Security and privacy on the Internet

There are many benefits from an open system like the Internet but one of the risks is that we are often exposed to hackers who (19)__ into computer systems just for fun, to steal information, or to spread viruses.

A hacker (20)__ to jail for fraudulent use of credit card numbers. Nicholas Cook, 26, (21)__ by police officers near a bank cash point last month.

Eight month earlier, he (22)__ copying hundreds of computer programs illegally. After an official inquiry, he (23)__ of software piracy and fined £5,000.

It (24)__ that in the last few years Cook (25)__ malware (malicious software) to phone operators and attacking mobile phones to steal business and personal information. Cook (26)__ to three years in prison for stealing passwords and obtaining money by credit card fraud.

Government officials (27)__ that new anti-backing legislation (28)__ in the EU next year.


A19. 1) will break 3) have broken
2) have been breaking 4) break


A20. 1) was sent 3) is being sent
2) has been sent 4) has sent


A21. 1) will be arrested 3) has been arrested
2) was arrested 4) had arrested


A22. 1) would be caught 3) had been caught
2) is caught 4) was to be caught


A23. 1) is accused 3) had been accused
2) will be accused 4) was accused


A24. 1) was reported 3) is reported
2) reported 4) will be reported


A25. 1) sent 3) had sent
2) was sent 4) has been sending


A26. 1) is sentenced 3) has sentenced
2) will be sentenced 4) has been sentenced


A27. 1) will say 3) say
2) said 4) have said


A28. 1) will introduce 3) will be introduced
2) would be introduced 4) could be introduced


Task 5. Study the text and choose the correct variant.


Ubiquitous computing, also known (29)__ pervasive computing, is a new approach in which computer functions are integrated (30)__ every day life, often in an invisible way. Ubiquitous devices can be anything from smart phones to tiny sensors in homes, offices and cars, connected (31)__ networks, which allow information to be accessed anytime and anywhere – in other words, ubiquitously. In the future people will interact naturally with hundreds of these smart devices (objects containing a microchip and memory) every day, each invisibly embedded (32)__ our environment and communicating with each other without cables.

(33)__ the ideal smart home appliances and electronic devices work in sync to keep the house secure. For example, when (34)__ regular alarm system senses that (35)__ is breaking (36)__ the house, it usually alerts the alarm company and then the police. A smart home system would go further, turning (37)__ the lights in the home and then sending a text message to the owner’s phone. Motorola Homesight even sends images captured by wireless cameras to phones and PCs.

Smart homes can remember your living patterns, so if you like to listen to some classical music when you come home from work, your house can do that for you automatically. They will also know when the house is empty and make sure all appliances are turned off. All home devices will be interconnected (38)__ a home area network where phones, cable services, home cinemas, touch screens, smart mirrors and even the refrigerator will cooperate to make our lives more comfortable.


A29. 1) like 2) from 3) 4) as


A30. 1) into 2) with 3) within 4) to


A31. 1) across 2) to 3) with 4) along


A32. 1) about 2) into 3) throughout 4) in


A33. 1) for 2) at 3) in 4) to


A34. 1) the 2) a 3) this 4)


A35. 1) anybody 2) something 3) someone 4) nobody


A36. 1) through 2) at 3) into 4) in


A37. 1) on 2) over 3) in 4)


A38. 1) over 2) near 3) at 4) in


Task 6. Find a mistake in the underlined parts of the sentences given below.


A39. How easy do you thinkis itto infiltrate the internet and steal A B C sensitive information? D


A40. If kids spend too much time online or suffer of the Internet addiction, A B parents should stop them using the Internet. C D


A41. Teleworking includes the whole range of work activities, all from which A B mean working remotely from an employer or normally expected place C D of work.


A42. In recent yearsa sharpvaluable distinction has grown up between A B C D science and technology.


A43. The main advantage to teleworkers in that less time, money A B and effort are spenton traveling to and from the workplace. C D



A44. Innovations now seem to appearat a rate that increases geometrically, A B C without respect for geographical limits or political systems. D


Task 7. Study the text and choose the correct variant.

Twentieth – century (45)__ from Europe and the U.S. to other major nations. It has not, however, (46)__ all the countries of the world, by any means. Some so-called developing nations have never (47)__ the factory system and other (48)__ of industrialization. The leaders of such countries tend to feel that the (49)__ of modern weapons and new technology will provide them with power and prestige. No one, however, can (50)__ the religious, social, and cultural (51)__ of the (52)__ of technologies to these countries. In fact, some of the most severe social (53)__ during recent decades have occurred in regions where radical changes caused by technology transfer have taken place; Uganda and Iran are two unhappy examples.

Technology has always been a (54)__ means for creating new physical and human environments. It is possible to ask today whether technology will also destroy the global civilization that human beings have created.


A45. 1) spread 3) proliferated
2) overwhelmed 4) sprawled


A46. 1) saturated 3) filled
2) pervaded 4) invaded


A47. 1) experienced 3) exercised
2) expected 4) required


A48. 1) institutes 3) authorities
2) institutions 4) universities


A49. 1) purchase 3) acquisition
2) borrowing 4) stealing


A50. 1) predict 3) foretell
2) formalize 4) forecast


A51. 1) consequence 3) achievements
2) development 4) advantages


A52. 1) transformation 3) translation
2) transfer 4) transmission


A53. 1) dislocations 3) stability
2) violation 4) progress


A54. 1) major 3) healthy
2) useful 4) questionable


Task 8. Choose the appropriate remark in an answer to the suggested stimulus remark.


A55. They have made a remarkable progress.
  1) What a nuisance!
2) Oh, hell, no!
3) That’s terrific great!
4) It’s good for nothing.


Task 9. Choose the stimulus remark compatible with the suggested responsive remark.


A56. I’d rather you didn’t. It’s too late.
  1) It goes without saying.
2) What an idea!
3) It’s too good to be true.
4) It’s worth taking a risk.


Task 10. Read the question. Choose one of the given variants.


A57. A 57. Once you are online, what most absorbing operations can you do?
  1) Browse the Web.
2) Visit chat rooms.
3) Send and receive e-mails.
4) Get together to take collective actions.


Task 11. Read the text. Then choose the best suitable title to each passage.


Microchip technology


A58. RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification. It uses microchips, smaller than a grain of sand, to store and transmit data using radio waves. These chips are called radio tags and can be attached to a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification.


A59. There are two types of radio tag. Passive RFID tags are so called because they have no power supply. They have an antenna that receives energy from a reader device and can only be read at short distances – up to five metres. Active RFID tags, on the other hand, come with a battery that provides internal power and have practical ranges of several hundred metres.


A60. Most tags used to track products like clothes or books only contain a unique identification number, similar to a bar code. But the chips being implanted into passports can store data such as name, address, nationality, sex, as well as biometric data like iris patterns or fingerprints. Radio tags can also be attached to animals and everyday items. That means you’ll be able to find your dog, glasses or car keys when they’re lost.


A61. RFID chips can be used in humans as well. They can be inserted under the skin. For example, some nightclubs are using an implantable chip to identify their customers, who then use it to pay for drinks. Some hospitals are implanting chips into patients’ arms, so that hospital staff can access their medical records. Another company is working on an implant that will contain a GPS. A device like that would allow us to pinpoint someone’s position on the globe.


A62. It looks like this microchip technology might change our lives completely. But can anyone think of any potential problems with RFID? Take, for example, security risks or privacy concerns.


A63. Consumer organizations say that tags might be used to track people to their homes after they’ve left the shop. Another risk is from hackers, who might steal another person’s identity. But manufacturers say we needn’t worry, because they’re developing encryption systems to protect radio tags from unauthorized scanning, and the tags embedded into humans will be easily removable.


Choose the titles A58-A60 from the given below (1-4). One title is odd.

1) Radio tags to identify things.
2) Microchips implanted into passports.
3) Attachable radio tags to store and transmit data.
4) Healing microchips.


Choose the titles A61-63 from the given bellow (1-4). One title is odd.


1) Microchips to track people at a distance.
2) Radio-acoustic tags.
3) Implantable radio chip embedded into humans.
4) Radio tags can locate people at large distances.


Part B


Task 1. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning.


Wearable computers is another trend in mobile (0) communications. Can you imagine ...... (B1) a PC on your belt and ...... (B2) email on your sunglasses? Some devices are ...... (B3) with a ...... (B4) modem, a keypad and a small screen; others are ...... (B5) by voice. The users of ...... (B6) technology are sometimes even ...... (B7) cyborgs? The term was ...... (B8) by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960 to describe ...... (B9) organism – ...... (B10) that are part robot, part human. MOBILITY WEAR GET EQUIP WIRE ACTIVATE WEAR CALL INVENT CYBERNETICS BE


Task 2. Read the text(B11-B12). Write down two odd words from each sentence in the order they are given in the text.


B11. Both science and technology imply a thinking process, both are being concerned with our causal relationships in the material world.


B12. Advances in science have frequently had made their bitter opponents, but today many people have come understood to fear technology much more than science.


Task 3. Read text. Fill in the gaps with only one suitable word. The first letter of each missing word is given.


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