ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

THE AIMS AND PRINCIPLES OF THE INTERNATIONAL



SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION

 

It is hard to imagine peaceful coexistence of nations without all-round scientific and engineering cooperation among the states. Moreover, there are fields which cannot be developed effectively on a national scale, such as environmental protection, space exploration, and development of nuclear and solar energy or the rational use of the ocean’s resources.

Scientific and technological cooperation between different countries has always rested on respect for sovereignty, equality and mutual advantage. International contacts in science and technology have been regarded as a means of speeding up socio-economic progress of all the countries. Universality, freedom and critical thinking constitute basic elements in the scientific process and form a common bond between all cultures. Accordingly, science can make a significant contribution to constructive dialogue between different cultures and thereby act as a powerful antidote to intolerance and to ideological and racial barriers. Moreover, the progress and application of scientific knowledge can offer effective means for solving many of the problems which face humanity, including those generated by the misuse of science.

Recognizing the important and distinctive potential of science to contribute to a better future for mankind, the world scientific community emphasizes its adherence to the following principles:

- respect for the diversity of cultures within societies and promotion of science as a distinctive and important contributor to bridging such diverse cultures and promoting peaceful coexistence in accord with the principles of freedom, autonomy and rationality;

- mutual cooperation, reflecting the recognition that the production and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge are decisive for the future welfare of humanity and that science, with its universality, is uniquely positioned to serve as a laboratory in which mankind can work together to achieve a better future in accord with the principles of responsibility, solidarity and respect for the rights of individuals and nations.

A great number of scientists from different countries, as well as from Belarus, are involved into the realization of different international projects sponsored by numerous international organizations and funds: UNESCO, WHO, WMO, CERN, ISO, ICSTI, JINR, IAEA, etc. The spheres of joint endeavour include nuclear energetics, space research, geology and geophysics of the world ocean, different branches of medical sciences, microelectronics, bioorganic chemistry, transport engineering, telecommunication equipment, information technologies, etc.

The active exchange of information at the international meetings, scientific congresses, conferences and symposia, experts and students exchange programmes facilitate establishing close relations between scientists, open new opportunities for coordination of joint efforts in solving the most urgent problems, accelerate dissemination of new knowledge and advanced technologies improving the life of humankind.

Notes:

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
CERN Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (фр) – European Organization for Nuclear Research
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ICSTI International Centre for Scientific and Technical Information
JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

 

A1. Peaceful coexistence of nations rests on scientific and engineering cooperation among the states. T

 

A2. Such problems as environmental protection, the rational use of the ocean’s resources can be successfully solved on a national scale. F

 

A3. International contacts in science and technology accelerate both economic and social progress of all the countries contributing to the dissemination of new knowledge. T

 

A4. Mutual cooperation is of minor importance to the world scientific community. F

 

A5. Science, being universal, can be regarded as a laboratory in which men can work together to achieve a better future. T

 

A6. Science and its applications are indispensable for development and well-being of the nations. T

 

A7. Such organizations as UNESCO, WHO, WMO, CERN, etc. are subsidized and supported by different international projects. F

 

Task 2. Choose the correct answer to the following questions:

 

A8. Why is it important to develop all-round scientific and engineering cooperation among the states?
  A. To provide scientific and technical support to developing countries.
B. Some problems can be solved only with joint efforts.
C. International cooperation plays a key role for economic and social development.
D. To respond to major global societal challenges.

 

A9. What is the scientific and technological cooperation based on?
  A. International contacts in science and technology.
B. Universality, freedom and critical thinking.
C. Constructive dialogue between different cultures.
D. Not only on respect for sovereignty but also on equality and mutual advantage.

 

A10. What is the role of science in relations between countries?
  A. Science slows down the development of humankind.
B. Science can impede constructive dialogue between different cultures.
C. Science can break ideological and racial barriers.
D. Science has nothing to do with the elimination of ideological and racial barriers.

 

A11. What are the main principles of scientific cooperation?
  A. Scientists should have respect for various cultures.
B. The benefits of science should be distributed between developed countries.
C. Scientists are free of any ethical standards.
D. Scientists are not concerned with the promotion of scientific development, technological advance, application of IT technologies.

 

A12. In what spheres is international scientific cooperation practiced?
  A. Scientists and researchers across the world work in the sphere of science and technology.
B. Scientists have narrowed their participation in finding a coordinated solution for such global problems as atmospheric changes and the depletion of the ozone layer.
C. Scientists’ mission is to produce fundamental knowledge.
D. Scientists from different countries are involved solely in long-term research projects.

 

A13. What are the forms of international cooperation?
  A. They may be either international meetings or scientific conferences.
B. They may be only international meetings and scientific congresses, conferences and symposia.
C. They may be not only international meetings but also experts and students exchange programmes.
D. They may be neither experts nor students exchange programmes.

 

Task 3. Match the names of organizations with their aims.

 

A14. UNICEF c a) was established in 1972 to guide and coordinate environmental activities within the United Nations system.

 

A15. UNEP a b) was dedicated to increasing the contribution of atomic energy to the world's peace and well-being and ensuring that agency assistance is not used for military purposes.

 

A16. WHO e c) was created in 1946 to provide relief to children in countries devastated by World War II.

 

A17. IAEA b d) was established for the purpose of collaborative research into high-energy particle physics.

 

A18. CERN d e) was established in 1948 to further international cooperation for improved health conditions.

 

Task 4. Study the text and choose the correct variant.

 

UNESCO

 

UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that (19)__ in 1946 to promote international collaboration in education, science, and culture. Its permanent headquarters (20)__ in Paris, France.

UNESCO's initial emphasis (21)__ on rebuilding schools, libraries, and museums that (22)__ in Europe during World War II. Since then its activities (23)__ mainly facilitative, aimed at assisting, supporting, and complementing the national efforts of member states to eliminate illiteracy and to extend free education. UNESCO also (24)__ to encourage the free exchange of ideas and knowledge.

As many less-developed countries (25)__ the UN in the 1950s, UNESCO began to devote more resources to their problems, which included poverty, high rates of illiteracy, and underdevelopment.

Besides its support of educational and science programs, UNESCO (26)__ in efforts to protect the natural environment and humanity's common cultural heritage. For example, in 1972 it sponsored an international agreement to establish a World Heritage List of cultural sites and natural areas that (27)__ government protection. In the 1980s a controversial study by UNESCO’s International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems proposed a New World Information and Communication Order that (28)__ communication and freedom of information as basic human rights and seek to eliminate the gap in communications capabilities between developing and developed countries.

 

A19. 1) created 3) was created
2) had been created 4) had created

 

A20. 1) are 3) was
2) were 4) are being

 

A21. 1) is 3) was
2) are 4) were

 

A22. 1) had been destroyed 3) have been destroyed
2) had destroyed 4) destroyed

 

A23. 1) are 3) has been
2) were 4) have been

 

A24. 1) seeks 3) sought
2) seek 4) is sought

 

A25. 1) had been joined 3) were being joined
2) joined 4) were joined

 

A26. 1) also has involved 3) were also involved
2) also involves 4) is also involved

 

A27. 1) will enjoy 3) would enjoy
2) had enjoyed 4) will be enjoyed

 

A28. 1) would treat 3) will be treated
2) will treat 4) would be treated

 

Task 5. Study the text and choose the correct variant.

 





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