements of various economies thereby tapping the untapped markets. Thus, the final outcome in terms of financial gain enhances the GDP of the country. If statistics are of any indication, the GDP of the developing countries has increased twice as much as before.

Negative Aspects of Globalization:

1. Health Issues.

Globalization has given rise to more health risks and presents new threats and challenges for epidemics. A very customary example is the dawn of HIV/AIDS. Having its origin in the wilderness of Africa, the virus has spread like wildfire throughout the globe in no time. Food items are also transported to various countries, and this is a matter of concern, especially in case of perishable items. The safety regulations and the standards of food preparation are different in different countries, which may pose
a great risk to potential health hazards.

2. Loss of Culture.

Conventionally, people of a particular country follow its culture and traditions from time immemorial. With large number of people moving into and out of a country, the culture takes a backseat. People may adapt to the culture of the resident country. They tend to follow the foreign culture more, forgetting their own roots. Globalization destroys cultural identity, for example Europeans usually try to impose their customs and traditions on Asian people .This can give rise to cultural conflicts.

3. Uneven Wealth Distribution.

It is said that the rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. In the real sense, globalization has not been able to reduce poverty. Instead it has led to the accumulation of wealth and power in the hands of a few developed economies. Therefore the gap between the elite and the underprivileged seems to be a never ending road, eventually leading to inequality.

4. Environment Degradation.

The industrial revolution has changed the outlook of the economy. Industries are using natural resources by means of mining, drilling, etc. which puts a burden on the environment. Natural resources are depleting and are on the verge of becoming extinct. Deforestation is practiced owing to the non-availability of land, thereby drastically reducing the forest cover. This in turn creates an imbalance in the environment leading to climate change and occurrence of natural calamities.

5. Disparity.

Though globalization has opened new avenues like wider markets and employment, there still exists a disparity in the development of the economies. Structural unemployment owes to the disparity created. Developed countries are moving their factories to foreign countries where labor is cheaply available. The host country generates less revenues, and a major share of the profits fall into the hands of the foreign company. They make humongous profits thereby creating a huge income gap between the deve-loped and the developing countries.

6. Cut-throat Competition.

Opening the doors of international trade has given birth to intense competition. This has affected the local markets dramatically. In recent times the standard of living has improved. People are therefore ready to shell out extra money for a product that may be available at a lower price. This is because of the modern marketing techniques like advertising and branding. The local players thereby suffer huge losses as they lack the potential to advertise or export their products on a large scale. Therefore the domestic markets shrink.

7. Conflicts.

Every economy wants to be at the top spot and be the leader. The fast-paced economies, that is the developed countries are tending to be the supreme power. It has given rise to terrorism and other forms of violence. Such acts not only cause loss of human life but also huge economic losses.

8. Monopoly.

Monopoly is a situation wherein only one seller has a say in a particular product or products. It is possible that when a product is the leader in its field, the company may begin to exploit the consumers. As there exists no close competitors, the leader takes full advantage of the sale of its product, which may later lead to illegal and unethical practices being followed. Monopoly is disastrous as it widens the gap between the developed and developing countries.

The last but not least is that we don't actually know to what globalization can lead, we don’t realize its consequences. So globalization is likely to be a hot potato for the twenty-first century.

III. After you have read

3.1. Match the parts of the sentences:

1. Globalization can be described as a process 1. to the people in the host country.
2. In years past, people across the globe 2. unaffiliated with the government and can be nationally or globally focused.
3. When a new invention or way of doing 3. by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together.
4. So called non-governmental organizations bring together people 4. but not with the quality of the product.
5. This obviously caters to employment and income generation 5. did not have the ability to communicate and could not interact without difficulty.
6. Today the customers may compromise with the price range 6. something pops up, it does not stay secret for long.
7. Many huge firms are investing in the developing countries 7. one can conveniently deliver the products to a customer located at any part of the world.
8. Information technology has played a vital role 8. and presents new threats and challenges for epidemics.
9. Today with various modes of transportation available, 9. by setting up industrial units outside their home country.
10. Today, international trade has broadened its horizon 10. and power in the hands of a few developed economies.
11. Globalization has given rise to more health risks 11. in bringing the countries closer in terms of communication.
12. Instead it has led to the accumulation of wealth 12. with the help of business process outsourcing.
13. Deforestation is practiced owing to the non-availability of land, 13. are tending to be the supreme power.
14. Developed countries are moving their factories 14. one seller has a say in a particular product or products.
15. This is because of the modern marketing techniques 15. thereby drastically reducing the forest cover.
16. The fast-paced economies, that is the developed countries 16. to foreign countries where labor is cheaply available.
17. Monopoly is a situation wherein only 17. to be a hot potato for the twenty-first century.
18. So globalization is likely 18. like advertising and branding.

 

3.2. Make up questions to the following phrases:

1. as a process by which the people of the world are unified into
a single society and function together;

2. to spread out;

3. deal with issues that do not pay attention to borders;

4. the onset of international trade;

5. cultural conflicts;

6. to be at the top spot and be the leader.

3.3. Point out the positive and negative aspects of the globalization. They are mixed up:

1. The safety regulations and the standards of food preparation are
different in different countries, which may pose a great risk to potential health hazards.

2. They tend to follow the foreign culture more, forgetting their own roots.

3. Today with various modes of transportation available, one can
conveniently deliver the products to a customer located at any part of the
world.

4. It is possible that when a product is the leader in its field, the company may begin to exploit the consumers.

5. Every single information is easily accessible from almost every corner of the world.

6. Also, the migration of people, which has become easier has led to better jobs opportunities.

7. The fast-paced economies, that is the developed countries are
tending to be the supreme power.

8. With numerous educational institutions around the globe, one can move out from the home country for better opportunities elsewhere.

9. Opening the doors of international trade has given birth to intense competition.

10. Today the customers may compromise with the price range but not with the quality of the product.

3.4. Complete the sentences using the Indefinite Gerund:

1. My friend succeeded in … .

2. My colleagues are interested in … .

3. Are you making progress in … .

4. Do your parents praise you for … .

5. Do you always apologize for … .

6. My mother objects to … .

7. I am looking forward to … .

8. I don’t feel like … .

9. She couldn’t help … .

10. We enjoyed … .

3.5. Complete the sentences using the Perfect Gerund:

1. Do you regret … ?

2. My colleagues denied … .

3. Our managers complained to us of … .

4. This person is suspected of … .

5. We congratulated them on … .

6. My mother insisted on … .

7. I couldn’t imagine … .

8. We didn’t object to … .

9. Fortunately, we avoided … .

10. Did you apologize to … .

3.6. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Gerund. State the function of the Gerund:

1. I am still hungry in spite of (eat) four sandwiches.

2. Mary was chosen to fill the vacancy. She was very pleased (choose).

3. I always treat people politely and I insist on (treat) politely.

4. Do you feel like (talk) to your friends every day?

5. Have you given up (smoke) at last?

6. The little girl never gets tired of (ask) her mother questions, but her mother often gets tired of (ask) so many questions.

7. Do you often remember your (travel) abroad?

8. I dislike (be, give) stupid advices.

9. The child is glad of (to forgive) by parents.

10. Do you mind my (ask) you a difficult question?

3.7. Choose the right preposition:

1. Why do you insist ... our returning back home?

a) at; b) in; c) on

2. We had some difficulty ... finding the right candidate for this job.

a) at; b) in; c) on

3. My friend is really good ... driving cars.

a) at; b) in; c) on

4. I am sorry ... keeping you waiting.

a) of; b) for; c) to

5. The hungry boy was accused ... stealing apples.

a) of; b) for; c) to

6. Are you keen ... singing?

a) of; b) on; c) with

7. The poor teacher is fed up ... repeating the same thing over and over again.

a) of; b) on; c) with

8. We won ... finding the shortest way out.

a) in; b) to; c) by

9. What does your mother have ... our going to the club?

a) by; b) against; c) to

10. I feel ... going out. Would you like to join me?

a) like; b) to; c) for

11. This is a device ... making coffee.

a) to; b) for; c) of

12. In spite ... facing problems he kept on smiling.

a) to; b) for; c) of

13. I am sick and tired ... doing this work.

a) of; b) for; c) with

14. What would you say ... making a barbecue?

a) for; b) to; c) of

15. They are not interested ... investing their money into our business.

a) on; b) at; c) in

16. We are looking forward ... hearing from you as soon as possible.

a) -; b) to; c) for

17. What else can you do ... mending cars?

a) to; b) like; c) besides

18. I am thinking ... finding a new job.

a) of; b) on; c) to

IV. Grammar Review

4.1. Find in the text the sentences with the Infinitive, Complex
Subject
and Participle.

4.2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Infinitive or the Gerund form:

1. In spite of (do) homework he plays computer games.

2. They watched him (go) upstairs.

3. I would appreciate your (call) Alfred back.

4. I saw a taxi (stop) near my gate.

5. He is said (be) a good pupil.

6. I object to Lora's (drive) the car.

7. He made us (read) all the papers.

8. Help me (move) the table.

9. She is not capable of (do) any harm.

10. Please excuse me (disturb) you.

4.3. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the Participle:

1. She went to work, (to leave) the child with the nurse.

2. (to lay) down on the soft couch, the child fell asleep at once.

3. (to wait) in the hall, he thought over the problem he was planning
to discuss with the old lady.

4. He left the office (not to say good bye).

5. (to write) in very bad handwriting, the letter was difficult to read.

6. (to discuss) the advantages and disadvantages of this project at the meeting, they returned to the laboratory.

7. (to spend) twenty years abroad, he was happy to come back home.

8. (to be) away from home, he still felt himself part of the family.

9. (not to wish) to discuss the problem, he changed the conversation.

10. (to reject) by the publisher, the story was returned to the author.

V. Speaking

5.1. Read the following quotes of different people about globalization. What is their position towards the globalization (pro, contra,
indifferent, anxious)? What opinion do you agree with?

1. «One day there will be no borders, no boundaries, no flags and no countries and the only passport will be the heart»(Carlos Santana,
a Mexican and American musician who became famous in the late 1960s
and early 1970s with his band, Santana, which pioneered a fusion of rock and Latin American music
).

2. «It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity»(Kofi Annan, the 7th General Secretary of the UNO, 1997 – 2006).

3. «Globalization is a fact of life. But I believe we have underestimated its fragility» (Kofi Annan).

4. «Globalization, as defined by rich people like us, is a very nice thing ... you are talking about the Internet, you are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers. This doesn’t affect two-thirds of the people of the world» (Jimmy Carter, the 39th American President 1977 – 1981).

5. «We are in a struggle against a globalization that has no place for principles, values and standards» (Bill Jordan, Professor of Social Policy at Plymouth University in the South West of England).

6. «We cannot wait for governments to do it all. Globalization operates on Internet time. Governments tend to be slow moving by nature, because they have to build political support for every step» (Kofi Annan).

7. «We must take care that globalization does not become something people become afraid of» (Gerhard Schroeder, a German politician,
ex-Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, member of the Social
Democratic Party of Germany
).

8. «With globalization and the rate we’re going at, it could happen as soon as three to five years. I don’t think it's ready for prime time. A lot of things have to be cleared up before that happens» (Ray Neid, Airline
Analyst
).

9. «Globalization is seen as another word for Americanization. All the big multinational brands in Paris are American» (Christopher Mesnooh, specialist in media & entertainment and technology & telecommunications industries, particularly in the internet, new media, software and
e-commerce
).

10. «The globalization in its American version is dangerous and absurd. 40 % of total income belongs only to 1000 families. The Mass-Media are also controlled by the certain group of people which supervises the political situation in the world. Slowly the process of taking away the freedom of the human being is taking place. Soon the whole mankind will be involved into the total control system» (Alexey Osipov, Professor of the Moscow Spiritual Seminary and Academy).

 

5.2*. Read and dramatize the extract from the Interview given by Jerry Mander to the reporter Scott London of HopeDance magazine and formulate the main matters were discussed. What other questions could you ask?

Reference:

Jerry Mander, an American activist and author, is regarded as one of today's most articulate and outspoken critics of technology and economic globalization. His books include Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television, In the Absence of the Sacred, and The Case Against the Global Economy (co-edited with Edward Goldsmith). In this interview, Mander makes a forceful case against economic globalization, arguing that we need to examine the hidden costs of free trade and deregulation and search for more enlightened economic models to guide us into the twenty-first century.

The Perils of Globalization:

An Interview with Jerry Mander

Scott London: The case, as it's usually presented, is that the globalized economy is a good thing that will secure jobs, allow us to remain competitive, and promote democracy abroad. Isn't there some truth to that?

Jerry Mander: The people who are making that case are the people who are promoting globalization – corporations and banks and governments. They are saying that globalization can solve the world's problems, that it's going to give people something to eat and so on. They are rede-signing an economy that they say works. But it doesn’t work. We’ve had globalization for quite a while, it’s just being accelerated right now. Whe-rever the rules of free trade and economic globalization are followed, you have economic and ecological disasters immediately thereafter.

London: Some people feel that now that communism has collapsed, free-market capitalism may be next. After all, the economy can't continue to grow forever – at some point, an exponential curve has to either level off or crash.

Mander: I think that if I say «Yes, we have to rethink capitalism», then it gets reduced to, «Oh, he's anti-capitalist». The global economy is not capitalism. I have a master's degree in economics, and I know this is not capitalism. What we have now is a centrally controlled economy. The only capitalism that takes place is among the people who have no part in the real benefits of the system – you know, the people at the lower rungs have some capitalism going with small stores and so on. But, basically, the great part of the system doesn't function in a capitalist manner. It's not a socialist manner either. It's some kind of hodge-podge of connections that have been put together for greasing the skids of advanced development and growth and corporate benefit.

Free trade? Free market? We don’t have either of those either. We have some kind of combination. What we have is a corporate take-over of the rules and a lot of corporate authority.

London: Corporatism?

Mander: Yes, a corporate economy – an economy that is good for corporations. It’s not capitalism exactly, and it’s not socialism exactly, and it’s not anarchy either. It's a different of system of organization in which corporations exercise the control and reap the benefits.

London: You’ve written that one of the insidious effects of the global economy is the creation of monocultures defined by satellite television and global marketing. What’s wrong with kids in Nepal wearing Reebok shoes and wearing Madonna T-shirts if we here in the States are eating sushi and listening to Brazilian pop music?

Mander: There is nothing really wrong with any of it. That’s not the point. I don’t think that any human being is wrong for wanting something, or even using something. Why shouldn't a kid wear Nikes? What we have to take a look at is the multiplicity of rearrangements and new rules that creates kids in Nepal dying to get hold of Air Jordan sneakers, and what that expresses in terms of homogenized viewpoints and the loss of cultural diversity and so on. Are we gaining more or losing more? That’s what people really need to focus on, and that's what we need to decide.

London: How do we respond to the forces of globalization?

Mander: Well, if the car is about to go off the cliff, the first thing you do is stop the car. We’re about to go off the cliff and we've got to stop the car. That's number one. Then we have to find a road map – where to go next. A lot of people are already looking for this road map.

The question that is most interesting to me, and the only that seems to make sense is: if globalization doesn’t work, what about localization?
I think relocalization is absolutely inevitable. It’s going to happen one way or another because the global economy will break down, even if we don’t organize a mass movement about it. It simply doesn't work. It can’t sustain itself. It's going to fall apart and disintegrate – I hope sooner rather than later – so a certain degree of relocalization is going to take place automatically. I’m a little worried that it might also entail the growth of fascism here and there, as local powers gain real control. But I don't think that’s an argument against relocalization, just against the wrong kind of localization.

What’s necessary is that real power and real economic control be reduced very far down so that people have real control of their lives, and so that the technologies and forms of organization that they use don't assist the process of globalization.

London: And what about advertising, which has a great deal to do with the global economy? You used to be an advertising executive but made
a conscious decision to get out back in the 1960s. Why?

Mander: I began to feel that doing advertising and promoting greater consumption and greater use of resources and more cars (we had a car count at the time) was the problem, not the solution. I was also beginning to relate to the world according to the kinds of movements that were developing at the time. We began to do advertising for the Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth, and some other groups in those days. The ecology movement was growing up and I started to take it seriously. Then I formed the country’s first non-profit advertising company, which was called Public Interest Communications, which no longer exists. But now I work for the Public Media Center, which started up on its own a few years after that. My relationship to this subject is really rooted in what began at that time, because I now see that the consumption orientation is a major part of the problem, and that it’s now being expressed globally to such a degree that it’s become an advertising man’s greatest fantasy.

5.3*. Questions to discuss:

1. Do you agree with advantages and disadvantages of globalization? Try to explain each statement given in the text.

2. What are another pros and cons of the globalization?

3. Do you like the idea of the globalization? Give your arguments.

4. Do you believe in the positive effects of the globalization? Give your reasons.

5. Do you notice some visible steps of globalization nowadays?

6. Do you agree with an idea that globalization is a smart trick of the USA to influence the political, economic and cultural processes over the world?





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