ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the past simple. Remember that the infinitive is used for questions and negatives.



1 I … some new clothes last week, (buy)

I bought some new clothes last week.

2What time … last night? (they come)

What time did they come last night?

3 I … his question, (not understand)

I didn't understand his question.

4 I … he was wrong, (think)

5 … a lot at the party? (you eat)

6 I … the bus this morning, (not catch)

7 I … my keys yesterday, (forget)

8 … you about the meeting? (they tell)

9 Peter … the washing-up last night, (do)

10 They … anything at the disco, (not drink)

11 I … your suitcase in your bedroom, (put)

12 We … it was your birthday, (not know)

13 … to the office yesterday? (you go)

14 They … her a present when she left, (give)

15 We … their letters, (read)


UNIT 9

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Pre-Reading task: Do you know why the US is called ‘The United States of America’? Why, do you think, the US is one of the most popular and influential countries in the world?

 

The United States is the fourth largest country in the world in size and population. It has an area of 9,371,781 square kilometres (kilometers in American English) and its population is 249 million people. The US consists of 50 states. The largest state is Alaska. Hawaii is one of the smallest states, it is a group of islands (archipelago) in the Pacific Ocean, 2,397 miles from California. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific andAtlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The country also possesses several territories in the Caribbean and Pacific.

Along the Atlantic Coast the land is flat, inland from the coast there are the Appalachian Mountains. In the middle of the continent there is the great Mississippi River, which flows to the Gulf of Mexico. The middle part of the country is generally flat, this area is called the Great Plains. In the west there are two main mountain systems: the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Range.

The climate of the US is temperate, with four distinctseasons. The northern part of the country has snow in winter. The hottest places are Florida, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Southern Florida and Hawaii are subtropical. The East is much wetter than the West.

The main rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri,the Coloradoandthe Ohio. The largest cities of the US are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston and Philadelphia. The capital of the US is Washington.

The US has many natural resources, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, rich soil for agriculture and forests. The economy of the US is based upon free enterprise. The US produces non-electric machinery, transportation equipment and cars, chemicals, food products, electronic equipment, metal products, paper and plastic products.

The United States of America (the United States, the U.S., the USA, or America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy.

The federal government is composed of three branches:

Legislative: The Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties.

Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of the Cabinet.

Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws.

There are many ethnic groups in the United States. The largest group is Black Americans (about 12% of the population). Spanish-speaking people are about 9%. The fastest growing ethnic groups are Chinese, Japanese and Indochinese (about 3%). Native Americans are about 1 % of the population. The basic language spoken throughout the country is American English.

 

VOCABULARY

population— население

square— квадратный

to consist of— состоять из

island— остров

archipelago - архипелаг; группа островов

Washington, D.C.– Вашингтон, Столица Соединенных Штатов Америки на востоке США в пределах специально созданного Федерального округа Колумбия

to stretch— простираться

flat— плоский

inland— внутрь континента

to flow— протекать

the Gulf of Mexico— Мексиканский залив

the Great Plains— Великие равнины

the Rocky Mountains— Скалистые горы

the Cascade Range – Каскадные горы (горы в системе Кордильер Северной Америки; находятся на территории США и Канады)

temperate— умеренный

distinct— отчетливый

wet— сырой

natural resources— природные ресурсы

coal— уголь

petroleum— нефть

soil— почва

agriculture— сельское хозяйство

free enterprise— свободное предпринимательство

to produce— производить

machinery— оборудование, станки

transportation equipment— оборудование для транспорта

chemicals— химические вещества

paper— бумага

commander-in-chief –главнокомандующий

legislative bills – законопроект

the Cabinet -кабинет (министров)

Legislative- законодательный

Executive - исполнительный

Judicial – судебный

ethnic— этнический

fast— быстрый

native Americans— коренные американцы

basic— основной

throughout the country— по всей стране

 

1. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the population of the US?

2. What does it consist of?

3. Where is Hawaii situated?

4. What are the names of the biggest mountain chains?

5. Where does the Mississippi River flow?

6. What part of the country is flat?

7. What is the climate like?

8. What are the hottest places in the US?

9. What are the main rivers and the most important cities of the US?

10. What does the US produce?

11. What other languages besides English are spoken in the United States?

12. What branches is the federal government composed of?

2. Say if these statements are true or false:

1. The US is the 4th biggest country in the world.

2. Hawaii is situated in California.

3. Along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean there are the Appalachian mountains.

4. American climate is rather subtropical.

5. The warmest places are Texas, Arizona, New Mexico & Florida.

6. The main river is the Mississippi.

7. The US has some natural resources, such as iron, steel & natural gas.

8. The US economy is based on private enterprise.

9. The US produces electronic and transportation equipment, metal products, paper and plastic products.

10. The largest ethnic group in the US is Afro-Americans.

3. Finish these sentences:

1. Hawaii is one of the smallest states ...

2. In the middle of the continent there is ...

3. In the west there are two ...

4. In the north of the US there is ...

5. The capital of the US is ...

6. The major language in the US is ...

7. The United States of America (the United States, the U.S., the USA, or America) is a federal …

 

4. You are writing a report on the US and you need some general information about the country. You want to consult an expert on:

 

1.Population, area, states & cities.

2. Rivers, mountains & climate.

3. Economy & industry.

4. Ethnic groups.

5. Speak on:

1. Geographical situation, area, population.

2. Rivers, mountain chains & climate.

3. Ethnicity, language.

4. Economy.

 

6. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words in italics:

A.

1. What is the mean annual rainfall?

2. A row of mean houses blocked the view.

3. I have been meaning to do it for a long time.

4. Exploring a new country in the olden days meant putting up with considerable hardship.

5. What is your favorite means of transport?

6. He has private means.

7. Can you think of a means of doing it?

8. By all means do it if you want.

9. Does the end justify the means?

10. I do not like meanness in people.

B.

1. That bar has a lot of atmosphere.

2. He was called to the Bar last year.

3. A few bars of chocolate are included in most emergency rations.

4. He hummed a few bars' of tune.

5. No holds are barred т that contest. .

6. They all went bar me.

7. He bent two bars ahd forced his way between them.

8. Will the prisoner at the bar kindly answer the questions?

9. The police barred the way.

10. The American administration is doing its best to breakdown the colour bar in the U.S.

POINT OF GRAMMAR

Questions and Answers

Making questions

• Questions are formed for all tenses except present simple and past simple by

changing the position of the auxiliary verb {am, was, will, etc.) and the

subject (I, you, she, he, etc.):

You 're going —> Are you going?

He hasgone —> Has he gone?

• Questions are formed for the present simple and past simple by using do,

does, or did:

They work here. Dothey work here?

She lived here. Didshe live here?





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