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VISIT THE ATOM SMASHER TUNNEL IN GENEVA



 

CERN, which stands (29)__ the European Organization for Nuclear Research was first established in 1954 as (30)__ joint European research center, located just north of Geneva . The Large Hadron Super Collider which makes (31)__ 2 kilometre diameter circle through (32)__ Switzerland and France countryside in a tunnel about 100 meters underground is only (33)__ most recent addition (34)__ a series of particle accelerators at the CERN Laboratory. It’s a huge facility, rather like a large collegiate campus. CERN is also where the World Wide Web was born more than twenty years ago.

CERN offers a number of possibilities for visiting the facility. Lectures and presentations are regularly given in the CERN’s iconic Globe of Science and Innovation, constructed as a venue for film showings, conferences, exhibitions and debates. Tours are (35)__ various themes, starting with an introductory presentation on CERN, followed (36)__ a film, and a visit to one of the experiments or to one of the above-ground smaller accelerators. Tours are not allowed (37)__ into the actual Hadron Collider underground tunnels while it is in operation.

The CERN laboratory campus is (38)__ twenty minute tram and bus ride from the Geneva main Cornavin train station.

 

A29. 1) in 2) for 3) from 4) with

 

A30. 1) a 2) an 3) the 4)

 

A31. 1) a 2) an 3) the 4)

 

A32. 1) a 2) an 3) the 4)

 

A33. 1) a 2) an 3) the 4)

 

A34. 1) to 2) for 3) in 4) on

 

A35. 1) to 2) of 3) by 4) with

 

A36. 1) with 2) at 3) from 4) by

 

A37. 1) down 2) up 3) below 4) above

 

A38. 1) a 2) an 3) the 4)

 

Task 6. Find a mistake in the underlined parts of the sentences given below.

 

A39. He took upcomputer-aided design last year because he thought A B it to bemost fascinated to study. C D

 

A40. During World War II, Massachusetts Institute of Technology administered A the Radiation Laboratory, that became the nation's leading centre for radar B C research and development, as well as other military laboratories. D

 

A41. If your qualification doesn’t meetthe required standard, try to agree on an A B C improvement plan and ask them to let you to be interviewed another time. D

 

A42. The nature of fundamental scientific research mean that you A may be working on projects with long timescales or where B C the full benefits are only realised years later. D

 

A43. Scientific development takes knowledge gained from scientific research and A B applies them to improve or create new products, processes and services. C D

 

A44. Industry is more likely to research areas which may lead A B to a commercially viable product or service, despite some large C D corporations also support blue sky research centres.

 

Task 7. Study the text and choose the correct variant.

 

SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION

Scientists frequently (45)__ with other scientists in their research. Cooperative efforts may (46)__ scientists from many different countries. Another way in which scientists share their (47)__ is by attending local, national, or international conferences. Conferences are periodic meetings in which scientists formally or informally (48)__ their research and opinions. Conferences (49)__ scientists with immediate feedback on their work. Many historic scientific breakthroughs have been presented to the scientific community at such conferences. Consequently, many scientists attend conferences to follow scientific developments and share methods, results, and ideas with (50)__ researchers. In (51)__ to attending conferences, many scientists regularly correspond with (52)__ another. Some of these letters have become historic documents. (53)__ may also write formal (54)__ describing their experimental procedures, hypotheses, results, and conclusions.

 

A45. 1) cooperate 3) cope
2) rely 4) depend

 

A46. 1) contain 3) involve
2) include 4) represent

 

A47. 1) research 3) interest
2) combination 4) examination

 

A48. 1) use 3) develop
2) carry 4) present

 

A49. 1) give 3) keep
2) provide 4) offer

 

A50. 1) another 3) others
2) other 4) the other

 

A51. 1) according 3) addition
2) besides 4) except

 

A52. 1) each 3) every
2) only 4) one

 

A53. 1) research 3) researchers
2) science 4) scientist

 

A54. 1) journals 3) situations
2) papers 4) knowledge

 

Task 8. Choose the appropriate remark in an answer to the suggested stimulus remark.

 

A55. He is going to take up another project.
  1) Isn’t he?
2) Don’t mention it.
3) Never mind.
4) That’s not a very good idea.

 

Task 9. Choose the stimulus remark compatible with the suggested responsive remark.

 

A56. I don’t think much of it.
  1) Why do you always think I’m wrong?
2) How’s Mike getting on?
3) Do you often think about presentation?
4) How do you like their project?

 

Task 10. Read the question. Choose one of the given variants.

 

A57. What international organization was formed to help countries eliminate poverty and improve the quality of life while conserving the environment and natural resources for future generations?
  1) UNESCO
2) UNDP
3) UNEP
4) ISO

 

Task 11. Read the text. Then choose the best suitable title to each passage.

 

A58. We have known about the atomic nature of the structure of matter for over a century, however this microscopic world was always considered abstract and invisible, hidden from our direct view by the limitations on how closely we can look at any material that forms everyday reality. Over the past two decades, this divide has been dramatically removed with the development of a new class of microscopes that allow us to probe and even manipulate the surfaces of materials with unprecedented precision. The invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM) in 1982 by the IBM researchers Gerd Binning and Gerhard Rohrer (for which they were awarded the Nobel prize four years later), allowed us for the first time to directly observe the structure of matter on the atomic scale. 4

 

A59. In the STM, a sharp metallic tip (terminated with a single metal atom) is scanned back and forth across the material to be observed, and an effect known as “quantum tunnelling” results in a very small electrical current flowing between the tip and the surface, which can be measured very precisely and is used to create images. The amount of current that flows is very sensitive to the exact distance between the tip atom and the atoms in the surface, and in this way the microscope can resolve an atomic structure. 2

 

A60. The STM has undoubtedly been very successful in opening up the microworld, however it suffers from one major handicap: that both the tip and the surface must be conductors (in order for the tunnelling current to flow). This prevents the STM being used with insulating surfaces, and rules out many important systems, including biological samples. In fact, for the architecture described above to be fully realized, the molecules must be attached to an insulating substrate. To overcome this problem, the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was developed by the same team that invented the STM. 1

 

A61. The wavelength problems that created so much confusion in the United States and provided a strong argument for monopoly in Britain also arose internationally, particularly in Europe, where the concentration of heavily populated and technologically advanced sovereign nations compelled international agreement. Telegraphy had led to an early conference in Paris in 1865 that created what later became the International Telecommunications Union. 1

 

A62. The founding mission of CERN, to promote collaboration between scientists from many different countries, required for its implementation the rapid transmission and communication of experimental data to sites all over the world. In the 1980s Tim Berners-Lee, an English computer scientist at CERN, began work on a hypertext system for linking electronic documents and on the protocol for transferring them between computers. His system, introduced to CERN in 1990, became known as the World Wide Web, a means of rapid and efficient communication that transformed not only the high-energy physics community but also the entire world. 4

 

A63. Among WMO’s major programs are World Weather Watch, a system of satellites and telecommunication networks connecting land and sea sites for monitoring weather conditions; the World Climate Programme, which monitors climate change, including global warming; and the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, which was designed to promote research on issues such as ozone depletion. 2

 

Choose the titles A58-A60 from the given below (1-4). One title is odd.

1) Shortcomings
2) Principle of Operation
3) Architecture
4) Visual Capabilities

 

Choose the titles A61-A63 from the given bellow (1-4). One title is odd.

1) Research Communication
2) Areas of Cooperation
3) Environmental Risks
4) Broadcasting

Part B

 

Task 1. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning.

 

Engineers (0) are trying to make computers (B1) think and behave like humans. By combining artificial intelligence (B2) and engineering (B3) techniques, they are building many different (B4) types of robots and androids. Robots usually contain software that runs automatically (B5), without the intervention (B6) of a person. Today, robots are used in a wide variety (B7) of contexts, from factories to space exploration (B8) In the future, tiny robotic creatures (B9) will be injected into the human body and move through the arteries, curing illnesses (B10). ENGINE COMPUTE INTELLIGENT ENGINE DIFFER AUTOMATIC INTERVENE VARY EXPLORE CREATE   ILL

 

 

Task 2. Read the text(B11-B12). Write down two odd words from each sentence in the order they are given in the text.

 

B11. Every year I am invited to take part in the Conference which held under the auspices of this university. Every time I come here, I meet the colleagues I know them very well. Which, them

 

B12. Many participants of the conference emphasize about the necessity of expanding scientific exchange programmes such as one of the effective forms of cooperation. About, such

 

Task 3. Read the text. Fill in the gaps with only one suitable word. The first letter of each missing word is given.

 

In order (B13) to provide overseas telecommunications, people had to develop networks that could link widely separated nations. The first networks to provide such link (B14) were telegraph networks (B15) that used undersea channels (B16), but these networks could provide channels for only a few simultaneous communications. Shortwave radio (B17) also made it possible for wireless transmissions of both telegraphy and voice over very long distance (B18). To take (B19) advantage of the capability of satellites to provide telecommunications service (B20), companies from all over the world pooled resources and shared risks by creating a cooperative k… (?) (B21) as the International Telecommunications Satellite (B22) Organization, or Intelsat, in 1964.

 

Task 4. Translate into English sentence fragments given in brackets.

 

B23. Intelsat has expanded and diversified to meet the global and regional satellite requirements of over 200 nations and territories.

 

B24. These images are so similar that I can’t tell them apart.

 

B25. Everyone has been told about the conference, haven’t they?

Test 5

Part A

 

Task 1. Read the text. Then study the statements after the text and mark them as true (T) or false (F).

 





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