ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Answer the questions in writing.



UNIT 1

ABOUT MYSELF & MY FUTURE CAREER

 

Answer the questions in writing.

What is your full name?

When were you born? I was born on the — th of -, so I’m - years old now.

Is Samara your home town? Where were you born?

I was born in - … , so Samara is not my native town.

How did your family come to live there?

What school did you study at? What were your favourite subjects at school?

When did you finish school? - in 19.../20../a year ago/I have finished school this year.

What do you do? Are you are student at the moment? I am a first-year student (2nd, 3rd) of Saratov State Technical University, Faculty/School of … , ... Department.

What subjects do you take at the University?

We have a lot of work to do in the first year. We take...

When do your studies begin? Our classes begin at 8.30 a.m. (1.20 p.m.), we study

in the first (second) shift and I think it is (not) very convenient.

What are your hobbies? Do you do sports?

I don’t do sports professionally, but I like swimming and playing tennis in summer and skating or skiing in winter.

Do you live with your parents or do you have a family of your own? Are you married?

Is your family large? My family is neither very large nor very small. We are three...

What is your father / mother? Are you an only child in the family?

I have an elder brother/a younger sister How old is he? He is - years older / younger than me.

What does your family like to do in their spare time?

Where do you live? In the centre of the city / in the suburbs / in the hostel

What street do you live in? (Am. on)

How do you get to the University? by bus / by tram / by trolley-bus / I walk

How long does it take you to get there?

Why did you enter this department?

I am glad I went to the State University, I think studying here is involving and challenging.

Do you enjoy traveling and where have you been?

What is the most important thing in your life right now?

What is your motto for life?

 

Use your answers and make up a topic about yourself.

VOCABULARY

full name – полное имя

home town – родной город

first-year (second-year) student – студент первого (второго) курса

Saratov State Technical University – Саратовский государственный технический университет

department – отделение, факультет

fee-paying department - платное отделение

maintained department – бюджетное отделение

full-time department – дневное отделение

in the first (second) shift – в первую (вторую) смену

to do sports – заниматься спортом

neither … nor– ни... ни...

spare time – свободное время

an only child – единственный ребенок

in the suburbs – на окраине, в пригороде

in the hostel – в общежитии

skating – катание на коньках

skiing– катание на лыжах

to get in, to go to – поступить, быть принятым (в учебное заведение)


VOCABULARY WORK

1. Copy out the registration form and reconstruct the words omitted (****) in it:

 

2. Copy out and fill in your own registration form for your University classes of English:


ABOUT MYSELF

My name is … . I am a first-year student of Saratov State Technical University. I'm pursuing a degree in Sociology and specialize in … ( ). They say that a man is so many times a man how many languages he knows and I share this opinion. At the University we study English.

You know, English is widely spread. It is really an international language. It is spoken in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, in the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and in the South of Africa.

We all know that knowledge of English is useful when you are abroad, especially in an English-speaking country. Modern English is the dominant international language in communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. A working knowledge of English is a requirement in a number of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and over a billion people speak English at least a basic level.

We have English classes two times a week and I am doing well. When the teacher comes, unlocks the classroom door and lets us in, we say “Good morning” or “Hello” and the English class begins. At the lesson we learn to speak, to understand, to read and to write English.

We learn new grammar rules and do a lot of exercises, orally and in writing. We learn new vocabulary, ask and answer questions. We translate sentences and texts from Russian into English and from English into Russian. If we don’t know the meaning of a word, we look it up in a dictionary. My wish is to read English books in the original. We check our homework. During our English class we don’t speak Russian, we do our best to speak English. Sometimes we write dictations and grammar tests. I usually get good marks because I prepare for the tests beforehand.

I want to know English well that’s why I am attentive in class and I always prepare my homework. I seldom miss classes.

English is difficult but we like it and work hard in class and at home.

 

VOCABULARY

 

a first-year (second, third, forth, fifth) student – первокурсник (второкурсник и т.д.);

a foreign/international language – иностранный/международный язык;

to be abroad – быть за границей

a working knowledge of English – практическое знание английского языка

over a billion (амер.) – более миллиарда

speak English to at least a basic level – говорить по-английски на начальном уровне

vocabulary – список слов; лексикон, словарный запас;

meaning – значение (слова);

dictionary – словарь; (the English-Russian, the Russian-English)

grammar test – контрольная работа по грамматике;

to do one’s best – стараться изо всех сил

mark – оценка (excellent – отлично; good – хорошо; satisfactory – удовлетворительно; unsatisfactory – неудовлетворительно; bad – плохо).

 

POINT OF GRAMMAR

Verb to be

Iama receptionist.

He isa receptionist.

They arereceptionists.

positive negative
I am (I’m) I am not (I’m not)
he, she, it is (he’s, she’s, it’s) he, she, it is not (he’s notor he isn’t)
we are (we’re) we are not ( we’re notor we aren’t)
you are (you’re) you are not (you’re not or you aren’t)
they are (they’re) they are not (they’re not or they aren’t)

 

-Can you close the window, please? I’ m cold.

-I'm32 years old. My sister is 29.

-My brother isa policeman. He's very tall.

-John is afraid of dogs.

-It's 10 o'clock. You're late again.

-Ann and I are very good friends.

-My shoes are very dirty. I must clean them.

-I'm tired but I'm nothungry.

-Tom isn'tinterested in politics.

-Jane isn'tat home at the moment. She's at work.

-Those people aren'tEnglish. They're Australian

 

that’s=that is there’s=there is here’s=here is

 

-Thank you. That’s very kind of you.

-Look! There’s George

 

1A. Write the short form (she's / we aren't etc.).

 

1 he is ……. 3 she is not ……. 5. I am not …….

2 they are ……. 4 it is ……. 6. you are not …….

 

YOU

Here is your first project. Make a project about YOU.

· Give some information about yourself.

· Show some of your favourite things.


UNIT 2

JOBS & HOBBIES

 

1. Look at the names of the professions. Pair up. Try to guess from the mime of your partner what the job is:

 

secretary; hairdresser; photographer; singer; boss; model; actor/actress; farmer; policeman; teacher; computer programmer; pilot; driver; salesperson; homemaker; police officer.

Choosing a Career

Pre-reading task: What jobs, do you think, are the most prestigious ones in this country these days? What is your dream job?

Work is one of the essential things that we must do through our lifetime. There are many reasons for people to work. We can also say that we work because of the money.

Money is one of the factors which make people go out for a job. But maybe it is not the only or not the main reason why people enjoy working all day. Respect and learning are the two primary reasons that make people work.

First of all, working can help people win respectsfrom others. No one would like a healthy person who depends on family or society to support for a lifetime. Otherwise, he or she is like a parasite in our life. In society, every one needs to work for the family, for the community and for the country. For example, a housewife needs take care of the house and the kids, and as a housewife and a mother, she gains respects from her husband and kids; an employee, after fulfilling his or her job, receives compliments from the boss; a military mandefends his country, and he deserves the rewards from the nation. In this sense, working helps people recognize their valuesand win respects as a human being in society.

Secondly, the other main reason for people to work is that we can learn and develop ourselves through working. To begin with, when we work, we usually meet other people and co-operate with each other. At this point, we sometimes become a supporter of someone. This can help people to get through the strict life. We also learn how to work together effectively and can adapt to the modern world more easily by doing work together. We work in order to know how toget through the harsh lifewith other people, get honor from other people, and feel achievement through our work. Workplace is a very important place to make friends for us, especially in fast pace life nowadays. In working, we can learn from one another. We can communicate the information, which we get individually, we can ask for advice from our colleagues and we can share the experience with our workmates. In this way, we could learn faster than we learn alone due to our limited energy. Compared to staying at home alone, working makes us have more friends and more skills. So when we face difficulties, we have more ability and courage, we feel stronger to conquerthem. Besides, in a certain extent, working can be viewedas a kind of exercises in our life – keeping working prevents us from being lazy.

In conclusion, there are a lot of reasons for people to work. Different persons have different motivations for work. People work because they know how to work together fluently, they want to get respect and honor from other people, and they want to feel achievement about their work.

 

VOCABULARY

 

essential -основной

through our lifetime –в течение жизни

to go out for a job – начинать работать

primary- первичный

to win respects –заслужить уважение

to support for a lifetime –поддерживать кого-то (материально) в течение всей жизни

otherwise -иначе, по-другому

work for –работать на кого-то

housewife- домохозяйка

to gain respects – заслужить уважение

employee - сотрудник

to fulfill one’s job –выполнять свою работу

to receive compliments– получать похвалу

military man - военный

reward– награда,вознаграждение

values- ценности

learn and develop ourselves through working– учиться и развиваться посредством работы

co-operate with– сотрудничать с

to get through the strict (harsh) life –справляться с трудностями жизни

to get honor from –получать почет от

to feel achievement through our work– чувствовать, что добиваешься каких-то результатов, делая свою работу

workplace –место работы

to make friends– заводить друзей

workmate -товарищ по работе

compared to –в сравнении с

to face difficulties –сталкиваться с трудностями

to conquer- завоевывать

to be viewed- рассматриваться

fluently– бегло, быстро

R e a d i n g w h d y n f

C r j m u s i c c b n e e

O y e c o o k i n g o q l

H r w t x s p o r t s f d

S f i s h i n g e d c v p

I о l x y d a n c i n g a

N g w k p a i n t i n g x

E r I n h u n t i n g s z

G a r d e n i n g m t u s

 

Answer the questions.

What do you do?

What do you do in your free time?

Compare their lifestyles.

 

12. Describe the working day of a clerk. Use the following office timetable (in a humorous way):

 

9:00 Starting time

9:30 Arrive at work

9:45 Coffee break

11:00 Check e-mail

11:15 Prepare for lunch

12:00 Lunch

2:45 Browse the Internet

3:00 Tea break

4:00 Prepare to go home

4:30 Go home

5:00 Finishing time

 

13. Comment on the following:

 

1. Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

2. We are what we eat.

 

POINT OF GRAMMAR

 

Present Simple

FORM

I we you they drive
he she it drives
Question (вопрос) Negative (отрицание)
Do I we you they work? I We You They don`t work.
Does Jack Sue he she it Jack Sue He She It doesn`t

 

• There is only one form of you in English, which is the same in singular

and plural.

• Note the endings with he, she, and it. If the verb ends in ss, sh, ch, or x,

add -es:

He finishes {finish ends in sh)

She watches (watch ends in ch)

 

USE

• For something which is permanently true:

I come from France.

He doesn't speak Spanish.

We live in London.

• For repeated actions or habits:

1 get up at six o'clock every day.

What time do you leave work?

I don't see them very often.

 

FORM

 

Yes, I we you do. they No,   we you don't, they
he she does, it he she doesn't, it

 

Notes

• Nouns * pronouns

'Do the men want some tea?

'Yes, they do.'

• Negative short answers can use the unconnected form:

No, they do Jiot. (this is more emphatic)

 

4. Write the short answers:

 

1 'Do you live here? 'Yes, '

2 'Does Mary work in this office?' 'No, '

3 'Does Stephen speak French?' 'No, '

4 'Do the teachers like your work?' 'Yes, '

5 'Do you understand the lessons?' 'No, '

6 'Do they visit you often?' 'No '

7 'Do you like France?1 'Yes, '

8 'Do your parents live in London?' 'Yes, .'

9 'Does your father like modern music?' 'No, '

10 'Does Judy drive to work?1 'Yes, .'

11 'Do your grandparents still enjoy gardening?' 'Yes, '

12 'Does Simon's sister work with you?' 'No, .'

13 'Do John and Alison eat meat?' 'No, '

14 'Docs Tony like adventure films?' 'Yes, '

15 'Do you watch TV at the weekend?' 'No, '

16 'Does your uncle play tennis?' 'Yes .'


UNIT 3 DICTIONARY IN USE

Как работать со словарем

 

Слова в словаре расположены в строго алфавитном порядке. Внутри каждой рубрики заглавное слово традиционно заменяется знаком «~» (тильда):

incomeдоход; ~ tax - подоходный налог.

Омонимы (слова, сходные по внешней форме, но разные по значению) обозначаются римскими цифрами. Разные зна­чения слова отделены арабской цифрой со скобкой (1);2)), а разные части речи - арабской цифрой с точкой (1.; 2.):

increase1. увеличивать (ся) ; 2. возрастание, увеличе­ние .

За знаком "◊" (ромб) даны фразеологические сочетания и идиомы:

age1) возраст; 2) век; 0 for ~s - давно.

 

Значение слова, подходящее для данного текста, не всегда стоит в словаре первым. Следует внимательно просмотреть все гнездо и найти в нем те группы значений, которые даны к слову в той части речи, которую мы определили на основе анализа предложения.

Слово определенной части речи может иметь различные значения, поэтому при переводе предложения необходимо из многих значений выбрать одно. При отборе значения нужно исходить из общего содержания мысли, заключенной в данном предложении, также как и из общего содержания переводимого текста.

Так английские слова face, handозначают не только “лицо, рука (кисть руки)”, но также и “циферблат, стрелка”, если речь идет о часах. Обратите внимание на то, как изменяется значение слова faceв зависимости от общего содержания предложения и того, к какой части речи данное слово принадлежит в следующих примерах:

 

1. In applying this method we may face some troubles.

1. При применении этого метода нам, возможно, встретятся некоторые трудности.

2. The builders will face the house with granite slabs.

2. Строители будут облицовывать здание гранитными плитами.

3. The eyes, nose and mouth are parts of the face.

3. Глаза, нос и рот – части лица.

 

3. Translate the sentences into Russian using a dictionary:

1.There is an interesting article in today's newspaper.

2.I want to buy several articles from the catalogue.

3.I like your accent – where are you from?

4.You are just like your mother!

5.All products in the market are cheaper than in the shop.

6.There is a potential market for the new phones.

7.He returned all her things to her mother.

8.The returns on the capital are rather low.

4. Which of the definitions of casualfits which sentence?

casual ['kæZuәl] 1.1) временный рабочий; 2) случайный клиент;

2.1) случайный; 2) небрежный, несерьезный; 3) повседневный, непраздничный.

 

a) It was quite a casual outfit.

b) I said it casually, but it shocked her.

c) He doesn't get a salary, he is a casual.

d) It was a casual meetng, but it changed my life.

 

5. Translate the proverbs into Russian:

Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves.

Tastes differ.

Never judge a book by its cover.

6. Put the words in the dictionary (i.e. alphabetic) order:

1) kill, yellow, jar, hungry, lick, water, use quickly, give, ride;

2) reader, quarter, jolly, wise, house, young, fall, summer, pass;

3) witch, heart, dictionary, sweater, perfume, cell-phone, paper;

4) ox, oyster, own, obtain, omit, oral, oppress, odd, old, oil;

5) hum, hurl, hunt, hub, husky, hut, huge, hue, hull, hurt.

6) pudding, public, pitch, phrase, pyramid, proud, post, plane, peril, pearl.

Слова в словаре даются в их исходной форме: для существительного – общий падеж единственного числа; для прилагательного и наречия – положительная степень; для глагола неопределенная форма (инфинитив). Для нестандартных глаголов формы Past Indefiniteи Past Participleприводятся в круглых скобках непосредственно после сокращения v, например, drive (drove, driven).

Если в предложении, которое нужно перевести, слово стоит не в исходной форме, то эту форму надо установить, отбрасывая грамматические окончания. В английском языке словоизменительных суффиксов пять: (e)s, (e)r, (e)st, (e)d, (e)ing. Следует помнить основное правило: при отбрасывании окончания слово-основа не должно изменяться в чтении.

1. Если перед грамматическими окончаниями-суффиксами (e)s, (e)r, (e)st, (e)d, (e)ingстоят буквы g, c, vили согласная с предшествующей одной гласной буквой, то отбрасываются лишь согласные элементы суффикса: -s,-r, -st, -d, -ing. Например: pages-page, largest-large, stranger-strange, produced-produce, firing-fire.

2. Если перед окончаниями –(e)r, -(e)st, -(e)d, -ing.стоит удвоенная согласная, то исходная форма восстанавливается посредством отбрасывания, как окончания, так и одной из удвоенных согласных.

Исключение: удвоенные буквы ss, ll, ddв конце слова-основы сохраняются даже после отбрасывания окончания. Например: expresses-express, drilling-drill, adding-add.

3.Если перед суффиксами-окончаниями –(e)s, -(e)r, -(e)st, -(e)dимеется буква i,перед которой стоит согласная буква, то для восстановления исходной формы слова следует отбросить окончание, а букву iзаменить буквой y.

4.Во всех других случаях окончания отбрасываются полностью, корневая же часть слова сохраняется неизменной: speeds-speed, fixed-fix, plays-play, started-start.

Примечание: При восстановлении исходной формы слова, имеющего окончание –ing, буква iзаменяется буквой e: refine-refining.Если окончанию (суффиксу) –ingпредшествует буква yв односложном слове-основе, имеющем одну согласную, буква yзаменяется ie: lying-lie, dieng-die.

7. Define the initial form of these words:

  1. hotter, easier, braver, factories, tying, adding;
  2. thinnest, driest, ripest, heroes, ctudies, travelling;
  3. wetter, easiest, gayer, armies, sitting, dying, addressing;
  4. busier, bigger, cities, lying, confessing, baking;
  5. is, knows, parks, spoken, encouraged, communications;
  6. has, occupations, evacuated, industries, drowned, gardens;
  7. trying, professions, doing, sentences, died, became;
  8. dictations, tests, finding, born, christened, months;
  9. married, worse, staying, buried, the longest, exports.

Значения устойчивых фразеологических сочетаний (идиоматических выражений) отыскиваются в словаре по одному из знаменательных слов, образующих это выражение, а не по служебным словам (предлогам, союзам, частицам), входящим в него. Например, значение устойчивого фразеологического сочетания walk of lifeотыскивается в словарях под словарной статьей walk: walk of life “положение в обществе; занятие, профессия”.

Групповые предлоги следует также искать по основному слову. Например, при определении значения in spite of, in accordance withищем слова spite, accordance, а когда находим их, сначала просматриваем все значения для группового предлога, и находим: in spite of “несмотря на”, in accordance with “в соответствии с; согласно”.

При работе со словарем рекомендуется, выписывая новое слово в его традиционной орфографии написать рядом в скобках фонетическую транскрипцию и краткое обозначение части речи, например, study [‘stΛdi]– занятие. Необходимо выписывать только главное значение, обычно даваемое в словаре на первом месте, а также то, которое наиболее подходит к контексту. Так, из словарной статьи слова development рекомендуется выписать и запомнить только его основное значение – “развитие” и специальное значение формы множественного числа – “событие”, а также то значение, которое встретилось в данном контексте. Неправильные глаголы следует выписывать в трех основных формах (напр., begin – began – begun).

 

8. Translate the following collocations:

In store for, to go off one’s head, to be on good terms, to have a heart of gold, to be all at sea, up to date to tell on somebody.

 

На сегодняшний день особенно актуальными становятся электронные словари. Электронный словарь обладает двумя существенными плюсами по сравнению с классическим бумажным – значительно больший объем и значительное более удобное использование. Такие словари доступны в Интернете, а также могут быть установлены как на персональный компьютер или ноутбук, так и на КПК (карманные компьютеры), смартфоны, коммуникаторы и т.п.

К наиболее распространенным переводным словарям в России относятся ABBYY Lingvo, Мультитран, Мультилекс: www.multitran.ru; www.lingvo.ru; www.multilex.ru.

POINT OF GRAMMAR

Subject and object pronouns

Subject pronouns

I you he she it we you they

Object pronouns

me you him her it us you them

• The subject is the person or thing doing the action:

I left early.

She went home.

We said goodbye.

• The object is the person or thing

receiving the action:

She telephoned me.

I hit him.

We saw her.

 

Reflexive pronouns

myself yourself himself herself itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

 

• The object is the same person or thing as the subject:

 

I cut myself when I was cooking.

The kettle will switch itselfoff automatically.

 

Possessive adjectives

 

• Each pronoun has a possessive adjective:

 

I —> my we —> our

you —> your you —> your

he —> his they > their

she —• her it —> its

UNIT 4

 

POINT OF GRAMMAR

Kinds of Sentences

 

Normally, a sentence expresses a relationship, conveys a command, voices a question, or describes someone or something. It begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation mark.

 

The basic parts of a sentence are the subject and the predicate. The subject is usually a noun - a word that names a person, place, or thing. The predicate (or verb) usually follows the subject and identifies an action or a state of being. See if you can identify the subject and the predicate in each of the following short sentences:

 

 

•The hawk soars.

•The widows weep.

•My daughter is a wrestler.

•The wrestlers are tired.

 

In each of these sentences, the subject is a noun: hawk, widows, daughter, and children. The verbs in the first two sentences – soars, weep – show action and answer the question, "What does the subject do?" The verbs in the last two sentences – is, are – are called linking verbs because they link the subject with a word that renames it (wrestler) or describes it (tired).

 

1. Declarative sentences(affirmative, negative)

Interrogative sentences

a.general question (rise) –

Is your sister a good pupil?

B.alternative question -

Is your sister a good pupil or a good student?

Is your sister a good or a bad pupil?

Is your sister a good pupil oris your brother a good pupil?

= Is your sister or is your brother a good pupil?

Is your sister a good pupil oris his sister a good pupil?

= Is your sister or is his sister a good pupil?

c.special question (low fall)

Whose sister is a good pupil? Who is a good pupil?

D.disjunctive question

- Your sister is a good pupil, isn’t she?

3.Imperative sentences(affirmative, negative )

Close the door. Don’t close the door.

Exclamatory sentences

What a nice day!

 

Making questions

• Questions are formed for all tenses except present simple and past simple by

changing the position of the auxiliary verb {am, was, will, etc.) and the

subject (I, you, she, he, etc.):

You 're going à Are you going?

He has gone à Has he gone?

• Questions are formed for the present simple and past simple by using do,

does, or did:

They work here. Do they work here?

She lived here. Did she live here?

positive question

I am Am I?

 

he

she is Is he/ she/ it?

it

 

we

you are Are we/you/they?

they

 

-‘Is your mother at home?’ – ‘No, she’s out.’

-‘Is it cold in your room?’ – ‘Yes, a little’

-Those shoes are nice. Are they new?

-Are books expensive in your country?

 

-‘How old is Joe?’ – ‘He’s 24.’

-‘What colour is your car?’ – ‘It’s blue’

what’s=what is who’s=who is hows=how is where’s=where is

-What’s the time? -What’s that man?

-Where’s Jill? -How’s your father?

 

short answers

Yes, I am. No, I’m not.

Yes, he/she/it is. No, he’s/she’s/it’s not. or No, he/she/it isn’t.

Yes, we/you/they are. No, we’re/you’re/they’re not. or No, we/you/they aren’t.

 

-Are you tired? Yes, I am.

-Are you hungry? No, I’m notbut I’m thirsty.

-Is he English? Yes, he is.

-Is Ann at work today? No she isn’t.

-Is this seat free? Yes, it is.

-Am I late? No, you are not.

1. Write questions from these words. Use am/is/are:

1 (your mother at home?) ……Is your mother at home……?

2 (your parents at home?) .................................................................... at home ?

3 (this hotel expensive?) ...................................................................................?

4 (you interested in art?) ....................................................................................?

5 (the shops open today?) ....................................................................................?

6 (the park open today?) .....................................................................................?

2. Write questions with What/Who/How/Where/Why . . . ? Use am/is/are:

1 (what colour your car?) What colour is your car?

2 (where my key?) Where .......................................................................................?

3 (where my socks?) ...................................................................................................?

4 (how old your father?) How ..............................................................................?

5 (what colour his eyes?) .........................................................................................?

6 (why John angry with me?) .............................................................................?

7 (how much these shoes?) .........................................................................................?

8 (who your favourite actor?) ......................................................................................?

9 (why you always late?) .........................................................................................?

 

3. Ask the questions (Read the answers to the questions first):

You Paul.

1 (your name?) What’s your name?……………. ........................... Paul.

2 (married or single?) ..Are you married or single..........................? I'm married.

3 (British?) ...................................................................................... ? No, I'm not.

4 (where / from?) ............................................................................ ? From Australia.

5 (how old?) .................................................................................. ? I'm 25.

6 (a student?) .................................................................................. ? No, I'm a teacher.

7 (your wife a teacher?) ................................................................. ? No, she's a lawyer.

8 (where / from?) ........................................................................... ? She's Italian.

9 (her name?) .................................................................................. ? Anna.

10 (how old?) ....................................................................................? She's 25 too.

4. Write positive or negative short answers (Yes, I am / No, he isn't etc.).

1 Are you married? ..No, I’m not 6 Is it dark now? ............................ . ............

2 Are you tall? ...... Yes, I am 7 Are your hands cold? .............................

3 Is it cold today? 8 Are you hungry? .....................................

4 Are you a teacher? 9Is your father tall? ...................................

5 Are you tired? 10 Is it sunny? ...............................................

 

5. Make four different types of questions questions from these statements:

1 She likes travelling

Does she like travelling? What does she like doing? Does she like travelling or cooking? She likes traveling, does not she?

2 They're working.

Are they working?

3 He was playing tennis.

4 She went to school today.

5 They live here.

6 She's eating at the moment.

7 They drove to the station.

8 She's reading.-

9 He had breakfast early.

10 They came today.

11 She drives to work.

12 He left this morning.

13 He was writing a letter.

14 They watched television.

15 She's at home.

16 They went home.

17 She likes horror films.

18 He's walking home.

19 They were eating ice cream.

20 They gave him the money.

 

WORD ORDER

FORM

• verb + direct object + to or for + indirect object:

Give Buy D.O. the money a present to for   I.O. him. your mother.

 

a) Some common verbs Taking to: bring, give, lend, pay, promise, send,

Show, take, tell.

b) Some common verbs taking for: buy, find, get, make.

verb + indirect object without to or for + direct object:

Give Buy   I.O. him your mother D.O. the money. a present.

 

Note:that it is not possible to use the second form when the direct object is a pronoun

(me, her, him, it, etc]. The longer construction must be used:

Give it to John. (NOT Give John it.)

 

6. Rewrite these sentences without using to or for.

1 Give this food to your parents.

Give your parents this food.

2Get an ashtray for me, please.

Get me an ashtray, please.

3 Have you sent a postcard to your family?

4 Did you pay the money to him?

5 Would you find a seat for my mother, please?

6 I'll get some money for you.

7 Did you tell the news to your parents?

8 I'm buying a ticket for Jenny, too.

9 Show your painting to Mr Anderson.

10 Would you take this note to your parents?

 

UNIT 5

 

POINT OF GRAMMAR

Present Continuous

FORM

I am - I'm working. Am I working?
He She is - It He's She's It's Is he she it
We You are — They We're You're They're Are we you they

 

I am - I'm not working. -   working.
He She is - It He's She's It's He She It isn't
We You are — They We're You're They're We You They aren't

 

Negative with not Negative with n't

USE

• For an action in progress now:

I'm reading a grammar book now.

What are you looking at?

She isn't eating at the moment.

 

UNIT 6

RUSSIA

Pre-Reading task: What are Russia’s distinctive features, do you think (geographical, cultural, social, economic)?

 

My home country is Russia. The territory of Russia lies in the Eastern part of Europe and in the Northern part of Asia. In area it is one of the largest countries in the world. Russia is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans. It borders on 14 countries, including the former republics of the USSR. Russia occupies much of easternmost Europe and northern Asia, stretching from Norway to the Pacific Ocean and from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean. When you travel across Russia by train, you can see beautiful intact forests, plains, lakes and rivers.

The climate of Russia ranges from temperate to Arctic continental. European Russia receives some maritime climatic influence from the Baltic and Black seas and the Atlantic Ocean; from the Urals to the Far East, the climate is fully continental. The Pacific Ocean provides the southern Far East with warm, humid monsoon conditions. Winter weather varies from short-term and cold along the Black Sea to long-term and frigid in northern Siberia. Summer conditions range from warm on the steppes to cool along the Arctic coast.

The Russian Federative Republicis set by the Constitution of 1993. Under the Constitution Russia is a Presidential Republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executiveandjudicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.

The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of the two chambers. The upper chamber is the Council of Federation. The lower chamber is the State Duma. The President, elected for 4 years, makes treaties and appoints ministers to be approved by the Federal Assembly.

The executive power belongs to the Government, which is headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointmentis to form the Cabinet. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and regional courts. On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia, and Putin became Prime Minister.

The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force.

Moscow is the capital of Russia and the seat of the Government. Today the state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. There are several versions concerning the colour of the stripes. According to one version, the white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky and the red stripe symbolizes liberty. According to another version, the red colour is associated with courage, the blue one stands for nobility and the white expresses spiritual strive.

Russia is very rich in natural resources. It has deposits of coal, iron ores, oil, natural gas, gold and diamonds. Russia’s northerly location limits available agricultural land, which is concentrated in the area between the Black and Caspian seas, along the borders of Ukraine and Kazakhstan, and in southern and western Siberia. Russia’s forest management has declined sharply in recent years, and commercial clear-cutting is reducing the forest stock at a rapid rate. Coastal and river waters have supported an extensive fishing industry, which also is threatened by pollution and poor regulation.

According to the 2002 census, the largest ethnic groups were Russians (80%), Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens, and Armenians, each of which accounted for at least 1 million residents. The official language is Russian; about 100 other languages are spoken.

Russia traditionally has had a highly educated population. According to the 2002 census, 99.5 percent of the population above age 10 was literate. The constitution guarantees the right to free preschool, basic general, and secondary vocational education. Nine years of basic general education are compulsory, from age six until age 15.

Russia has always played an important role in the world. The home policy of our state is aimed at achieving peace among our citizens, politic and economic stability. The main principles of our foreign policy are freedom, independence of every state, coexistence, cooperation and peace all over the world.

 

VOCABULARY

 

legislative ['ledgislεtiv] - законодательная legislature ['ledgislεtƒε] - законодательство

executive [ig'zekjutiv] - исполнительная judicial[dgu'di:ƒiεl] - судебная

to vest [vest] - облекать to initiate [i'ni:ƒieit] – осуществлять

ground forces - сухопутные войска

Air Force - военно-воздушные силы

census – перепись населения

clear-cutting forest - лес со сплошной рубкой

supreme [sju'pri:m] – верховный; высший, главный Supreme Court - Верховный Суд

coexistence[kεueg'istens] – сосуществование; совместное существование

1. Give English equivalents to the following words and collocations:

простирающийся от Норвегии до Тихого океана и от Черного моря до Северного Ледовитого океана; обширная территория; колеблется от умеренного до арктического континентального; морской (приморский) климат; от Урала до Дальнего Востока; влажные муссоны; кратковременный; долговременный, давний; очень холодный; степь; Российская федеративная республика; три отрасли (власти): законодательная ветвь власти, исполнительная и судебная; Федеральное собрание; две палаты Совета Федерации; Государственная Дума; Конституционный суд; Верховный суд; трехцветное знамя; уголь, железная руда; нефть; природный газ; золото; бриллианты; Каспийское море; Украина; Казахстан; Сибирь; управление лесным хозяйством/лесопользование; в последние годы; сплошная рубка; рыболовство; загрязнение; плохое управление; татары, украинцы, башкиры, чуваши, чеченцы и армяне, перепись населения; грамотный; детский сад; профессионально-техническое образование.

 

2. Finish the sentences:

1. The vast territory of Russia lies in ……………………………………………………….

2. Russia occupies much of easternmost Europe and northern Asia, ……………………...

3. When you travel across Russia by train, …………………………………………………

4. The climate of Russia’s vast territory……………………………………………………..

5. Winter weather varies from …………………..………. to …..…………..….……………

6. Summer conditions range from ……………………………………………………………

7. The federal government consists of …………………...…………………………………..

8. The upper chamber is ……………………………………………………………………..

9. The lower chamber is ……………………………………………………………………..

10. The President, elected for 4 years,………………………………………………………...

11. The first action of the Prime Minister …………………………………………………….

12. The judicial branch is represented by ……………………………………………………..

13. According to one version, the white stripe ……………….., the blue one ………………..

14. It has deposits of ………………………………………………………………………….

15. Russia’s northerly location limits available agricultural land, which is …………………..

16. Coastal and river waters have supported ………………………………………………….

17. According to the 2002 census, the largest ethnic groups were Russians, ……..…………..

18. The constitution guarantees the right to …………………………………………………..

19. Nine years of basic general education are ………………………………….……………..

20. The main principles of our foreign policy are …………………………………….………

Retell the text.

POINT OF GRAMMAR

The Articles

an + vowel [әn]: an umbrella, an ocean, an economist

a + consonant [ә]: a ball, a boy, a book

 

The Indefinite Article.

-a = 'one'.

• a (or an) is used with countable nouns to indicate one.

Can I have a cup of tea?

I've got a daughter and two sons.

• a is not used before a plural noun (NOT I've got a sons).

• a is not used before uncountable nouns (NOT I want a petrol, please). But we use it when there is an adjective which describes the noun: a highly educated population, an important role

Don't forget a:

—Do you want a cup of tea? (not 'Do you want cup of tea?')

—Alice works in a bank,(not 'in bank')

—I want to ask a question,(not 'ask question')

—When I was a child,I liked reading stories.

- Birmingham is a large city in central England.

-an (not a) before a/e/i/o/u:

—They live in an old house, (not 'a old house.')

—A mouse is an animal. It's a small animal.

—Can you give me an example, please?

- This is an interesting book.

- I bought a hat and an umbrella.

also an hour(‘h’ is not pronounced: an (h)our)

but a university a Europeancountry

We use a/an for jobs etc.:

- 'What's your job?'

'I'm a dentist.' (not 'I'm dentist.')

- 'What does she do?' 'She's an engineer.

- Would you like to be a teacher?

- Beethoven was a composer.

- Picasso was a famous painter.

- Are you a student?

another(an + other) is one word (not 'an other'):

- Can I have another cupof coffee?

- Open another window.It's very hot.

 

1. Fill in the indefinite article: a or an.

apple ball cat doll egg fat grass hat Indian jam kite lamb man orange nurse onion purse queen rain star train umbrella van watch box yacht zoo object

USE

The Indefinite Article A and the Definite Article The

• a is used with countable nouns to indicate one (>- Exercise 8):

I've got two bikes and a car.

She's a lawyer.

He's a teacher.

a or the is not usually used before names of villages, towns, streets, cities,

countries or continents: She lives in Paris. We went to India.

the is used when we speak about things that we know or can understand or when a word is used a second time: He gave me a knife and a spoon. The spoon was dirty. I bought a pen and some paper, but I left the pen in the shop, the 2002 census

the is used before names of seas, rivers, groups of islands or mountains, kingdoms, republics, deserts, plural names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean, the River Thames, the Netherlands, the Arctic (land and sea), the Antarctic (land and sea), the Alps, the United States of America, the United Arab, the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Baltic, the Urals, the Far East, Emirates, the Sahara, the United Kingdom, the Nile, the Gobi Desert

the is used in the + noun + of: the Constitution of 1993, the capital of Russia, the life of Napoleon

the is used when only one object exists: the earth, the sun, the River Thames, the President, the legislative power, the State Duma, the Federal Assembly, the Government, the Prime Minister, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, at a rapid rate, the world

the is used with adjectives in the superlative degree:the largest ethnic groups

 

VOCABULARY

 

to be made up of (to consist of) —состоять из

to cover— охватывать

to be situated— быть расположенным

the Strait of Dover —Па-де-Кале

The English Channel— Ла-Манш

The Gulf Stream —Гольфстрим

to be washed— омываться

mild climate— мягкий климат

cool — прохладный

co





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