Crime Will Be Out Sooner of Later



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Crime Will Be Out Sooner of Later



Once during the civil wars of Rome a slave was murdered in one of the city squares, and nobody knew who committed the crime. The murdered slave's dog guarded the body and didn't allow anybody to touch it. The king, travelling that way, saw the animal watching the body. When he learnt that the dog had been there for three days without food or drink he ordered to bury the body and bring the dog to him.

After some time the review of the king's troops took place, and every soldier had to march past the king. All this time the dog lay quietly by the king's side, but on seeing the murderers of his late master, he flew at them with extraordinary fury barking and tearing their clothes. The king took notice of it. He ordered to make an inquest and the criminals confessed the crime. Later they were tried and sentenced to death.

(160 words)

6.6.3. Answer the questions in 6.6.1. (Books closed.)

Listening practice

6.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. What famous people are there (their profes­sions)?

2. What is the first question of the professor?

3. Has he got any special diplomas?

4. What is he?

6.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

6.7.3. Answer the questions in 6.7.1.

6.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text. give a big hand — поаплодировать

6.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

6.7.6. Tell the contents of the story in Russian as close to the text as possible.

Time for fun

6.8.1. Read and then tell it in Russian.

Believe it or not, but...

...The Port Fairy jail (Australia) was built by a Yorkshireman named Broadbent who celebrated its com­pletion so gaily that he became its first prisoner (1857).

...According to the laws adopted in several states (USA) women can easily divorce their husbands if they prove the men snore too loud at night.

? * 6.8.2. Fill in the six missing words.

UNIT 7

Фонетика: sounds [ou], [ý]

Словообразование: суффиксы прилагательных -ary/-ory; -ous

Грамматика: время Present Perfect Continuous, степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

Текст: «Steve's story»

Sound right

7.7.1. Listen, look, say:

bow bone boat roll window

doe dome dote poll follow

so soul soak old yellow

toe toad toast told cargo

roe road roast cold tomato

low load loaf stroll photo

hoe hoed host shoulder momento

7.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Go slow.

2. Follow your nose.

3. Nobody home.

4. Don't grow cold.

5. No bones broken.

6. It's a cold coal to blow at.

7. I vote we go home.

8. Oh, no, don't go home alone.

9. I don't suppose you know Rose.

10. I won't crow over a foe.

7.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronunciation of the sounds [ou] — [O] — [þ].

I

1. I'm going to the grocer's.

2. Call at the post-office, will you?

1. It closes at four. The shop closes at four too. Can't you go to the post-office? I want a lot of groceries.

2. Oh, all right. I'll go.

1. Get me some stamps, will you?

II

1. I've got to go.

2. Oh, don't go.

1. I've got to.

2. No, you don't have to go.

1. I want to go home.

2. What do you want to go home for?

1. Open the door.

2. It's not locked. Off you go!

1. I'm sorry.

2. Go home if you want to. Go on.

1. I'm sorry.

2. It's all right. I don't mind.

7.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

7.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

7.1.6. Listen, look, say:

sir serve surf reserve world

fir firm first early girl

her heard hurt certain curl

burr bird burst birthday pearl

blur term learn thirteen hurl

7.1.7. Listen, look, say:

1. Certainly, sir.

2. I've overheard the word.

3. I'll turn in early.

4. A worm will turn.

5. What a hurly-burly girl Urse is!

6. I'll see her further first!

7. The work will serve no purpose.

8. My girl has her bursts of work.

9. Why do Gert's dirty work for her?

10. Erna is a proverb and a byword.

7.1.8. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [ý].

I

1. What does Evan do?

2. I'm not certain. But he earns a lot. He has money to burn.

1. And Bernard?

2. Oh, I prefer Bernard, of course, but...

1. What a superb furcoat, by the way.

2. As I say, I prefer Bernard, but...

1. And what beautiful pearls!

II

1. S-s-s. There's a burglar behind the curtain.

2. Are you certain. Bertha?

1. Don't disturb him. He might hurt us or worse he might even murder us.

2. But are you perfectly certain it is burglar?

1. Perfectly. Only a burglar would hide behind a curtain in that way.

2. Oh, Bertha, do you remember Percy Turner?

1. Sh-sh-sh. Gertrude! We're not the girls we were 30 years ago you know.

7.1.9. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

7.1.10. Read the dialogues in pairs.

7.1.11. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between [ö] and [ý].

I

1. Something is burning.

2. Oh, my buns!

1. I love burnt buns.

2. Curse this oven. Curse it!

1. But I prefer burnt buns.

2. It's the worst oven in the world.

1. Wonderful! A perfect bun, perfect!

2. Well, there are thirty of them. Have another.

1. U-m-m. Lovely!

II

1. I work for your brother's company.

2. Come and work for my company. How much money do you earn?

1. Five hundred a month.

2. You're worth another thirty.

1. I worth another hundred. But I mustn't leave your brother.

2. We'll discuss it on Thursday.

1. We have discussed it.

2. Six hundred?

1. Six hundred and thirty.

7.1.12. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intona­tion.

7.1.13. Read the dialogues in pairs.

* 7.1.14. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can.

Robert Rowley rolled

a round roll round.

A round roll Robert

Rowley rolled round.

Where is the round roll

Robert Rowley rolled round?

roll (v.; n.) - катить: ролик

7.2. Word-building: -ary, -ory, -ous

7.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following adjec­tives and word combinations:

military, disciplinary, elementary, evolutionary, reactionary, legendary, traditionary, reformato­ry;

parliamentary democracy; secondary school, pri­mary school, monetary unit, satisfactory progress.

7.2.2. Give Russian equivalents to the following adjec­tives:

analogous, religious, famous, barbarous, danger­ous, numerous, humorous, scandalous, victorious.

7.2.3. Explain the meaning of the following word com­binations in English.

a mountainous country; a courageous boy; contin­uous rain; murderous blow; delicious cake; an anonymous gift.

Full understanding

7.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

procedure [pr@'sÖdZ@], session, throne, sovereign ['s@vrIn], debates, Speaker, Prime Minister, Lead­er of the Opposition, parliamentary.

*7.3.2.Look, listen, say, remember:

New words:

rule (n.) — правило, норма

occasion [@'keIZ(@)n] — случай

right (n.) — право

Queen — королева

to arrive — прибывать

independence — независимость

honour ['On@] — честь

duty — обязанность

dangerous ['deIndZr@s] — опасный

to preside [prI'zaId] — председательствовать

to decide — решать

vote (n. v.) — голос, голосовать

full — полный

particular — (зд.) специальный

School vocabulary:

already, beginning, set (n.), to send, to fol­low, speech, chair, equal, to believe.

*7.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите.

Steve's story

Steve has been telling his story for half an hour already. Would you like to listen to him? That's what he is saying:

«Many forms and rules of parliamentary procedure date back to the beginning of the sixteenth century.

People outside Great Britain believe that if they elect the man to sit in the Parliament he has a seat there. But the House of Commons has seats for only about two thirds of its members. Thus on great occasions when the House is full, members have to sit in the gangways. Only four members of the House of Commons have reserved seats: the Speaker, the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition and the member who is in the Parliament for the longest unbroken period. Ministers sit on the front bench, but have no right to any particular seat there.

The Queen usually opens the new session of Parlia­ment. When she takes her seat on the throne she sends the official of the House of Lords, called Black Rod,1 to call the Commons. When he arrives at the door of the House of Commons they bang it in his face to show their independence. After this they follow Black Rod into the chamber of the House of Lords, where they stand while the Queen reads her speech. During the election of the Speaker, when he is going to his great chair at one end of the House, he struggles and pretends that he doesn't wish to accept the honour. This comes from the days when men were afraid to become the Speaker. It was because the sovereign and the House of Commons often quarrelled and the Speaker's duty of acting as go-between was both difficult and dangerous.

Nowadays the Speaker no longer takes part in debates as other members do. He presides over the debates and decides which member is to speak at any particular moment. Often several wish to speak and they stand up and try «to catch the Speaker's eye», as they call it. The Speaker doesn't take part in the debates, and he doesn't vote at the end of them. But if the Government and the Opposition gain an equal number of votes, then the Speaker has the casting vote.

1. Black Rod — «Черный жезл», герольдмейстер (постоянное должностное лицо в Палате лордов, во время церемоний несет черный жезл, титул существует с 1350 г.)

7.3.4. Можете ли вы догадаться, в каких ситуациях были сказаны следующие фразы? И кто их сказал?

1. I've been waiting for you for two hours already!

2. He's been walking near my house since morn­ing.

3. I'm afraid of this man. He's been watching me for half an hour.

4. I've been looking for him everywhere but still can't find.

5. It's the limit! You've been talking over the phone for 40 minutes!

6. I've been working here for 30 years and I know who's who.

7.3.5. Найдите в следующих диалогах Present Perfect Continuous. Почему автор воспользовался этим временем? Передайте эти шутки вашим друзьям по-русски.

1. — Look here, waiter, I've just found a button in my soup.

— Oh, thank you, sir. I've been looking all over for it.

2. Father: My dear, if you want a good husband, marry Mr Goodheart. He really loves you.

Daughter: How do you know that, Dad?

Father: Because I've been borrowing money of him for six months, and still he keeps coming.

7.3.6. Автор сделал несколько ошибок, используя Present Times. Помогите ему обнаружить их.

1. — Oh, here you are, at last! I wait for you for half an hour. What are you doing?

— I've been shopping. I've bought a new hat. Do you like it? I'm tired. I walk round the shops for nearly four hours.

2. — What have you been looking for?

— My keys.

— As a rule, you are carring them in your coat pocket.

— That's right, but they are not there.

— Oh, here they are. They are lying under your gloves all the time.

*7.3.7. Скажите по-английски:

1. Послушай! Анна поет в соседней комнате. Она поет очень хорошо. Она учится в консерватории уже 3 года. 2. Что вы пишете? — Я пишу письмо своей сестре. Мы часто пишем письма друг другу. Сейчас она работает над своей книгой. Она работает над ней уже несколько месяцев. 3. Что ты сейчас делаешь? — Я готовлюсь к семинару по истории госу­дарства и права. — По-моему, ты готовишься уже давно. — Да, этот семинар очень трудный. Я готовлюсь уже несколько часов. — Но обычно ты быстро готовишься. — Да, а вот к этому семинару я готовлюсь с трех часов.

7.3.8. Ваши друзья говорят о вещах, в которых, как вы думаете, вы разбираетесь лучше. Выскажите им свое мнение.

Model: A. The film... is very interesting.

В. But the film... is more interesting.

C. And the film... is the most interesting.

1. the book is good; 2. jazz-band is famous; 3. our hostel is beautiful: 4. this subject is interesting. 5. this man is tall; 6. our university is old.

7.3.9. Предположим, вы берете интервью у знаменитого актера (писателя, спортсмена). Постарайтесь использовать в своих вопросах степени сравнения.

Model: What was the most important event in your life?, etc.

7.3.10. Машинистка пропустила несколько слов в сле­дующих предложениях. Пожалуйста, воспол­ните пробелы, используя слова в скобках.

1. The House of Commons ... an important bill.

2. Each member ... for the proposal.

3. Everybody demanded ... for this state.

4. It was time...

5. He was elected ... at the meeting.

(independence, to preside, voted, to accept, to send, occasion, to act)

7.3.11. Что-то случилось с этими предложениями: все слова поменялись местами. Поставьте их в правильном порядке.

1. carefully acted very the Prime Minister.

2. member a vote the House of Commons in has each.

3. the young struggles its for independence state.

4. presides the House of Commons the Speaker in.

7.3.12. Хорошо ли вы помните текст этого урока? Можете вы закончить следующие предложения в соответствии с текстом, но не глядя в него?

1. Members of the House of Commons have to sit in the gangways because...

2. When Black Rod arrives to the door of the House of Commons it is banged into his face because...

3. The Speaker struggles when he is going to his great chair because...

4. The Speaker has the casting vote when...

*7.3.13. Вашему другу нужно пересказать текст этого урока, но одному ему не справиться. Ответьте на его вопросы: этим вы ему поможете.

1. Who has reserved seats in the Parliament?

2. Have the ministers right for reserved seats?

3. Who opens the session of the Parliament?

4. Where does the Queen send Black Rod?

5. Do the members of the House of Commons follow Black Rod?

6. Why were the men afraid to become Speak­er?

7. What is the business of the Speaker nowa days?

8. Why do the members stand up and try «to catch the Speaker's eye»?

*7.3.14. Предположим, что вы — а) член британского парламента и выступаете перед группой иностранных студентов, рассказывая им о парламентской процедуре; б) Джон Кинг и пытаетесь вспомнить, что ваш отец говорил вам о парламенте и его работе.

* 7.3.15. Скажите по-английски:

1. Премьер-министр действовал согласно правилам парламентской процедуры. 2. Оп­позиция боролась за право послать своих представителей на эту сессию. 3. Королева прибыла, чтобы произнести тронную речь. 4. Лидер оппозиции и премьер-министр об­суждают этот вопрос с самого утра.

Practice in communication

(Approval and Disapproval)

*7.4.1. Read and try to remember.

Somebody has done or is going to do something you approve or disapprove of. Here are some ways of expressing your feelings:

Approval

1. (That's) a good idea!

2. Wonderful! (Excellent, splendid).

3. Very wise (sensible) of you.

4. Well done!

5. Good for you!

6. I'm all for it!

7. That's it!

Disapproval

1. That's not a (very) good idea.

2. That's silly.

3. I'm all against it.

4. I wouldn't say I like it.

5. Rubbish!

7.4.2. Express your approval on disapproval of the following statement made to you by a close friend.

1. I'm going on a diet.

2. I'm going to learn Japanese.

3. We're going to get engaged.

4. I'm going to telephone the police.

5. I've bought a new car.

6. I've become a student.

7.4.3. Look, listen and then dramatize:

WIFE: I feel terribly bored. I'm going to take a Job.

HUSBAND: Good!

WIFE: Then I can buy my own car.

HUSBAND: Splendid!

WIFE: And pay for my own clothes.

HUSBAND: That's an excellent idea.

7.4.4.A friend of yours telephones to tell you of his/her plans for the summer holidays. You approve of some of the plans but not of others. Begin like this:

A. Hullo! I've decided to go to the seaside in July.

B. ...

General understanding

7.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 7)

1. The deaf old lady did not hear the knock, but Coke did. His heart began to pound wildly. He had to decide what to do, and quickly.

«There's someone at the door», he said loudly, but the old lady did not understand. «There's someone at the door», he said again, this time even more loudly than before. She went out of the room and Coke quickly stepped back into the shadows of the front room.

2. The old lady opened the front door. Coke could see her quite clearly, but nothing else. He listened carefully.

«Hello, Mrs Hartley. I'm from the village police station. The sergeant sent me. I've got something to tell you».

Then Coke saw the policeman very clearly. The old lady and the policeman came through the door into the sitting-room. Coke was behind the door, so the policeman couldn't see him.

«Good evening officer. Can I help you?» Coke said very loudly and clearly. The policeman turned around and looked at Coke. He was very surprised. Then Coke hit him hard as he could in the stomach and he fell to the floor heavily. The old lady screamed. The policeman tried to get up, but fell back weakly. Coke ran out of the room.

3. The phone rang about five minutes later at the local police headquarters. Hall answered it. «What? Coke? Where? When?» Baxter stood up as soon as he heard Coke's name. He quickly put his hat and coat on. Halls listened carefully to the voice on the other end and quickly made a few notes. Then he put the phone down and turned to Baxter. «Well, we know where Coke is now. A policeman almost caught him only five minutes ago».

«What do you mean, he almost caught him? Did he catch him or didn't he?» «No, he got away. He stole the policeman's bike».

7.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. When Coke heard the knock...

a) he calmly went to the door;

b) his heart began to pound wildly;

c) he took out his knife.

2. When Coke saw the policeman...

a) he decided to kill him;

b) he decided to use his knife;

c) he stepped back and waited.

3. When Coke hit the policeman...

a) the old lady screamed;

b) the policeman ran after him;

c) he didn't know what to do.

4. Baxter learnt that...

a) the policeman caught Coke;

b) Coke stole the policeman bike;

c) Coke hit the policeman.

7.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. Where did Coke hide?

2. What did Coke do when the policeman entered the room?

3. What did Halls learn on the phone?

4. What did Coke steal?

7.5.4. Make the plan of this episode in 3 sentences.

Scanning practice

7.6.1.Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. How many members must be present at the session of the House of Commons?

2. When do most of the members of House of Lords appear in the House?

3. When must the members bow to the chair?

7.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

From Monday to Thursday the House of Commons, when in session, meets daily in the early afternoon. Most members of the House of Commons do not attend Parliament all the time it is in session, but at least 50 members must be present. If a member calls for a «Count» and fewer than this number are present, the House is adjourned.

The House of Lords meets on only three days a week, for hours. Not more than 100 peers take part in the regular work of the House. The rest of them appear only on ceremonial occasions.

There is a chair at the top of the House of Commons, in which sits Mr Speaker or his deputy when the House is in session. Every member entering or leaving the House is supposed to bow to the chair — not to the occupant, for the chair may be empty; still they must bow. Some members make quite a ceremony of it.

(161 words)

7.6.3. Answer the questions in 7.6.1. (Books closed.)

Listening practice

7.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. How many countries has Elmar seen?

2. Why does he want a thousand dollars?

3. Whom has Elmar met?

4. How many rolls of films has he used?

7.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

7.7.3. Answer the questions in 7.7.1.

7.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

missing — пропавший

curly — кудрявый, волнистый

7.7.5. Listen to the dialogue.Be ready to give the con­tents of it in Russian.

7.7.6. Tell the contents of the dialogue in Russian as close to the text as possible.

Time for fun

7.8.1. Read and then tell it in Russian. Believe it or not, but...

...when a masked man tried to rob the post office at Darley Abbey, Derbyshire, an official just threw a cup of hot tea in his face and the bandit fled.

...The governor of Indiana signed a law banning riding in a public bus for persons who have had a meal seasoned with garlic. The law breakers may be sentenced to confinement or a fine of 10 dollars.

? *7.8.2. And now try to solve this crossword.

ACROSS: 1. With anger. 6. The pronoun «we» in the objective case. 7. The number 1. 8. Prefix, meaning «against». 9. Antonym of «far». 11. To make use of the eyes. 13. A preposition. You can guess it from the following sentences: «The Mediterranean Sea is... Europe and Africa». «A river flows... its banks». 15. An antonym of «clever, bright». 16. To flow back from land to sea (speaking of the tide). 17. An enthusiastic supporter of a football team, for example. 18. In this (that) way; thus.

DOWN: 1. A sound or signal giving a warning of danger. 2. Destruction; serious damage. 3. The verb «to be» in the Present Indefinite, 3d person singular. 4. The reflexive and emphatic pronoun in the 2d person. 5. Making deaf, especially by a loud noise (the Present Parti­ciple). 10. Clever, showing knowledge or skill. 12. You will form the plural of «toot, goose, tooth» by replacing «oo» by these letters. 14. Napoleon lived on this island in 1814-1815.

UNIT 8

Фонетика: sounds [u:], [u]

Словообразование: суффиксы глагола -fy, -ate, -en

Грамматика: будущее время Simple Future, срав­нительные конструкции as...as; not so...as

Текст: «Elections»

Sound right

8.1.1. Listen, look, say:

too tomb tooth tool due junior

boo booed boot cool view prudent

rue rude route rule hue wounded

who whom hoot fool new whooping

coo cooed coot pull few balloon

sou soon soup spool pew protrude

Lou lose loose stool stew include

8.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Who'll do the rooms?

2. Do as I do.

3. Sue's true blue.

4. Ruth can't say boo to a goose.

5. You are a nuisance, too.

6. Don't you be too soon, Bruce.

7. Lou grew too big for his boots.

8. Prue knew who's who.

9. I see Prudie once in a blue moon. 10. Read the newspaper review through and through.

8.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [u]: [u] as in good, [u:] as in boot.

I

A. Who would he choose?

B. He'd choose you.

A. He wouldn't choose me — I'm much too young. He doesn't think I could do it.

B. Well, if he wouldn't choose you, who would he choose?

A. He'd choose Wood. Wood's very good.

B. Mm-much too good to be true.

II

A. We should be there by two.

B. Yes. It's a full moon. And the route's good.

A. I'll put the things in the boot.

B. The boot's full.

A. What has that fool put in the boot?

B. I wouldn't look if I were you...

A. Or I should say ... who's he put in the boot?

8.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

8.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

8.1.6. Listen, look, say:

good look woman full

could put sugar bull

would foot pudding wool

should book butcher wolf

room push woolen wolves

hood cook cushion pulpit

wood puss bullet pullman

8.1.7. Listen, look, say:

1. It looks good.

2. Put your foot down.

3. Keep a good look out.

4. Fuller took good aim.

5. I wouldn't put it past Foots.

6. Woolner refused to put foot out.

7. It wouldn't look good, would it?

8. Wolf is put to the push.

9. Would you help the woman, if you could?

10. I couldn't help looking, could I?

11. If only Foot should pull through.

12. Pull devil! Pull baker! Bully for you!

8.1.8. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [u]: [u] as in foot, [ö] as in cut.

I

A. I've cut my foot.

B. Let me look. Ummm... Not much of a cut. No blood. Just put a plaster on it. Cover it up.

A. It's the other foot actually.

II

A. Could you come for lunch? B. I wish I could come, but... A. I'm cooking a duck.

B. A duck? Mmmm...

A. I've just made the pudding.

B. Oh! A pudding?

A. With nuts!

B. Nuts? Mmmm... A wonderful lunch! Wonder­ful!

A. It would be lovely if you could come.

B. I'd love to come mother...

A. Good. Come at once.

B. But...

8.1.9. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

8.1.10.Read the dialogue in pairs.

*8.1.11. Try to read the toungue-twister as fast as you can.

A tutor who taught on the flute,

Tried to teach two young footers to toot.

Said the two to the tutor:

«It is harder to toot, or To tutor two tooters to toot?»

8.2. Word-building: -ify, -ate, -en

8.2.1. Paraphrase the following word-combinations us­ing -ify:

make or become more intense; arrange in classes; make simple; make pure; unite (form into one).

8.2.2. Make pairs of antonyms:

complicate purify

pollute horrify

separate simplify

please nullify

establish unify

8.2.3. Give Russian equivalents for the following verbs with suffix -en:

darken, broaden, tighten, sweeten, deepen, strengthen, threaten, sharpen, blacken, redden.

8.2.4. Answer the questions:

1. When. do the days begin to lengthen?

2. What did the fascists threaten to do?

3. What heightens your interest in your studies?

4. What can you do to brighten the classroom?

5. What strengthens the world peace?

Full understanding

8.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

constitution, organ, candidate ['k{ndIdIt], to in­form, deputy ['depjutI], local, periodically, Presi­dent, practice ['pr{ktIs], register ['redZIst@], guar­antee [,g{r(@)n'tÖ], qualification, Democrats ['dem@kr{ts], Republicans, platform, Russia, referen­dum, Federation.

*8.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запоминайте:

New words:

population — население

suffrage ['söfrI³] — избирательное право

citizen — гражданин

mass media — средства массовой информации

majority — большинство

to elect — выбирать

elector — выборщик

to represent — представлять

voter — избиратель

to receive — получать

as well as — так же, как

right (n) — право

to participate — принимать участие

set — набор, список

authority — власть

School vocabulary: both ... and

*8.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Elections

Tomorrow is the great day for Peter Sokolov. For the first time in his life he'll take part in the general elections of this country. According to the constitution of Russia all organs of state power are elected by the entire adult population on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot1. The right to elect and be elected to the bodies of state power and local authorities, and also to take part in the referendum is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russian Federation. Pete will vote for some candidate tomorrow, but he himself can't be elected yet, because he's only 18. Under the law every citizen of this country at the age of 21 can be elected to the Parliament. The candidate whom Pete will vote for was nominated by the university. Pete knows that periodically the deputies will inform their electors about their activity during the meetings with them and also with the help of mass media.

Jane Snow will also take part in the elections of the President next year. But her vote isn't a direct one. In November voters in each state give their votes for candidates. By practice the electors must vote for the candidate who gets majority of votes in their state even if his majority is very small. Before voting in November every citizen must register in accordance with the laws of his state. This gives him the right of participating in «primaries»2. The US constitution guarantees every cit­izen the right to vote but the states with the help of numerous qualifications deprive a lot of people of this right. And those who do vote can only make their choice practically between two sets of candidates — Democrats and Republicans whose political platforms are practically alike.

1. universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot — всеобщее, равное и прямое изби­рательное право при тайном голосовании

2. «primaries» — первичные выборы

8.3.4. Вы собираетесь пригласить вашего друга на вечер. Спросите его, что он будет делать завтра.

8.3.5.Несколько студентов сказали преподавателю, что вы и некоторые ваши друзья собираетесь совершить завтра нечто ужасное. Разубедите его, скажите, что вы не сделаете ничего подоб­ного.

8.3.6. Перед вами диалог между двумя подозревае­мыми. Но вам известны слова только одного из них. Восстановите слова его собеседника.

1. ...

2. Yes, I will. I'll come and bring everything.

1...

2. I think I'll come at 2 as usual.

1. ...

2. I'll leave everything at our usual place.

1. ...

2. No, I won't. Nobody will know about it.

1. ...

2. No, I won't. I'll wait for your telephone call.

*8.3.7. Скажите по-английски:

1. В следующем году я приму участие в выбо­рах. 2. Через 5 лет мы станем юристами. 3. Не приходи ко мне в 6. Меня не будет дома в это время. 4. Президент не будет выступать перед избирателями завтра. 5. Кто будет представлять кандидата на собрании? 6. Большинство граж­дан будет голосовать за этого кандидата. 7. Вы будете выдвигать своего кандидата на выборах? — Нет, не будем. 8. Когда ты будешь встреча­ться с избирателями?

8.3.8. Предположим, что вы — следователь. В вашем распоряжении несколько предложений, собран­ных попарно. Если вы соедините каждую пару в одно предложение, вы получите очень важную информацию.

1. You will knock at the door three times. Miss Black will open the door.

2. You will come in time. You will receive some very important information.

3. You will get into the house. You will find the sealed letter.

4. You won't phone him. There will be a crime.

5. The Smiths won't pay money immediately. Their son won't return.

8.3.9. Предположим, что вы — свидетель. Вы знаете трех подозреваемых: Mr. Green, Mr. Brown and Mr. White. Следователь просит вас дать срав­нительные характеристики всех троих. Эта информация будет ему очень полезна.

Height Weight Size Arms Ears

(foot)

GREEN 5'6" 12st 11lb 8 very long normal

BROWN 6'1" 13st 2lb 9 long large

WHITE 4'8" 9st 5lb 7 short small

' - ft (30,5 cm);" - in (inch) - 2,5 cm; 1 foot - 12 inches; st (stone) — 6,5 kg; lb (pound) — 0,5 kg; 1 stone

— 14 pounds

8.3.10.Двое ваших друзей никак не могут прийти к соглашению, сравнивая свой рост и вес. Помогите им.

* 8.3.11. Скажите по-английски:

1. Сегодня мы выучили столько же англий­ских слов, сколько и вчера. 2. Завтра мы придем на занятия раньше, чем обычно. 3. Завтра у Петра самый важный день. 4. Мне нужно гораздо меньше времени, чтобы прочитать текст, чем перевести его. 5. Вчера лекции начались не так рано, как обычно. 6. Рос­товский университет моложе МГУ. 7. Наше общежитие в центре города гораздо старше общежития на Западном. 8. Наш новый преподаватель самый молодой на факуль­тете. 9. Чем больше я читаю произведения этого писателя, тем больше они мне нравятся. 10. Чем громче ты кричишь, тем меньше я тебя понимаю.

8.3.12. А теперь снова конкурс на звание лучшего переводчика. В первом туре вам предстоит перевести следующие предложения:

1. For the first time in his life he'll take part in the general elections. 2. The entire adult population takes part in the election of the organs of state power. 3. The majority of the citizens of this country enjoy their suffrage. 4. Both you and your friend will represent our organization. 5. The voter couldn't make a choice between two candidates, because both of them had represented similar programmes. 6. He had no right to receive the representa­tives of that country.

8.3.13. Во втором туре вы должны перевести эти предложения вновь на английский язык. (Книги закрыты.)

8.3.14. Третий тур. Постарайтесь закончить следую­щие предложения из текста, не заглядывая в книгу:

1. Voters in each state...

2. Before voting in November every citizen must...

3. The state with the help of numerous quali­fications...

* 8.3.15. Предположим, что вы — Петр или Джейн. Вам интересно, как проходят выборы в ваших странах. Расспросите друг друга.

*8.3.16. Вам предстоит написать статью о различиях в избирательных системах России и США. Прежде чем писать статью, необходимо со­ставить план. Сделайте это так:

Russia The USA

1. ................ 1.................

*8.3.17. Представьте опять, что вы — Петр или Джейн. Вы только что побеседовали о выборах в ваших странах и теперь расскажите вашим друзьям, что вы узнали об избирательных системах России и США.

Practice in communication

(Accusal and Defence)

8.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Someone accuses you of having done something wrong. You know or feel you haven't done it. Here are some ways of defending yourself.

1. I'm sorry, but I don't think I did/you're right.

2. Oh, no. I didn't.

3. Really ? Did I ?

4. Are you sure ?

5. What makes you think/say that ?

8.4.2. Tell someone that he or she:

1. told you a lie;

2. stole your gloves (handbag, passport);

3. owes you some money;

4. left the lights on;

5. left the car door open;

6. took your umbrella;

7. dropped some ink on your new carpet.

He or she will respond by using one of expressions in 8.4.1.

8.4.3. Look through the dialogues and insert the missed parts. Dramatize the dialogues.

I

A. Any more fares?

B. Oxford Circus, please.

A. The fare's 30p now, sir.

B. Yes, I know.

A. But you only gave me 10 p.

B. No, ... I ...

A. Look, here's the 10 p you gave me.

B. Are...?

A. Absolutely sure.

B. I'm sorry, but I don't think... But anyhow here's another 20 p.

II

A. You still owe me 10, you know.

B. No, I don't... (right).

A. Oh, yes; I am.

B. ...?

A. Absolutely.

8.4.4. Accuse your partner of something. He/she will defend him/herself.

General understanding

8.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 8)

1. Baxter got into the car first. Halls was right behind him. «You drive. You know the area better than I do». Baxter said. They raced out of the town and into the dark countryside.

Ten minutes later, about three miles from the old lady's house, Baxter suddenly saw someone on the dark road ahead. «Look! There!» he shouted. «There's someone on a bike! And look! He's going to get off!» Halls saw the man quite clearly, but only for a second. As soon as the man saw they were in a police car, he dropped his bike and ran into the trees at the side of the road. «That's Coke!» Baxter shouted. «He isn't going get away this time!» Baxter jumped out of the car even before Halls stopped it, and ran after Coke. Halls jumped out, too. He didn't switch off the headlights.

2. All Coke's training as a soldier helped him now. Baxter was just behind him when Coke suddenly turned. Baxter tried to grab him but almost tost his balance. Then Coke hit him on the chin as hard as he could. Baxter fell to the ground heavily. At that moment, Halls jumped on Coke from behind but Coke threw him over his back and against a tree and then ran back towards the road before Halls could get up. Even when he did, he fell to the ground again. There was a terrible pain in his ribs. Coke saw the police car very clearly. The headlights were still on and the door was open. Coke jumped in. When Baxter and Halls came to themselves it was too late. Coke was gone and so was their car.

Coke drove for about twenty minutes. He felt nervous in the police car but he knew it was his only chance. Suddenly something on the road ahead attracted his attention. Two police cars were there, side by side, blocking the road. Nothing could get by them!

3. The two policemen at the road block were bored. Suddenly they saw a car coming towards them.

«It's a police car», one of them said. «Perhaps they're bringing us some hot coffee, or something to eat». The car was still a good distance away. «Isn't it going to stop?» «It doesn't look like it. Shall we stop it? Our orders are to stop every car». Just then, they heard the two-tone sound of the horn. «Would you move the car out of the way, Bob, or shall I?» «But our orders were...» «You don't think Coke's going to come through here in a police car, do you?» The policemen hardly had time to move back their cars when Coke shot through the narrow gap and raced down the road in the direction of London.

8.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. As soon as the man saw they were in a police car...

a) he began to drive faster;

b) he dropped his bike and ran into the trees;

c) he stopped and walked for them.

2. When Halls jumped on Coke from behind Coke...

a) threw him over his back;

b) hit him on the chin;

c) seized him.

3. Coke could get into the car because...

a) the headlights were on;

b) the door was open;

c) he had the key.

4. The policemen let Coke pass because...

a) they recognized him;

b) they thought it was the police officer in the car;

c) he signalled to them.

8.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. Where did Halls and Baxter see Coke?

2. What did Coke do as soon as he saw the police car?

3. What helped Coke to escape this time?

4. What did Halls feel?

5. What did Coke see on the road?

6. What did the policemen think about the car coming towards them?

8.5.4. Give the main idea of the extract in 3-4 sentences.

Scanning practice

8.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Where did he think he lost the lighter?

2. What did he take with him when he went to the police station?

3. What did he realize when he got home?

8.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

How I lost my lighter

The last time I went to Exham I lost my lighter. The lighter was old but it had been a present from my mother. I tried hard to remember where and how I could have lost it. I wondered when I had last used it. At first I could not remember. Then I knew. It had been on that bus I had taken on my way back from the National Gallery to the boarding-house. An old man had asked me to give him a light and I had. I well remembered how he handed the lighter back to me, so it must have disappeared either while I was on the bus or later, in the street, between the bus stop and my boarding-house because it was there that I discovered my loss.

So I decided to get in touch with the police. Off I went. The moment I stepped outside the door I realized it was raining hard, so I returned to my room to take my umbrella.

I reported my loss to the officer on duty at the enquiry desk saying that the lighter had my initials engraved on it: N. S. «Very well. Let's see the lost-and-found book». The police officer lifted a heavy black book on to his desk, opened it, and ran his finger down the page. «Quite a few things have been brought in from all over the district today. Keys, wallet, glasses, handbag, bottle of whisky, right glove, umbrella, pocket transistor, two books, camera...» The officer continued his list of objects for a little longer and then suddenly he raised his voice: «Lighter! What did you say your initials are, sir?» «N. S., sergeant». «And N. S. they are».

The rest was a simple formality. The officer gave me my lighter and filled out a form for me to sign. I left a tenshilling note as a reward for the finder, and left the police-station. I took a taxi home, and only after I had got home did I realize that I had left my umbrella at the police-station.

(349 words)

8.6.3.Answer the questions in 8.6.1.

Listening practice

8.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why is Peter looking at his watch?

2. Who's going into the cinema?

3. What are some people doing?

4. Where's Peter sitting?

5. What's a lady wearing?

6. Why's Lulu unhappy?

7. Why is the girl in the film crying «Help!»?

8.7.2. Listen to the story.

8.7.3. Answer the questions in 8.7.1.

8.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text. terrific — потрясающий

8.7.5. Listen to the dialogue. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

8.7.6. Tell the contents of the dialogue in Russian as close to the text as possible.

Time for fun

8.8.1. Read and translate the jokes.

1. It only made matters worse

A husband said to his friend: «My wife doesn't allow me to sleep. She is afraid of thieves, she wakes me up if

she hears the slightest noise, and makes me get up to see if there are burglars in the house».

«You can easily get over that difficulty. Just explain to your wife that thieves don't make any noise; they work quietly and don't disturb anybody». «I've already done that, old man, but it only made matters worse. Now she gets me up several times every night because she hears nothing».

2. «Have you anything to say for yourself before I pass the sentence?» the judge said to the pickpocket. «What good have you ever done for mankind?» «Well, Your Honour», said the prisoner, «I've kept four or five detectives working regularly and I've helped several reporters, prison guards, and you keep their jobs».

UNIT 9

Фонетика: sound [w]

Словообразование: суффикс наречия -ly

Грамматика: прошедшие времена Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous

Текст: «Pete's travel to London»

Sound right

9.1.1. Listen, look, say:

we wool sweet twice queenwhere

work walk swift twelve quick which

why ward swam twenty quite whale

way wood swan twin question wet

west was swore tweed quarrel wine

war win swine twist quiet weather

9.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Why worry?

2. We wondered where we were.

3. I wonder what's wrong with Wyn.

4. The sweater will wear well.

5. Wilful waste makes woeful want.

6. Walter always knows what's what.

7. It was a wonder the weather was so wet.

8. Winnie is as weak as water.

9. Watt is as swift as the wind.

10. No sweet without some sweat.

9.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the sound [w].

I

( [w] as in want)

A. Where's the wagon?

B. Where's what wagon?

A. The water wagon.

B. What water wagon?

A. The wagon with the water.

B. What water?

A. I want water.

B. We all want water.

A. Well, where's the water?

B. Good question!

II

( [w] as in want, [v] as in very)

A. Come on, Vicky. Time for our evening walk. Vicky! Evening walk time! Vicky, why won't you come for your walk this evening? You know we go for our walk at seven every evening. Talk, Vicky, please. Talk. Use words. You don't have to growl — you have a voice you know. Perhaps we should've called you Rover. Oh, I'm going! Here — have a bone!

9.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

9.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

9.1.6. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can:

Whether the weather be fine Or whether the weather be not, Whether the weather be cold Or whether the weather be hot, We'll weather the weather Whatever the weather Whether we like it or not.

9.2. Word-building: -ly

9.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combination:

to rain continually, highly interesting book, to translate literally, to watch TV nightly, to listen

to music occasionally, to work seasonally, to be dressed warmly.

9.2.2. Paraphrase the following word-combinations us­ing -ly:

in an ideal manner, in an idle manner, in a mad manner, showing the skill of a master, done once a month, in the second place, in a short time, to a slight degree, in a strong manner.

9.2.3. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you willingly get up early in the morning?

2. What do you chiefly eat in the morning?

3. Do you work mostly at night or in the daytime?

4. Do you buy books regularly or occasionally?

Full understanding

9.3.1. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

delegation, mile, bank, firm, business, theatre, restaurant ['rest(@)roþn], guide [gaId], lady, clerk [kla:k], Great Britain, Thames [temz], Westmin­ster ['westmInst@], City, Mansion House ['m{nS(@)n], Lord Mayor [mE@], Royal Exchange [Iks'tSeIn³], St. Paul's Cathedral [k@'TÖdr(@)l], Tower of Lon­don, Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, Grey's Inn. *9.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

to travel — путешествовать

at the invitation of — по приглашению

city — город (крупный)

Council ['kaunsi] — совет

trip — путешествие,

поездка pleasure — удовольствие, развлечение

capital — столица

stay (v., n.) — останавливаться, пребывание

to be situated — быть расположенным

heavy traffic — интенсивное движение

to cover — покрывать

square (n. adj.) [skwE@] — площадь, квадрат­ный

talk (n. v.) — беседа; беседовать

famous — знаменитый

building — здание

cinema — кино

barrister ['b{rIst@] — адвокат

to study — изучать, учиться

to agree — соглашаться

School vocabulary:

month, great, event, week, across, member, to return, to tell, even, only, nearly, both, end, north, south, east, west, street, stone, heart, shop, interesting, since, place, to show, time.

*9.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Pete's travel to London

Last month there was a great event in Pete's life. He was travelling to London the capital of Great Britain as the member of the delegation of Rostov which came there at the invitation of London city council. Pete has just returned from this trip and is going to tell you about his impression.

«It was a wonderful trip! I'm even in doubt what to begin with. We had been staying there only for a week but still managed to see a lot. London is situated near the sea on both banks of the Thames and stretches for nearly thirty miles from east to west and for nearly thirty miles from north to south. When we were travelling about the city we saw that the street traffic of London was very heavy. During our stay we had been visiting all important parts of London: the City, The West End, the East End and the Westminster. The City is the commercial part of the capital. There are most of London banks, offices and firms there. It covers an area of about one square mile and the Englishmen call it a square mile of money. It's so difficult to talk about the City, because almost every stone, every wall, every house remind us of some famous man, book, historic event. Three buildings are the heart of the City: the Mansion House where the Lord Mayor lives, the Royal Exchange, the Bank of England, which the Londoners call «the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street». There are some ancient and famous buildings within the city, such as St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. The Strand, one the oldest streets in London is a link between the City and the West End. It brings together Business (the City), the Law (the Temple and the Inns) and Pleasure (West End, theatres, best cinemas, fine restaurants and shops). This part of London was the most interesting for me because since the begin­ning of the 14th century English judges, barristers, lawyers, clerks had been working, living and studying in these places: Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, Grey's Inn. There I got acquainted with an English lawyer Steve King by name. He agreed to be my guide and show the most interesting places of London. I'll tell you about it next time».

(to be continued)

9.3.4. Вас подозревают в том, что вчера в 10 часов вечера вы совершили преступление. Предо­ставьте свое алиби, рассказав, что именно вы делали в это время.

Model: I was drinking coffee with my girl-friend at that time.

9.3.5. Следователь спрашивает вас, что делал ваш друг, когда вы пришли к нему. Дайте точные ответы.

Model: When I came to him he was sleeping

9.3.6. Вы были свидетелем дорожного происшествия. Расскажите в деталях инспектору, как все это происходило.

Model: The blue car was moving very fast. The old man was crossing the street, etc.

9.3.7. В тексте есть несколько случаев употребления Past Continuous. Найдите их.

9.3.8. Когда автор переводил эту шутку с русского языка на английский, он не был уверен, какое время употребить: Simple Past или Past Con­tinuous. Помогите ему, пожалуйста.

Mother (to ask) her little daughter who (to read) a book: «What are you reading, dear?»

«I don't know», (to answer) the girl.

«You don't know? But you (to read) aloud, so you must know».

«I (to read) aloud. Mother, but I (not, to listen)», the girl (to explain).

9.3.9. Предположим, студенты вашей группы соби­рались подготовить сюрприз для преподавателя. Но когда преподаватель спросил вас, что вы делали в течение некоторого времени перед тем, как он пришел, все ответили по-разному. Дайте ваши ответы и затем решите, какой из них выглядит правдоподобнее.

* 9.3.10. Скажите по-английски:



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