Steve tells about judicial profession in England

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Steve tells about judicial profession in England

«... Well, you've told us many interesting things about English law and courts, but you didn't tell anything about lawyers» — Nell said. «Oh, I like your being so inquis­itive and I'm glad I can give you all the necessary information», Steve answered. Then he said that there were two classes of lawyers — Barristers and Solicitors. And when Pete asked him what the difference was between them Steve explained that solicitors were law­yers who took legal business for ordinary people. «You know, that I'm the solicitor myself. So as a rule my business is to give advice to non-professional clients and to prepare all the necessary documents for the barrister. It's the barrister who conducts the case in the higher courts». Nell asked if barrister had some educational standard. «Yes», Steve answered. A barrister must pass the special legal exams and become a member of a legal corporation called «Inn of Court». Pete said that he had learnt about four Inns of Court when he had been in London. «But probably you don't know that barristers are either «juniors» or «King's (Queen's)» Steve said. When a barrister becomes O.C. he «takes silk». It means that he can wear a silk gown. Participating in a trial, a barrister may be counsel for the plaintiff (counsel for the prosecu­tion) or counsel for the defendant (counsel for the defence)». «I've heard so much about English jury. What are their duties?» Nell asked. «All serious crimes are tried in a superior court before a jury. Most men and women between the ages of 21 and 60 can be jurors. According to English law the jury is to return only one of two verdicts — Guilty or Not Guilty». Then Pete asked whether they elected judges in England. «No, the judges are appointed from the barristers. The judge's functions are to conduct the proceedings, put questions to the parties and witness­es, examine the documents and evidence and to pass the sentence (judgement)».

«Well, and now I think it's my turn to ask questions», Steve added. But Pete and Nell said that they would gladly answer all the questions of their guests, but next day, because it was too late.

15.3.4.В тексте есть 8 случаев употребления согласо­вания времен. Найдите их.

15.3.5. Прочитайте следующую шутку и скажите, уда­лось ли автору избежать ошибок в согласо­вании времен.

Presence of mind

A fire broke out in the middle of the night in a country house where a number of guests had been staying. Now they were all standing outside wrapped up in shawls, sheets and blankets. One of the guests was the last to join the crowd. He said he is not at all excited and didn't loose his usual presence of mind in spite of danger. He drew everybody's attention to the fact that he had not only put on his shirt and tie but even found time to fetch his pipe and his tobacco-pouch. The other guests were full of admiration and praised his self-possession. Only one of them wondered why together with shirt and tie he didn't put on his trousers.

15.3.6. Преподаватель приводит некоторые факты в отношении студентов вашей группы. Но вы не удивлены, вы все это знали. (Не забудьте о согласовании времен.)

Model: I. Bill Has passed his exam.

S. I' knew Bill had passed his exam.

1. Helen likes to give advice.

2. Steve is a good solicitor.

3. Bob examined the scene of the crime very carefully.

4. John was glad to meet his girl-friend.

5. Tommy worked at his English very hard yesterday.

6. Irene will get married next Friday.

7. Vie will get a nice present tomorrow.

8. Henry lost all his money.

15.3.7. Скажите по-английски:

. 1. Он был очень рад, что вы пришли. 2. Поверенный знал, что у истца нет необходимых документов. 3. Ответчик был уверен, что он прав. 4. Мистер Блэк знал, что его назначат судьей. 5. Она сказала, что уедет завтра. Затем она добавила, что ей здесь очень понравилось. 6. Я был уверен, что ответчик виновен.

15.3.8. У вашего преподавателя что-то случилось с голосом и он не может громко говорить. Помогите ему, повторяя его распоряжения. (Используйте косвенные приказания.)

Model: Т. Peter, go to the door.

S. He told Peter to go to the door.

15.3.9. Теперь у вас что-то случилось со слухом. Вам не удается расслышать, что преподаватель спрашивает. Попросите друга помочь вам.

Model: Т. Do you like this book?

S1. What did he ask?

S2. He asked if you liked this book?

S1. Oh, yes, I do.

1. Did you go to the cinema yesterday? 2. Have you read this book? 3. Are you a good sportsman? 4. Can you speak Italian? 5. Did you see Helen yesterday? 6. Have you finished your work? 7. Are you listening to me? 8. Were you abroad last year?

15.3.10. Стив пришел к вам в группу побеседовать с вами. Но он не совсем хорошо понимает ваши вопросы и поэтому кто-нибудь из вас должен помочь ему.

Model: S1. Where do you work? STEVE: What did he ask?

S2 He asked where you worked.

*15.3.11. Прочитайте следующие шутки и затем попы­тайтесь пересказать их вашим друзьям. Избегайте употреблять прямую речь.

1. A young man introduced his friend, a well-known comedian, to his aunt, an old lady. Trying to be witty he said, «This is a friend of mine, the famous K. and he is not such a fool as he looks». «Indeed, madam», said the comedian, «and that is the great difference between me and your nephew».

2. Once a young man applied for a job to the manager of a circus. The following dialogue took place between the two.

«What is your name and what can you do?»

«I'm John Brown, the egg-king, for I can eat six dozen eggs at a single sitting».

«Do you know that we give four shows every day?»

«Well, four shows will fetch more money than one!»

«Do you think you can perform four times a day?»

«I have no doubt whatever about it».

«But on holidays we shall try to manage a show every hour!»

«In that case one thing must be settled before I sign a contract».


«No matter how many shows you give a day, I must have time to go out and have my dinner».

* 15.3.12. Скажите по-английски:

1. Джим сказал, что не любит бокс. 2. Том спросил, где я купил учебник. 3. Мистер Браун спросил, готов ли обед. 4. Мы не понимали, почему он рассердился на нас. 5. Они не знали, какую музыку предпочитает Роджер. 6. Я не знал, пригласила ли моя жена мистера Моргана. 7. Мы спросили детей, обедали ли они. 8. Мы хотели узнать, в каком часу прибывает поезд. 9. Джейн сказала, что живет теперь в общежитии. 10. Роберт спросил, дома ли Генри.

* 15.3.13. В Великобритании есть два класса юристов: адвокаты и поверенные. Нелли не совсем понимает разницу между ними. Объясните ей эту разницу, пожалуйста.


1...................... 1. .....................

2...................... 2......................

* 15.3.14. Попытайтесь разгадать это шифрованное послание агента его боссу.

15.3.15. В следующих предложениях не хватает не­которых слов. Автор собрал все недостающие слова, но не знает, куда поместить их. По­могите ему сделать это.

1. I am so ... I have ... ...!

2. I've got all the ... things here.

3. All the ... have come already.

4. He was ... the ... for the defence.

5. The ... has won the case.

counsel, appointed, necessary, passed an exam, glad, jurors, plaintiff.

15.3.16. Прочитайте историю об адвокате м-ре Смите. Автор сделал в ней 3 ошибки. Найдите их.

Mr Smith is going to take silk. For this he has to pass special legal exams. Then he'll be able to give advice to non-professional clients and not to take part in the court trials as the counsel for the prosecution but only as the counsel for defence.

15.3.17. Предположим, что вы — один из присяжных. Расскажите нам о ваших обязанностях.

15.3.18. Предположим, что вас выбрали судьей ан­глийского суда. Каковы будут ваши обязан­ности?

15.3.19. Знаете ли вы, как называют лиц, которые выполняют следующие действия?

1. conduct a trial and pass the sentence;

2. have a first-hand knowledge of the event and give evidence under oath;

3. bring suits against other persons;

4. in cooperation with other persons are to decide the truth of the case tried before the judge;

5. act for the state in prosecuting criminals;

6. are appointed to try small offences in Britain;

7. break laws;

8. are suspected of committing crimes and brought before the court.

Practice in communication


*15.4.1. Read and try to remember.

Certainty Uncertainty

1. I'm quite/absolutely 1. I'm not sure.

certain/sure it is. 2. I'm not quite/at all sure.

2. No, certainly not. 3. I'm not certain.

3. Yes, certainly. 4. Could be/Might be.

4. There's no doubt. 5. I couldn't say.

about it.

15.4.2. Respond with certainly or uncertainly to the following questions:

1. Are boys cleverer than girls?

2. Is Chinese more widely spoken than English?

3. Are you generous?

4. Would you like to visit the Moon one day?

5. Do you like our lessons?

15.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

DETECTIVE: Where were you last night at exactly 9.20 pm?

BOB: 9.20 pm? I couldn't say. I can't remember.

DETECTIVE: Are you sure you can't remember?

BOB: Absolutely certain. (Quite sure.)

DETECTIVE: Were you in or out? Can you remember that?

BOB: I'm not sure. I think I went out at about half past nine. But I'm not certain.

DETECTIVE: Did you see anyone coming into the block of flats?

BOB: No, I didn't.


BOB: Quite sure. There's no doubt about it.

15.4.4. A friend is asking you about your holidays. He/she wants to know what you did, where you went and so on. Some of the questions you can answer with certainty. Others you can't because you've forgotten.

General understanding

15.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 15)

1. Coke's mind went back to the time, five years earlier, when both he and Masters had been officers in the same Army Intelligence unit. Masters had been Coke's superior. Several important military secrets had disappeared and they were both trying to find out who had taken them.

One evening Coke had gone, on Masters' orders, to a lonely place in Epping Forest. Masters had told him he would meet a possible informer there. While he was waiting, three men had grabbed him from behind. They had poured whisky all over him and down his throat and then hit him over the head.

2. When he came to he was back in his car, but it had crashed into a tree. The police had already arrived. It appeared that Coke had got drunk and lost control of his car. The police had found several files marked «Top Secret» in his car. Coke swore he had never seen them before. The police also found Coke had deposited more than 2,000 in his bank account a few weeks before. Coke had known nothing of the money. The bank said the cheques had arrived by post with Coke's countersigna-ture. Nobody believed Coke's story. It appeared he had sold secrets for money and was going to do so again the night he had crashed. Masters denied he had ever told Coke to go to Epping Forest. This is what Coke wanted to ask questions about now.

3. «Let's start at the beginning... when you sent me to Epping Forest that night», Coke said in a flat, cold voice.

«That was Hugo's idea. I had nothing to do with it».

«And who is Hugo?» Coke demanded.

«He sells government secrets to any foreign country that's interested. He made me give him information. I didn't want to».

«Why did you involve me in all this?»

«The police suspected someone. We wanted to make them think you were the spy. We knew they would if they found your dead body in a car after a crash with all sorts of secrets in it».

«My dead body?»

«Hugo thought the crash would kill you». Masters said.

«And why aren't you still in the army? You'd be a lot more useful to Hugo if you were», Coke went on.

«It became too dangerous. Anyway, he still uses me».

«How?» Coke asked.

«We hide microfilms of secret documents in the antique weapons I send abroad. The people we send them to pose as foreign collectors». Coke had one last question. It was the most important. «Where's Hugo now? Take me to him!»

15.5.2.Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Masters had sent Coke to Epping Forest because...

a) he wanted him to meet the informer;

b) he wanted him to be killed;

c) he wanted him to receive some secret documents.

2. Nobody believed Coke because...

a) he was drunk;

b) the files had been found in his car;

c) he had sold secrets for money. 3. Hugo planned to kill Coke because...

a) he wanted the police think he was a spy;

b) he knew too many secrets;

c) police suspected him.

15.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What were Coke and Masters trying to do five years earlier?

2. What happened when Coke was waiting in Epping Forest?

3. What did the police find in the car and in the bank?

4. What did Coke find out about Hugo?

5. What did the criminals want police to think?

6. How did Hugo use Masters?

15.5.4. Try to tell the main events of this extract in 3-4 sentences.

Scanning practice

15.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. What did a Spaniard do?

2. Where did the Indian apply?

3. What kind of a man was the judge of the court?

4. What did the Indian invent?

5. What did the Indian tell the judge?

15.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Bribery stopped

It happened in America not long after its coloniza­tion by the Spaniards. A Spaniard stole an Indian's horse. The Indian however found the thief and demand­ed the horse to be returned to him, but the Spaniard refused to do it. The Indian applied to the court and brought witnesses who could testify that it was his horse. But the judge of the court was a bad man and used to take bribes from the parties who came to the court. The Indian knew this, and he invented a trick how to deceive the judge. Before going to the court on the day of the trial, he took a big stone and put it under his arm. The judge at once noticed that the Indian had something under his arm and decided the case in the Indian's favour. He ordered the horse to be returned to the Indian and punished the Spaniard for theft. After the trial, when the judge and the Indian were left alone, the judge asked the former what it was under his arm and whom it was meant for. The Indian showed him the stone and told it was meant for the judge in case he would had decided in the Spaniard's favour. It was a good lesson for the bad judge, and he gave up the habit of taking bribes.

(227 words)

15.6.3.Answer the questions in 15.6.1. (Books closed.)

Listening practice

15.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after reading the text.

1. What does he usually have with his meals?

2. What does he usually have on Mondays?

3. What perfume is Miss Smith wearing?

4. Does she always wear it?

5. What question was he going to ask her?

15.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

15.7.3. Answer the questions in 15.7.1.

15.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

endangered — находящийся в опасности

owl — сова

environment — окружающая среда

threaten — угрожать

assassinate — убивать

logging — валка деревьев

bully — запугивать

destruction — уничтожение

solitary confinement — одиночное заключение

torture — пытка

courageous — мужественный

15.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

15.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

Time for fun

15.8.1. Read the following jokes and then try to retell them in English.


«Come in, my poor man», said a lady to a ragged tramp, «and I will get you something to eat»;

«Thank you, ma'am».

«I suppose», continued the lady, setting a meal before him, «your life has been full of trials».

«Yes, ma'am; and the worst of it I was always got convicted».

trial — испытание, судебный процесс

convict — осудить


A coroner was examining a witness at the inquest.

«Your son says you saw the man jump out of the building?»

«Yes, sir».

«From your knowledge of men, do you think he jumped out of despondency?»

«No, sir; it was out of the fourth storey window».

coroner — следователь

inquest — следствие, расследование

despondency — крайнее отчаяние

!!! * 15.8.2. And now try to solve this crossword.


1. A book in which you find the meaning of words. 7. Not cooked. 8. Every one. 10. Frequently. 12. The main notion of any religion. 14. Tidy. 17. Rest of comfort. 19. Act. 21. Personal pronoun (third person singular). 22. A meal or a drink. 23. Therefore. 24. Heap. 25. You must open these to enter houses. 28. Thirteen down without the «s». 29. Water falling from the clouds. 31. Preposition. 32. Attempt. 33. You can see five of these on your foot.


1. Pull. 2. Cold (comparative degree). 3. Not on. 4. Plural of «is». 5. Past tense of «run». 6. The twenty fifth and twenty-third letters of the alphabet. 9. Lonely (comparative). 11. Accusative of «they». 13. You do this with your eyes. 15. Not before. 16. Singular of 33 across. 18. Long (opposite). 20. Wireless. 23. Same as 23 across. 24. A tame animal. 26. Half of two. 27. A male child. 30. Preposition.


Фонетика: sounds [¶], [S], [s]

Словообразование: сложные прилагательные типа nation-wide

Грамматика: бессоюзные придаточные предложе­ния; атрибутивные группы

Текст: «Steve asks questions»

Sound right

16.1.1. Listen, look, say:

cheek future watch reached

chamber culture fetch lunched

child nature lunch fetched

choice orchard catch watch chain

chill lecture ditch Dutch cheese

chubby mixture much catch Charles

16.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Which is which?

2. Don't catch a chill.

3. Such carpenters, such chips.

4. Not much of a catch.

5. Here are two pictures which are a match.

6. Charlie doesn't know chalk from cheese.

7. Venture a small fish to catch a great one.

8. Chattie's wisdom matches her charms.

9. Hatches, catches, matches and dispatches.

10. The years teach much which the days never know.

16.1.3. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [S] as in shop, [s] as in seem, [¶] as in chop.


A. The Chairman shouted at Miss Chase.

В. Shouted at Miss Chase! Oh, a Chairman shouldn't shout, should he?

A. No, he shouldn't.

B. Not even at Miss Chase.


A. Will you watch Sheila for me while I finish shopping? I must fetch some fish and some cheese and — oh, yes —1 must ask the butcher for some nice chops. Watch her, won't you?

B. She seems to need a wash. Shall I wash her?

A. I wish you would.

B. If I can catch her! Sheila! Come for a nice wash, Sheila! Sheila! Oh! Ouch! She scratched me!

A. Sheila! I'm ashamed of you, Sheila!

B. Oh, it's only a small scratch.

A. Are you sure?

B. Fortunately, she's only a small cheetah.


(Compound adjectives)

16.2.1.Translate the following compound adjectives:

a paper-white face, a sky-blue car, apple-red cheeks, steel-grey eyes, life-long history, rust­proof metal, silk-soft hair, knee-high boots.

16.2.2. Make compound adjectives according to the following word combinations. Translate them: hair that is as brown as honey; water as cold as stone; man as deaf as stone; a vest that is proof against bullets; wood as hard as iron; a confe rence that continues through a week (long); a son who is one year old.

16.2.3. Translate the following sentences:

1. The sun was blood-red behind the thin trees some distance off. 2. The scooter was secured by a thief-proof device. 3. His face whisky-red, was handsome. 4. Her eyes were soft, cat-green. 5. Crime in Detroit had arisen alarmingly in recent years and now even suburban Birmingham — once considered crime-free — had armed robberies.

Full understanding

16.3.1.Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

nationality, administrative [{d'mInIstr@tIv], minister, social, cultural, plan, protection, moment, instance, Procurator-General, ministry, agency.

16.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запоминайте:

New words:

to do one's best — делать все возможное

to join — присоединяться

body — (зд.) орган

chamber ['SteImb@] — палата

term — срок

executive [Ig'zekjutIv] — исполнительный

development — развитие

to draft [dr¸ft] — проектировать

will you be so kind — не будете ли вы так добры ...?

to administer justice — отправлять право­судие

supervision ['sjüp@vIZ@n] — надзор

to supervise ['sjüp@vaIz] — осуществлять

надзор to pay attention — обращать внимание

to forget — забывать

School vocabulary:

certainly, to help, soon, year, young, to enjoy, low.

* 16.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Steve asks questions

«Do you remember about your yesterday's promise to answer my questions?» asked Steve next evening. «Cer­tainly, we do. And we'll try to do our best», was Pete's answer. «Nell will join us soon». «So I'd like to learn something about the highest body of state authority of this country». «Oh, I'm sure I can help you in this. You see, the President of the Russian Federation is the head of the state. The Parliament of the Russian Federation is the representative and legislative organ of the state consisting of two chambers: the Federation Council and the State Duma. Both of them are elected for a term of 4 years». «And what about the executive body?» «Well, the highest executive and administrative body of state authority of Russia is the Government of Russia». «I wonder, if it has real powers?» «Surely, it has. The powers the Government has are rather numerous. Let me mention some of them: direction of economic, social and cultural development, drafting current and longterm state plans for the economic and social development of the country, public order maintenance, citizens' rights and freedoms protection and so on».

At this moment Nell's appeared. «Hello! I'm sorry I'm late. But really it's not my fault». «That is the thing the girls of all countries say when they are late», Steve said, smiling. «Oh, I'm sure Pete's managed to answer all your questions». «Yes, he did. But I've got some for you as well. Will you be so kind to tell me how justice is administered in Russia?» «By the courts of different instances, of course. The Supreme Court is the highest and district (city) people's courts are the lowest in the judicial system». «I've heard there's a special body for supervision of the observance of the law in your country. Is it really so?» «Yes, it is. The Procurator-General the Federation Council of Russia appoints for a term of 5 years is to supervise over the strict observance of laws by all ministers as well as by officials and citizens of Russia. The agencies of the Procurator's office perform their functions independently of any local bodies». «Well, thank you very much, my young friends, for the great attention you paid on me. I really enjoyed my stay in your beautiful city. And I hope we'll keep in touch». «So do we. Have a good journey and don't forget to write to us. Good-bye!»

16.3.4. Найдите в тексте все бессоюзные определи­тельные придаточные предложения и пере­ведите их.

16.3.5. Автор подготовил несколько бессоюзных пред­ложений, но перепутал их части. Помогите ему, пожалуйста.

1. The man a) we read yesterday * is very important

2. The article b) the commission ** refused to act

3. The decision c) you see here *** is my uncle

4. Discussing d) you spoke about **** describes the

the plan judicial system

of Russia

5. The executi- e) he came to ***** was stolen

ve committee by the defendant

6. Almost eve- f) they applied to ****** we found

rything many drawbacks

in it

16.3.6. Перед вами еще одно письмо агента боссу. Как обычно, оно засекречено. На этот раз в нем нет никаких предлогов и заглавных букв. Попы­тайтесь прочитать и перевести его.

dear sir the plan you have sent to me can not be fulfilled everything i see around doesn't correspond to what i learnt at home the people i meet are not like you told me about the scheme your specialists drafted is of no good the person i had to apply to appeared to be a nice girl i fell in love with the flat she lives in is very nice and soon we'll get married i'm sorry not to fulfil your task hope not to see you again yours j.

16.3.7. Какая группа сможет составить больше бес­союзных придаточных определительных пред­ложений за 5 мин?

16.3.8. Внимание! Особо трудное предложение! По­старайтесь перевести его.

Labour we delight in physics pain.

16.3.9. Прочитайте и переведите, обращая внимание на бессоюзные придаточные предложения.

The Monster

In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along the streets of Boston when he noticed in a shop window a machine he had never seen before. He entered the shop, asked the shop-assistant how the «monster» functioned and bought it for 125 dollars. He brought home the machine he had nicknamed «the monster» and started practising on it at once. The machine was a typewriter and Mark Twain typed a whole book on it. When he brought his «manu­script» to the editor, the latter was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise him to bring everything he would write later on typed on this wonderful machine. «Tom Sawyer» was the first book Mark Twain had typewritten.

Over again

Three old friends used to have their Sunday dinner together. Just after one of these dinners one of them fell asleep. When he woke up his friends rebuked him for the lack of politeness he had shown. The man tried to prove that he hadn't been sleeping. «Will you believe me», he said at last, «if I retell the story you have been telling?» «Try it», said his friends, «but if you miss a single word, we shall fine you». The man started the story and told it word for word without missing a single detail. Now his friends had to admit their mistake. «Well», said the man laughing. «Now I can confess the crime I had committed, for I was asleep and didn't hear a word you said. I simply knew by heart the story you were sure to tell after such a heavy dinner with plenty of good wine».

* 16.3.10. Скажите по-английски. (Не употребляйте союзов.)

1. Человек, на которого вы обратили внимание, известный адвокат. 2. Министр, о котором говорил генеральный прокурор, находится сейчас здесь. 3. Ребенок, которому вы уделяли так много внимания, сейчас совсем забыл вас. 4. Не моя вина, что вы пришли так поздно. 5. Вы уверены, что решение, которое вы приняли, наилучшее? 6. Местные власти, к которым мы обратились, не смогли помочь вам. 7. Новый исполни­тельный орган, в который вы должны обра­титься, наверняка поможет вам. 8. Пра­восудие, которое осуществляют судебные органы, строгое, но справедливое. 9. Это книга, от чтения которой я получил настоящее наслаждение (enjoyed). 10. Путешествие, которое он совершил, действительно необыч­ное.

16.3.11. Петр говорит, что он без всякого труда может перевести любую именную группу. А вы можете?

the Russia's policy objectives; the well-thought-out nationalities policy; US army race support­ers; our country's number one trade partner; Railway station waiting-room murder inquiry.

16.3.12. Попытайтесь вставить недостающие слова. От них остались лишь первые буквы. Ис­пользуйте новые слова к данному уроку.

1 The justice is a. the courts of different i...

2. Both of c... are equal in r....

3. The Government is the highest e... and administrative b... of state a... of Russia.

4. Among the powers of the Government there are d... of state plans, public order m..., citizen's rights and freedoms p...

5. Procurator's office is a special body for a... of the o... of law.

16.3.13. Петр старался объяснить Нелли значение некоторых слов по-английски и ему это уда­лось: она все поняла. Можете ли вы догадаться, какие слова имел в виду Петр, когда давал следующие объяснения?

1. group of persons who do smth. together or who are united in some way;

2. power or right to give orders and make others obey;

3. set of rooms in a large building to use as offices;

4. having authority to carry out decisions, laws, decrees, etc.;

5. to outline smth. to be done;

6. the law and its administration;

7. to watch and direct (work, organization);

8. to get pleasure from; to have as an advantage or benefit;

9. settlement of a question;

10. fixed or limited period of time.

16.3.14. Когда Стив вернулся домой, он попытался рассказать своим коллегам о государственном устройстве России. Ему это удалось, но он все же сделал несколько ошибок. Найдите эти ошибки в его рассказе!

The highest body of state authority of Russia is the Parliament of Russia. It consists of two chambers which are equal and elected for a term of 6 years. The highest executive body of state authority is the Parliament of Russia. The justice is administered by the courts of different instances. The Procurator's office is the highest court and the district people's courts are the lowest ones. The agencies of the Procurator's office perform their functions independently of any local bodies.

16.3.15. Скажите по-английски:

1. Я сделаю все, что могу, чтобы помочь тебе забыть этот случай. 2. Присоединяйтесь к нам и мы составим план на каникулы. 3. Не будете ли вы так добры сказать, как пройти в министерство? 4. Суд низшей инстанции пользуется правом разбирать большинство дел. 5. Генеральный прокурор назначается на срок 5 лет. 6. Вы должны обратить внимание на развитие культурной программы. 7. Защита прав и свобод граждан — одна из важных функций правительства. 8. Прокуратура осуществляет надзор над всеми судебными органами. 9. Строгое соблюдение законов является необходимым условием деятельности судов всех инстанций.

* 16.3.16. Предположим, что вы — Стив. Вы задаете вопросы о государственном устройстве Рос­сии. Ваши партнеры — Петр и Нелли.

* 16.3.17. Предположим, что вам нужно сделать доклад на конференции о государственном устрой­стве России. Подготовьте план. Вы можете им пользоваться во время доклада.

Practice in communication

(Contradiction / Denial)

* 16.4.1. Read and try to remember:

A. You said (that) you liked tennis.

B. 1. I never said that/anything of the sort.

2. That's not right.

3. I'm sorry, but I don't think I did (polite).

4. With respect, that's not what I said (formal).

5. I deny having said that.

6. I don't remember saying that.

7. Did I really say that?

16.4.2. Someone tells you that you said:

1. a woman's place was in the home;

2. girls were easier to bring up than boys;

3. travelling was dull;

4. English was an easy language to learn;

5. you were going to get married.

16.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

BARRISTER: You told the Court that you were a friend of the defendant's.

WITNESS: I'm sorry, that's not exactly what I said.

BARRISTER: What exactly did you say, then?

WITNESS: I said we'd been neighbours for many years.

BARRISTER: But you said you knew him very well.

WITNESS: With respect, that's not quite right. I said I knew him well by sight.

16.4.4. A friend tells you that you said you would stop doing something. Contradict/deny everything he/she says.

Model: A. But you said you'd stop smoking.

B. ...

General understanding

16.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 16)

1. Masters told Coke that Hugo owned a large garage in the North of London. Cars that had been damaged were taken there to be repaired. It was also where the secret documents Hugo sold were kept before they were micro-filmed and sent abroad.

They got into Masters' white Jaguar and drove there. Coke sat in front with Masters. Kate sat behind. It was almost evening when they got to the garage. It was at the end of the street and was surrounded by shops and small houses. They parked at the end of the street. People were beginning to close their shops and go home. The garage stood open until six. Coke sat and watched the lights go off. When the last one had been turned off and the garage was completely dark, Coke turned to Masters again.

«Now tell me exactly where the documents are kept before they're sent off», he said.

2. At first Masters didn't answer. He had become a little braver again. Coke pressed the pistol into his stomach. «Because of you, I've been kept in prison for four years. Because of you, my life has been ruined. I'll kill you here and now if you don't answer! ». Masters looked at the pistol and went pale. «They're kept in Hugo's office, in an ordinary file in his desk», he answered. «And the microfilms?» Coke demanded. «They're kept there, too». «Do you know if any documents have been sent off recently?» «Some were sent last week. I know. I sent them myself», Masters said. «And will there be any there now, waiting to be sent off?» Again Masters hesitated. Coke pressed the pistol even harder into his stomach. «I don't know. There might be. Hugo told me he was going to give me some soon», he said.

3. Coke gave Kate the pistol. She was still sitting behind Masters. «Keep him here until I get back», he said. «But what are you going to do?» she asked. «Break into the garage if I can. Perhaps I can find proof that Hugo sells these things. If I do, I'll phone the police». «But what if you don't? What if you are seen and caught before you can find anything at all?» Kate asked. But Coke had already started walking towards the dark garage. In the dark winter evening, it looked very much like a prison.

16.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. The garage was...

a) in the middle of the street with no houses around;

b) at the end of the street with many cars around;

c) at the end of the street with shops and small houses around.

2. Masters said that...

a) there were no secret documents in the garage;

b) there might be some secret documents in the garage;

c) all the documents had been sent away.

3. Coke wanted to break into the garage...

a) to find proof that Hugo was a spy;

b) to find Hugo;

с) to find proof that Masters was a spy.

16.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Masters tell about the garage in the North of London?

2. Till what time was Coke waiting?

3. Where were the documents kept?

4. What for did Coke want to break into the garage?

16.5.4. Give a short summary of the text (4-6 sentences).

Scanning practice

16.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. How did the criminals manage to hijack the helicopter?

2. Who were the hijackers?

3. How did the prisoners escape?

16.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

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