Higher Education in Belarus.

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Higher Education in Belarus.


УО «Белорусский государственный экономический университет»

Н.И. Виршиц, И.В. Петрова


Higher Education in Belarus.

Belarus State Economic University


Электронное учебно-методическое пособие

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)»



Минск 2010



Рецензенты: зав.кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ, канд.филол.наук, доцент Т.Ф.Солонович, старший преподаватель кафедры теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ Родион С.К.



Рекомендовано кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ



Виршиц Н.И., Петрова И.В.

Высшее образование в Республике Беларусь. Белорусский государственный экономический университет. = Higher Education in Belarus. Belarus State Economic University: Электронное учебно-методическое пособие /Н.И. Виршиц, И.В. Петрова – Минск: БГЭУ, 2010. – 42 с.


Учебно-методическое пособие содержит тексты для изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, лексический материал, комплекс упражнений и заданий для формирования англоязычных коммуникативных навыков студентов в рамках темы «Высшее образование в Республике Беларусь. Белорусский государственный экономический университет» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». Предназначено для студентов БГЭУ дневной формы обучения.



Part A. Higher Education in Belarus


1. Read the following passage and comment on the following quotation: Knowledge is the highest privilege of the day.

Education is among the national priorities in the Republic of Belarus. Current state and development of all its stages are under the permanent attention of President Alexander Luckashenko and the Government.

Compulsory secondary and vocational education, free of charge higher education for majority of students, advanced and developing legislative base are the main features of Belarusian system of education.

After the periods of stagnation and perestroika and the crisis of the beginning of the 90-s, all the quality indicators of the education in the country demonstrate the sustainable growth. Almost everybody in the country is involved in education process since earliest childhood till old age. The last year’s success in national economy restoration and modernization permits to invest more in education. Belarus provides the highest percentage of the national income for education among the CIS countries.

The system of education in the RB is based on national traditions and global trends in education area, which guarantee equal access to all education stages, unification of the requirements, continuity of all training stages and state financial support. National education system is regulated by the Constitution of the RB, Laws “On Education in the RB”, “On Languages”, “On National Minority”, “On Child’s rights”, other provisions adopted for the past years. The Law “On Education in the RB” announces the right to receive complimentary education at every stage of the national structure.



Make sure that you know the following English words and word combinations.

public education—народное образование

universal education—всеобщее образование

compulsory education—обязательное образование

high-quality education—высококачественное образование

free of charge education—бесплатное образование

vocational education—профессионально-техническое образование

further education—дальнейшее образование

full-time education—дневное образование

part-time education—вечернее образование, заочное образование

to go on in higher education—продолжать образование; syn. to continue one’s education at smth.

educational establishment (institution)—образовательное учреждение

thirst of knowledge—жажда знаний

to put one’s knowledge into practice—применять знания на практике

to give general knowledge in smth—давать общие знания

to acquire knowledge (skills)—приобретать знания (умения)

superficial knowledge—поверхностные знания

profound knowledge—глубокие знания (deep knowledge)

to take an exam - сдавать экзамен;

to fail an exam—провалить экзамен

to pass an exam—выдержать экзамен; syn. to have an exam

an examination board—экзаменационная комиссия

entrance exam—вступительный экзамен

grant, allowance, scholarship -стипендия

monthly allowance—ежемесячная стипендия

social allowance—социальная стипендия

nominal scholarship—именная стипендия

to get a scholarship—получать стипендию

course of study—курс обучения, to study at the budget cost

to train –обучать; to train specialists in smth.

to offer opportunities—предоставлять возможности;

to satisfy—удовлетворять


tuition fee—плата за обучение; (to charge fees for educating smb.)

to be guaranteed by the Constitution—гарантироваться Конституцией

to be funded by the state—финансироваться государством

qualified teaching staff –квалифицированный профессорско-преподавательский состав

to be selected according to one’s current level of academic attainment - выбирать в соответствии с текущей успеваемостью

high entrance competition (to get necessary entrance score) -конкурс при поступлении( набрать необходимое количество баллов)

to graduate from —окончить университет; graduate—выпускник; todefend the graduation thesis

to obtain a degree—получить степень

Bachelor's degree - степень бакалавра

Master's degree - степень магистра

Doctor's degree - степень доктора наук

to award a degree—присуждать степень

curriculum—курс обучения, учебный план, программа

major n – специальность, специализация

to major in (to specialize in)—специализироваться в

lax credit system - льготная кредитная система


1. Read the text “Higher education in Belarus” and sum up what the text says about

· education and knowledge

· system of higher education in Belarus

· institutions of higher education in the RB

Knowledge is very important in modern life; it helps young people to choose a profession according to their brain and abilities, to be active, useful citizens of the country, to develop the national economy. Only highly qualified specialists can solve the most complex problems facing our society. “An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He is also finding out more about the world around him.” Knowledge, science and culture open prospects for the future. Scientific and intellectual potential is the main strategic resource of Belarus. Development and enhancement of the national educational system is the top priority of the public policy. In compliance with the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus and the Act on Education every citizen has a right to universal secondary education and further professional education. One of the necessary qualifications for higher establishments is complete secondary education. The government tries to preserve the democratic character of education, paying much attention to common human values, developing independent critical thinking instead of simple perception of information.

The republic is reforming its system of education today with the aim of creating an independent, qualitatively new national school, corresponding to international standards and ensuring each citizen the right to the high-quality education according to his abilities and inclinations.

Another important issue is the control over the quality of education. Regardless of the pattern of ownership all educational establishments are subject to accreditation procedure, which takes place every five years. Accreditation is aimed at confirmation of adequate level of quality and contents of education and graduate training, which should meet the requirements of established educational standards. Accreditation entitles the educational establishment in question to issue a standard certificate of education of a corresponding level.

Institutions of higher education in RB fall into four major types: University, Academy, Institute and Higher College. Universitycarries out fundamental research in a wide range of natural sciences, humanities and other sciences, culture. University is the centre of developing education, science and culture. University trains specialists at all levels of higher education over a wide range of fields of study. Academytrains specialists at all levels in one field of study, carries out applied and fundamental research, mainly in one branch of science or engineering. Institute trains specialists, as a rule, at the first level of higher education in a number of specialties of one field of study. Higher College trains specialists at the first level of one or several specialties. Altogether there are 53 higher educational establishments, of which 43 are state owned (28 universities, 8 academies, 1 institute, 5 higher colleges, 1 higher school), 10 are private and 2 are run by religious organizations. Every establishment occupies its particular niche in training of highly qualified specialists for various branches of national economy. They train students in more than 320 specialties and in over 1,200 majors allowing the national economy actually to fully meet its needs in the specialists. In 2007-2008 the number of students was 413,658, that is, there are 425 students for 10,000 citizens of Belarus. All higher educational establishments are subordinate to the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus. The oldest higher educational institutions of the country are the Belarusian Agricultural Academy; the Belarusian, Mogilev and Vitebsk State Universities; the Belarusian Polytechnic Academy; Vitebsk Veterinary Medicine Academy.

Higher educational establishments provide a two level system of higher education. The 1st- level (stage) education is completed by passing the examinations and/or defending a diploma thesis. The students, who successfully completed the education, are issued a diploma and awarded a qualification (a Bachelor’s Degree). A more stringent selection and much more advanced 2nd- stage curriculum (for obtaining the Master’s Degree) allow perfectly educated intellectual elite of the country to be formed. Also after university graduation young specialists have the possibility to get a postgraduate education. Here training of the scientific personnel with highest qualifications is conducted with granting scientific degrees of Candidate of Science (equivalent of PhD) and Doctor of Science. The old 5-year curriculum is still in use. Curricula and programs take into account both specific features of the national system of higher education and necessity of its integration into the world’s educational space. The curriculum structure includes study of disciplines of humanitarian and social-economic type, of general scientific and general professional type, of special disciplines, of specialization disciplines.

It is not easy to become a student. High demand for higher education led to high entrance competition regardless of the form of study or specialty. The rules of enrollment to the institutions of higher education provide for unified conditions for admission. Therefore only the very best can study at the budget cost. In order to obtain free education an applicant has to pass the compulsory centralized testing in two or three admission disciplines successfully. The entrants who passed the entrance exam successfully but did not win the competition (did not get the necessary entrance score) have the opportunity to study on their own account. As regards tuition fee, it does not significantly exceed education services costs and stays within 500- 3500 US$ for the most prestigious specialties. The paying students can make use of lax credit system.

Three forms of learning are available at Belarusian higher educational establishments: full-time, evening and by correspondence. Full-time learning is the most widespread and in the greatest demand with 2/3 of the students. Full-time students with positive grades receive a monthly allowance. Its size depends on a student’s academic success. Some groups of students are granted social allowances; the most gifted young people can also apply for the scholarship from a special President fund on social support of gifted students. Less than 1% of students use evening form of learning and over 35% learn by correspondence. These forms of learning are a good opportunity for persons with financial, age, physical and other limitations.

External studies represent another form of receiving higher education. It is based on the independent study of subjects from regular curriculum. This form is available to persons with secondary education, who cannot study full-time or leave their workplace. Diplomas are granted to external students on a regular basis.

The efficiency of any form of learning is ensured by qualified teaching staff including a large number of candidates and doctors of science, associate professors and professors.

But higher education in Belarus does not only mean lectures, seminars and exams. In addition Belarusian students participate in international scientific conferences and competitions, student exchange programs. Belarusian teams take first places at competitions in mathematics, economy and programming. However, organization of the educational process is not the only concern of the Higher School. Much attention is paid to students’ living conditions, providing non-residents with hostel accommodation. University administration renders assistance in conducting leisure activities of students (sports meetings, festivals, tourist programs).

After graduation the budget students are provided with the first workplaces. Finding a good job on specialty both in the republic and abroad is not a problem for paying students either. Belarus has a bilateral agreement on mutual recognition of education certificates with dozens of the world countries. The Belarusian specialists are much in demand in the world.

Belarusian education is ranked among the best ones and intellectual resources are the major wealth of the republic. We have every right to say that the future of the country in many respects depends upon the quality of education received by its citizens.


2. Answer to the following questions:

1) What is education?

2) How important is knowledge in modern life?

3) Why so much importance is given to education in the country?

4) What sort of education can be called really valuable to society?

5) What helps to make a person educated?

6) What does the phrase “the right to education” mean? What is it ensured by?

7) In what way is the Belarus reforming its system of education?

8) What is the chief function of universities?

9) How many higher educational establishments are there in Belarus?

10) How many years does training take?

11) Is it easy to become a student?

12) What do applicants have to do if they wish to enter the university?

13) What are the main forms of learning?


1. Give words defined by the following:

1) a person with authority to maintain discipline, the head of a department of studies;

2) charge or payment for professional advice or services; cost of examination;

3) a right, opportunity or means of reaching, using and approaching;

4) a list of times for doing things;

5) a list of all the courses of study offered by a university;

6) the principal field of study of a student at a university;

7) to get or gain smth. such as trait or ability;

8) a person who applies, a candidate;

9) required by laws;

10) permission to enter;

11) an instruction;

12) person who has been awarded the first degree from a university.

2. Choose the appropriate word from the brackets.

1) My daughter wants to … in a small college in our city. (enroll/ go/ attend)

2) My sister has several opportunities to get a university degree, but she wants to talk this … with our parents. (back/ over/ into)

3) My son is working really hard to…good grades and work part-time, but it is difficult. (analyze/ conserve/ maintain)

4) She received a …to pay for university expenses, so things should be easier for her now. She doesn’t have to worry about paying back any money either. (scholarship/

loan/ major)

5) So what is your … at university? Someone told me you were studying management or something like that. (major/ teacher/ class)

3. Fill in the missing word to complete the sentences below:

1) The Belarusian system of … education includes educational and research institutions that use unified standards in the processes of teaching, management, assessment and research.

a) higher b) secondary c) post-graduate

2) In 2002 a … system of higher education was introduced in Belarus.

a) three-stage b) four-stage c) two-stage

3) Those who have successfully completed their studies may be given a … degree.

a) Master’s b) Bachelor’s c) Doctor’s

4) …. carries out fundamental research in natural sciences, humanities and other sciences.

a) Academy b) University c) Institute

5) All educational establishments are subordinate to the …. of the Republic of Belarus.

a) President b) Ministry of Education c) Government

6) …. forms of learning are available at Belarusian higher educational establishments.

a) Three b) Two c) Four

7) To obtain free education a person has to successfully pass the compulsory centralized testing in … admission disciplines.

a) two b) three c) four

8) … form of learning is for those with secondary education, who cannot leave their workplace.

a) full-time b) evening c) part-time

9) … disciplines constitute a major portion of disciplines in the curriculum structure.

a) specialization b) general professional c) extra-curricular

10) Belarus provides the … percentage of the national income for education among the CIS countries.

a) lowest b) highest c) fixed

11) The …. is authorized to make some restrictions on pretender’s health conditions for certain specialties if these conditions could be dangerous when student runs the program or starts the profession.

a) Ministry of Education b) Rector c) Ministry of Healthcare

12) The Ministry of education adopted the decision of … scale introducing.

a) 5-grade b) 10- grade c) 100-grade

4. Use the following words in the sentences given below:


1. Divide the following nouns into countable and uncountable:

choice decision datum formula information knowledge law network path right life progress realization society youth


2. Give the plural of the following nouns:

medium job government faculty woman-teacher

branch degree speech pathway progress

basis dictionary tutor advice experience

criterion possibility information homework knowledge


3. Choose the appropriate noun for each sentence:

1) We had a lot of interesting … during our holidays. You need … for this job. (experience/experiences)

2) There are always no … with his studies. (trouble/troubles)

3) Our University was built of … (brick/bricks)

4) The … of our University consists of highly qualified specialists. (faculty/faculties)

5) A manager should have … in solving such problems. (experience/experiences)

6) A pupil had no … to get higher education. (stimulus/stimuli)

7) What are the … for this estimation? (criterion/criteria)


4. Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a noun that fits in the space in the same line.


How to learn vocabulary


Students are under enormous …… to learn huge amounts of vocabulary but they are rarely given …… as to how to go about it. They have a …… to try and learn long lists by heart, but this is hardly the most …… approach to the problem. The golden rule is to do lots of …… at regular intervals. Secondly, students should concentrate on words with the highest ……, particularly everyday words which also improve the students’ spoken …… . They should also take every …… to use the words in communication—there is considerable …… evidence that learners who like using the foreign language improve their oral …… and their overall …… of the language much more rapidly than students who are …… to practice the language in real situations. PRESS GUIDE TEND EFFICIENCY REVISE FREQUENT FLUENT OPPORTUNITY PSYCHOLOGY ACQUIRE RELUCTANCE    


5. Choose aor the in the following passage, in some places neither is possible:

A/the professor is not a/the teacher in a/the secondary school, but has a/the highest academic position in a/the university. A/the lecturer is a/the university teacher. Lecturers and professors give a/the lectures. Students usually have a/the tutor who gives them a/the advice and teaches students in small groups. You graduate from university with a/the degree. If you do a/the postgraduate work, you will have a/the supervisor to help and advise you.


6. Fill in the missing prepositions where it is necessary.

1)Belarusian system … higher education includes educational, research and governing institutions.

2) Educational system supplies the national economy … highly qualified personnel.

3) The main part … full-time students belongs… the age group … the pupils graduated … school … appropriate time.

4) Study … public institutions is free … charge as a rule.

5) The second level … scientific degree named Doctor … Science … the field … a concrete discipline could be awarded … a person who has a candidate degree already.

6) Classical universities are mostly oriented … basic science and humanities.

7) Institutes mainly execute a limited number … programs … narrow field … disciplines.

8) The right … access … higher education is among the major rights … Belarusian citizens.

9) Admission … Belarusian high educational institutions is conducted … competitive examinations.

10) Participation … students … research is considered as a very important component … their training.



1. Discuss the following question:

1) What to teach and how to teach in modern universities?

2) What improvements should be made to our country’s education system?

3) Prepare short presentations about the founding fathers of the educational system in Belarus (F. Skorina, Simon Budny, Vassil Tyapinski ,etc.).

4) What proverbs or sayings can prove that education is very important and necessary thing?


2. Comment on the following quotations and discuss them with your partner(s):

a) Nothing in education is so astonishing as the amount of ignorance it accumulates in the form of inert facts (H. Adams).

b) Education has for its object the formation of character (H. Spencer).

c) Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught (O. Wilde).

d) Knowledge is the antidote of fear (R. Emerson).

e) Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers (A. Tennyson).


3. Explain the following proverbs:

a) Live and learn. Век живи, век учись.

b) It’s never too late to learn. Учиться никогда не поздно.

c) Knowledge is power. Знание—сила.

d) Knowledge is wealth. Знание—богатство.

e) Knowledge is light. Знание—свет.


4. Using the USEFUL VOCABULARY at the beginning of Part A prepare a talk for a foreign audience on the system of education in your country. Present it and answer the questions that may arise.


Agreement and Disagreement

1. Study the expressions useful to get someone’s opinions about the subject being discussed.

  Agreeing with someone Agreeing to something
1.Agreement Strong: I fully/totally agree…. I completely/absolutely agree with you about/on.... I'm in total agreement with you Yes, definitely. Exactly! Precisely. Neutral: I agree with ... You're right there I think you are right Strong: I totally accept that... I fully agree to that... I'm all in favour of ... Yes, definitely Exactly Precisely.   Neutral: I support... I agree to ... That's true/right
2. Partial agreement I agree with you up to a point/to a certain extent but... I'd agree with you, but.... You may have something there, but … You could/may be right, but ... I suppose you are right but .... Maybe, but... I agree to that up to a point/to a certain extent.... I'd accept that, but... That could/may be so, but.... That may/might be right, but I see your point but ...
3. Disagreement Strong: I completely/absolutely disagree with you ... On the contrary ... Of course not. Neutral: (I'm afraid) I can't agree with you.... I don't agree/disagree... I think you are wrong.... Strong: I fully/totally disagree to that That's out of the question. That's ridiculous. Neutral: (I'm afraid) I can't accept that ... I don't accept that... That's not how I see it. I wouldn't say that.


2. Here are some people's opinions. Make notes on what you'd say in response to them, using the phrases given below. If you disagree, explain your reasons for disagreeing.

1) “If you want to go to university, you usually apply during your last year at school, when you are 17.”

2) “University students usually live away from home.”

3) “tudents get a grant or a loan from the government to study.”

4) ’Some students don’t want to go straight from school to university, so they take a year out to work’.

5) ’The commercials on TV are usually more entertaining than the programmes.’

6) ’Shops should all be open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.’

7) ’There's no point in buying expensive clothes. It's a waste of money.’

8)’Clothes in bright colours like red and yellow are becoming fashionable.’

9)’People spend too much money buying things they don't really need.’

10)’Everything is cheaper in a supermarket than in a street market.’


That's true. And I also think that . . .

I agree with you. And I also think that

That's a good point. Don’t you also think that…?

I see what you mean, but …

Well, personally I think that ...

I don't really agree because…

I don't quite agree because…

That's an interesting point of view, but I think...


3. Working with another student, take turns to respond to each opinion. Make sure you say more than just a few words in response.


1. Work in small groups and discuss the following questions.

a) At what age do you think you should ...

- stop listening to parents and teachers and do what you feel is right?

- be financially independent?

- leave the family home?

b) Have you ever taken your parents' advice and regretted it?

c) Do you intend to follow in your parents' footsteps?

2. Listen to parents talking about their eighteen-year-old daughter. Decide which of the following sentences best summarises their feelings about daughter's plans for the future.

a) They want their daughter to go to university but they're worried about supporting her financially.

b) They think she should get a university degree before she tries to become a pop singer.

c) They think that it would be a waste of time for her to go to university because she really wants to be a pop singer.

3. Listen again to the conversation and complete these extracts, using the phrases in the box.

taste of freedom up to her out of her system behind her make it

a) Now she reckons she's going to … in the pop world.

b) That's true, but once she gets a …, she'll find it more difficult to go back to college.

c) At least if it doesn't work out she'll have a qualification … .

d) We're just hoping that she'll get it … and then come to her senses and go back to her studies.

e) ... we can't afford to pay for her to live in London, so it's … to make it work.

4. Work with a partner. Decide whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. Do you think your parents would have the same opinion?

a) If you want to go travelling, it's best to get it out of your system before you start a career. Afterwards it's too late.

b) Once young people have had a taste of freedom, it's difficult for them to go back and live with their parents.

c) The more qualifications you've got behind you, the better your chances are of getting a good job.

d) You don't need musical talent to make it in the pop world these days: just good looks and a good manager.

e) Whether or not you succeed in life is up to you. Nobody else can help.


1. Using the following diagram explain the hierarchy and links in the system of higher education in writing.



1.Match the following words with their definitions:

a) diploma b) study session c) tutorials d) register e) degree f) graduate g) curriculum h) seminar i) lecture j) dean k) department l) assignment m) accreditation n) academic year   1) a course of study in a university 2) a university qualification 3) a kind of certificate 4) somebody with a university qualification 5) period of time used for study 6) individual contacts with lectures 7) a list of students’ names used to check attendance 8) a period of formal academic instruction, usually extending from September to June 9) approval of universities by nationality recognized professional associations 10) a form of small group instruction combining independent research and class discussion under the guidance of a professor 11) common method of instruction in university courses 12) director of a department 13) administrative subdivision of a college or university in which instruction in a certain field of study is given 14) work to be done outside of class time, required by a professor and due by a specified date


2. Match the synonyms:

1) to major in 2) to study 3) a profound knowledge 4) a schedule 5) a term 6) a grant 7) lodging 8) an institution 9) final exams 10) a dean’s office a) degree exams b) accommodation c) a timetable d) a faculty office e) to specialize in f) a deep knowledge g) to learn h) a semester i) a scholarship j) an establishment

3. Match English and Russian equivalents:


1. higher education 2. private institutions 3. university curriculum 4. to receive grants 5. local authority 6. academic session 7. to pass exams 8. research centre   a. получать стипендию b. местные власти c. учебный триместр d. сдать экзамены e. учебный план университета f. высшее образование g. научно-исследовательский центр h. частные учебные заведения



4. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space.





All students throughout the world sit for … at some point in their lives. If students are …, they get a formal … that enables them to get a job or continue with further … .Most formal testing involves a … of techniques, but the most common form requires students to show that they have a detailed … of the subject area. Students who do not pass, are not considered as …, they simply need more time to study. Some of them are simply …. The … who pass, do so because they have made a good … on the examiner and have also succeeded in showing their ….

5. Insert the necessary words to the following sentences:


’Knowing and understanding’

1. Study the idioms useful to say that you know or don’t know something or make conclusion.

A. Knowing and not knowing

knowing meaning
She knows the system inside out. She knows every detail of it.
When it comes to geography, he certainly knows his stuff. He has a very good knowledge of it.
That book title has a familiar ring to it. 1 think 1 read it a long time ago. It sounds familiar / I think I've heard it before.
I'm not sure if 1 know her, but the name rings a bell, (very commonly used with name) I have a vague memory of someone with that name, but can't remember exactly.
not knowing meaning
I haven't (got) / don't have a clue how to use this camera. I don't know at all.
I haven't (got) / don't have the faintest idea where she lives. I really don't know at all.
I haven't (got) / don't have the foggiest (idea) what this switch is for. I absolutely don't know at all.
I can't for the life of me remember her first name. I can't remember at all.
I'm a bit out of touch with computers these days. I used to know about them, but don't know the latest developments.
I'm sorry, that name doesn't ring any bells with me. (very commonly used with name) I don't think I've ever heard it before; it is unfamiliar.

В. Coming to conclusions


I didn't actually know where you were staying, but Mark said you were with a relative. So I put two and two together and guessed it was that aunt of yours, [concluded from the facts I knew]

I'm sorry, I got (hold of) the wrong end of the stick. I thought you were complaining about something, [came to the wrong conclusion]


‘I think he's got hold of the wrong end of the stick.'


2. Correct mistakes in these idioms.


1) I don't have even a faint idea where he is today; you'll have to ask somebody else.

2) The title of the CD has familiar rings to it, but I don't think I've ever heard it.

3) My cousin knows the tax laws outside and in, so if you want advice on your tax, he'll help you.

4) I can't for life think what it was I came into the kitchen for.

5) I saw Tom and Lily together in a restaurant looking adoringly into each other's eyes. I added up two and two, and decided they must be madly in love.

3. Use the corrected idioms from exercise 2 to rewrite the underlined parts of this paragraph. Use each idiom once only.


I always thought I knew my computer in every detail, but the other day it started to crash every time I opened a certain program. I could not in any way understand why it was doing this, and I didn't have any idea at all about what to do to fix it. I rang the helpline which I had used in the past, and after about 20 minutes I spoke to someone who said his name was Patrick, and that he was there to help me. He gave me some advice which sounded quite familiar to me from previous calls I had made to the same helpline. I thought about all this, put the facts together, and concluded that they give the same advice to everybody, and that it's just a way of getting rid of you. The computer still crashes every time I open the program.

4. Write sentences that mean the opposite of these sentences. Use appropriate idioms and make any other necessary changes.

1) Yes, that name is very familiar to me. I think I've met her several times.

2) I'm really up to date with TV soap operas these days. I watch them every day.

3) She knows absolutely nothing when it comes to the history of this area.

4) I correctly interpreted what she was trying to tell me and it solved a big problem.

5) No, sorry, her name means nothing to me. I may have met her, I just can't remember.

5. Complete each sentence with a different idiom which refers to 'not knowing'.

1) I.............................how to use the photocopier. Do you think you could help me? (weakest of the three)

2) I ...........................where I left that letter I brought for you. I'm really sorry, (stronger than 1)

3) I ..............................what she's talking about. She's crazy! (even stronger than 2)



1. Imagine a friend is going away to University. Give him or her some advice by completing these sentences. The first one has been done as an example:


1) In the first week, go to all the meetings to … (get to know other students).

2) When you meet the staff, ask lots of questions to …

3) Go for a walk around the university campus, so …

4) Find out what your timetable is, so as not to …

5) Make lots of notes in every lecture, so that …

6) Do as much work as you can now in case …

7) Buy all the recommended books straight away in case …


2. a) Read the dialogue. Make up 10 questions and answer them.

A college instructor from abroad is interested in the training and employment of Belarusian school leavers.

College instructor. How do you cope with the army of young people who leave your secondary schools?

Correspondent: Thousands of higher, special secondary and vocational schools, plants, construction sites, collective farms in all parts of the country are always eager to receive the young people. There is a suitable place for every school leaver.

College instructor: Are there any changes in the admittance rules and the programme of entrance examinations in connection with the increased number of school leavers wishing to attend higher school?

Correspondent: There are no particular changes. The only crite­rion for admittance to higher and special secondary schools is knowledge and ability. The majority of students receive a monthly state scholarship. If the student comes from another town or from a village, he is given a place in a hostel. There are many opportunities for every leaver to find work or continue to study.

b) Dramatize the dialogue with a partner. Make up your own dialogue about your University.

3. Suggested topics for conversation:

1) Education in Belarus. BSEU. (A dialogue between a Russian and an English student)

2) Your first day at the University.

3) The examination you have failed at.

4) Your favourite lecturer.


1. You are members of the University Council. You’ve worked out new University Rules for students and for teachers. Suggest and write down a set of sensible rules. These modal expressions are sure to help you:

Should (not)…, be (not) allowed to …, be (not) supposed to …


Do & Don’t Do & Don’t

for students for teachers


2. Read the text, single out the main facts from it and present your summary in English.

Meждународные связи

Международная деятельность является неотъемлемой составляющей жизни БГЭУ и строится по следующим основным направлениям:

o прием на учебу иностранных граждан на контрактной основе и в рамках двусторонних межправительственных соглашений;

o двустороннее академическое сотрудничество с зарубежными университетами и фондами;

o работа в рамках международных академических проектов/программ с зарубежными университетами и организациями;

o рекламная работа по привлечению иностранных граждан на учебу и стажировку в БГЭУ;

o анализ международной информации, поступающей через электронную почту, Интернет и поиски новых партнеров для реализации совместных академических проектов.

Международная деятельность университета направлена на развитие международных связей, содействующих модернизации образования, становлению вузовской науки, освоению мирового опыта в сфере высшего образования, привлечению иностранных инвестиций и расширению экспорта образовательных услуг.

Свыше 30 лет БГЭУ осуществляет подготовку специалистов из-за рубежа. В университете обучается около 500 иностранных граждан из 22стран Азии, Африки, Ближнего Востока, Европы, Балтии и СНГ. В последние годы это число постоянно увеличивается на 80-100 человек. В свою очередь, наши студенты, аспиранты и преподаватели направляются на учебу и стажировку в Китай, Францию, Германию, Италию, США.

Университетом подписаны двусторонние соглашения об академическом сотрудничестве в области образования более чем с 70 зарубежными вузами и научными организациями из 17стран мира. Это направление деятельности БГЭУ постоянно укрепляется и расширяется. Сегодня Белорусский государственный экономический университет является членом ряда международных ассоциаций и объединений.




Text 1 University Degrees

A university or college awards a degree to a person who has completed a required course of study. The institution presents the degree in the form of a diploma, a document which certifies the award. The basic kinds of degrees are called bachelor, master, and doctor. An honorary degree may be awarded for an outstanding contribution in a certain field.

Most students wishing to take a degree course seek entrance to a university. In some countries students can take degree courses as external students, through correspondence and television courses.

Most universities require a good pass in the final secondary school examination, and competition is keen for entry into such faculties as medicine and law. If possibly, a student planning to study in a university should seek information two years before completing a secondary school course. This will permit a choice of subjects appropriate for the intended course.

First degrees. First degrees are generally called bachelor's degrees. They include the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science (BSc). The BA is given for such subjects as history, literature, line arts, and, in some universities, for science. The BSc is given for science, engineering, and economics. Law students receive the Bachelor of Laws (LIB) in some universities, and the BA in others.

Until the late 1950's, students could take only two main types of the course: a general, or pass, course, or a special, or honours, course. Many universities still offer such courses, which last for three years. Students following the general course take three or four related subjects. Those taking the special course generally study one subject. The general courses were designed for students who wished to have general knowledge of a group of related subjects, such as science. The special courses were intended for those who wished to specialize in a specific subject, such as chemistry.

Some newer universities have tried to avoid rather narrow training provided by the special courses. They plan their studies so that all students follow the same broad course in the first year, and then study at least one science and one arts subject for another three years. Students do not specialize until the second year at the earliest. They may also study both scientific and non-scientific subjects, because the division into families common in many universities, has been abandoned.

In non-English-speaking countries, there is no standard name for the first degree. In France, the first degree is called the licencie es lettres. In Germany, it is called the staatsexamen. In Sweden, it is called the filosofie kandidatexamen (FK). The Italian Laurea takes the place of the first and second degrees in other countries. In Japan, the bachelor's degree is called gakushi. It is awarded after four years of study. In the countries of the former Soviet Union, students receive a diploma after studying for four or five years. The Candidate of Science degree is equivalent to a PhD.

Graduation. When the student has passed a final examination, he or she is qualified to receive a degree. But students cannot use the letters BA, BSc, and so on, until they have been formally admitted to the degree. This process is called graduation, and at a university or similar institution it is a dignified ceremony. For many students, the first degree marks the end of their university education.

Higher degrees. In most universities, students must complete one or two years of advanced study beyond the first degree to obtain a second or higher degree. Many universities require a thesis, a written report of a special investigation in the student's main subject of study. In most English-speaking universities, second degrees are called master's degrees. Such degrees include the Master of Arts (MA), Master of Arts and Economics (MEcon), and Master of Science (MSc).

Doctorates. The doctor's degree is the highest earned degree in many countries. There are two distinct types of doctor's degrees. One is a professional degree required to practise in certain professions, such as medicine. The other is a research degree that indicates the candidate has acquired mastery of a broad field of knowledge and the technique of scholarly research. The research doctorate may require at least two or three additional years of study beyond a master's degree. The candidate may be required to complete examinations and present a written thesis or dissertation. The doctoral thesis represents an original contribution to knowledge, and is a more detailed study of a research problem than that required for master's degree. In many English-speaking universities, the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree is the most important research doctorate and may include specialization in almost any academic subject. In some European countries, students of non­professional subjects also take a doctor's degree as the second degree. For example, the German degree of Doctor of Philosophy (DPhil) is the equivalent of the MA in English-speaking countries. In Russia and in Belarus, the Doctor of Science (doctor nauk) degree is awarded by a special commission. To receive this degree post-graduate students must research new and important material. In Japan the doctorate degree is called nakushil.

Honorary degrees. Many universities have adopted the custom of awarding honorary degrees to persons for achievement in their chosen fields. Chief among these are the Doctor of Letters (DLitt) and the Doctor of Laws (LLD). These degrees are often given to prominent authors, scholars, and leaders in professions, business, government, and industry.


The M.A. in economics prepares students for careers as professional economists in business and government. It is also excellent preparation for continued graduate study in economics.

Requirements: strong motivation, aptitude and basic intellectual ability are needed for success in graduate study in economics.

Program requirements: all students are required to take courses in advanced economic theory and economics. Students preparing for professional careers choose additional applied courses in industrial organization, international economics, natural and human resources, and urban and public economics. Students preparing for doctoral studies select from these and additional courses in economic theory and mathematics.

Students must satisfy all University requirements for the M.A. degree. Courses should be selected with the approval of graduate advisor.

Required courses:

- microeconomics: microeconomic behaviour of consumers, producers, and resource suppliers; price determination in output and factor markets; general market equilibrium.

- aggregate economics: advanced macroeconomics analysis of income; employment; prices; interest rates and economic growth rates.

- econometrics I.

- econometrics II.


The Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) is a professional degree designed to prepare graduates for managerial roles in business and non-profit organizations. Graduates will develop the necessary skills and problem-solving techniques that will permit them to make an early contribution to management and eventually to move into broad, general management responsibilities at the executive level.


Text 6 Research Work

The Belarus State Economic University is one of the leading centers of economic research in the country. Its departments carry out research in social and economic issues of forming market economy in the Republic of Belarus and the mechanism of its functioning. The areas of research include the problems of enterprise economics, management and marketing, accounting, analysis and auditing, statistics and price formation, finance and banking, commerce, and international economic relations.

University researchers take an active part in developing legislation, programs and conceptions of the socio­economic development of Belarus. They prepare reports, papers and analytical notes for the President's Administration and the Council of Ministers. They work in commissions, advisory panels and consulting councils whose activity is aimed at eliminating crisis phenomena in the national economy.

The University possesses research schools of econom­ics, accountancy, analysis and auditing, finance and banking, management, statistics, marketing, econometrics, and business law. Their existence facilitates efficient research and training scientific and teaching staff for the University and the Republic.

The Boards on defending Ph.D. and post-doctorate dissertations specialize in six research areas. There is a postgraduate school (aspirantura) and postdoctoral research school (doctorantura). Postgraduate students are trained in seven majors by 25 departments of the University.

The research findings of the University scholars are published annually in about 30 monographs and 50 textbooks and manuals holding an official recommendation of the Ministry of Education. The University organizes annually several international research conferences, in which both the University researchers and their colleagues from other Universities as well as from Poland, Spain, Germany, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine take part.

The University publishes «The BSEU Bulletin» and the newspaper «The Economist». It is a co-founder of such journals as «Accountancy, Finance and Auditing», «Belarusian Economic Journal», and «Hermes».


Text 7 Publishing Center


The changes that take place in the social and economic spheres inevitably put forward new requirements to the system of higher education as well as the quality of the information resources provided for the educational process. The establishment of the publishing center in February 1999 was one of the ways to raise a level of publications of teaching materials and the formation of the library stock.

The publishing center consists of editorial, printing, copying and marketing departments. There are good facilities at its disposal.

In spite of its «young age» (four years since its foundation), the publishing center has published 1,135 works with the total amount of more than 5,200 authors’ sheets edited so far, including text-books and teaching manuals with the Ministry of Education official recommendation (82); monographs (48); collections of scientific works and abstracts for conferences, congresses and symposia (78); educational methodological teaching manuals (including curricula) (762).

The acknowledged leaders among the national textbooks on economics published by the BSEU are as follows: «Economics» (edited by N.I. Bazylev, S.P. Gurko); «Bookkeeping in agricultural sector» (edited by A.P. Mikhalkevich); «Economic activities of enterprises and agricultural sector» (edited by P.V. Leshchilovsky, A.F. Dogil, V.S. Tonkovich); «Economic activities of commercial banks» (edited by G.I. Kravtsova); «Fundamentals of ecology and nature use» (O.S. Shimova, N.K. Sokolovsky); «Price Formation» (I.I. Poleshchuk, V.V. Tereshina).

The teaching manuals approved by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus were highly appreci­ated not only by the faculty and students of our university but of other universities, too. They are: «Economic-mathematical methods and models» (edited by A.V. Kusnetsov); «Ваnк monitoring and audit» (edited by G.I. Kravtsova); «Socio-economic statistics» (edited by S.R. Nesterovich); «Business planning in commerce» (N.N. Skriba, I.M. Mikulich, R.P. Valevich); «Advertising in tourism» (A.P. Durovich); «Philosophy» (edited by V.K. Lukashevich); «Insurance» (edited by M.A. Zaitseva, L.M. Litvinova); «Fundamentals of the diplomatic and consular service» (K.M. Zakharova, A.A. Konovalova); «Aesthetics of goods» (N.M. Ilyin); «Food-stuff commodity expertise» (edited by. O.A. Brilevsky); «Fundamentals of law» (edited by V.A. Vitushko, V.G. Tikhinya, G.B. Shishko); «Fundamentals of energy saving» (M.V. Samoilov, V.V. Panevchik, A.N. Kovalev); «Regional economics» (edited by V.I. Borisevich); «Organization of commerce» (V.N. Platonov).

The BSEU publishing center was the first in the country to start editing distance learning course books on particular subjects containing tests, tasks, lists of the recommended materials for part-time students.

University cooperation within the framework of the economic programs together with foreign universities and organizations is embodied in the joint editions of the course books on economic and law issues, and con­ference materials.

The publishing center publishes the findings of the research done at the university. They are published in collections of materials of the student national scientific conferences annually held at the university. The research work of the university faculty is published in monographs, and collections of scientific works.

The staff of the publishing center are professionals who have years of experience in publishing books.

Text 8 Library


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