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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Belarus State Economic University
Электронное учебно-методическое пособие
по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)»
Рецензенты: зав.кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ, канд.филол.наук, доцент Т.Ф.Солонович, старший преподаватель кафедры теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ Родион С.К.
Рекомендовано кафедрой теории и практики английской речи БГЭУ
Виршиц Н.И., Петрова И.В.
Высшее образование в Республике Беларусь. Белорусский государственный экономический университет. = Higher Education in Belarus. Belarus State Economic University: Электронное учебно-методическое пособие /Н.И. Виршиц, И.В. Петрова – Минск: БГЭУ, 2010. – 42 с.
Учебно-методическое пособие содержит тексты для изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, лексический материал, комплекс упражнений и заданий для формирования англоязычных коммуникативных навыков студентов в рамках темы «Высшее образование в Республике Беларусь. Белорусский государственный экономический университет» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)». Предназначено для студентов БГЭУ дневной формы обучения.
Part A. Higher Education in Belarus
1. Read the following passage and comment on the following quotation: Knowledge is the highest privilege of the day.
Education is among the national priorities in the Republic of Belarus. Current state and development of all its stages are under the permanent attention of President Alexander Luckashenko and the Government.
Compulsory secondary and vocational education, free of charge higher education for majority of students, advanced and developing legislative base are the main features of Belarusian system of education.
After the periods of stagnation and perestroika and the crisis of the beginning of the 90-s, all the quality indicators of the education in the country demonstrate the sustainable growth. Almost everybody in the country is involved in education process since earliest childhood till old age. The last year’s success in national economy restoration and modernization permits to invest more in education. Belarus provides the highest percentage of the national income for education among the CIS countries.
The system of education in the RB is based on national traditions and global trends in education area, which guarantee equal access to all education stages, unification of the requirements, continuity of all training stages and state financial support. National education system is regulated by the Constitution of the RB, Laws “On Education in the RB”, “On Languages”, “On National Minority”, “On Child’s rights”, other provisions adopted for the past years. The Law “On Education in the RB” announces the right to receive complimentary education at every stage of the national structure.
Make sure that you know the following English words and word combinations.
public education—народное образование
universal education—всеобщее образование
compulsory education—обязательное образование
high-quality education—высококачественное образование
free of charge education—бесплатное образование
vocational education—профессионально-техническое образование
further education—дальнейшее образование
full-time education—дневное образование
part-time education—вечернее образование, заочное образование
to go on in higher education—продолжать образование; syn. to continue one’s education at smth.
educational establishment (institution)—образовательное учреждение
thirst of knowledge—жажда знаний
to put one’s knowledge into practice—применять знания на практике
to give general knowledge in smth—давать общие знания
to acquire knowledge (skills)—приобретать знания (умения)
superficial knowledge—поверхностные знания
profound knowledge—глубокие знания (deep knowledge)
to take an exam - сдавать экзамен;
to fail an exam—провалить экзамен
to pass an exam—выдержать экзамен; syn. to have an exam
an examination board—экзаменационная комиссия
entrance exam—вступительный экзамен
grant, allowance, scholarship -стипендия
monthly allowance—ежемесячная стипендия
social allowance—социальная стипендия
nominal scholarship—именная стипендия
to get a scholarship—получать стипендию
course of study—курс обучения, to study at the budget cost
to train –обучать; to train specialists in smth.
to offer opportunities—предоставлять возможности;
tuition fee—плата за обучение; (to charge fees for educating smb.)
to be guaranteed by the Constitution—гарантироваться Конституцией
to be funded by the state—финансироваться государством
qualified teaching staff –квалифицированный профессорско-преподавательский состав
to be selected according to one’s current level of academic attainment - выбирать в соответствии с текущей успеваемостью
high entrance competition (to get necessary entrance score) -конкурс при поступлении( набрать необходимое количество баллов)
to graduate from —окончить университет; graduate—выпускник; todefend the graduation thesis
to obtain a degree—получить степень
Bachelor's degree - степень бакалавра
Master's degree - степень магистра
Doctor's degree - степень доктора наук
to award a degree—присуждать степень
curriculum—курс обучения, учебный план, программа
major n – специальность, специализация
to major in (to specialize in)—специализироваться в…
lax credit system - льготная кредитная система
1. Read the text “Higher education in Belarus” and sum up what the text says about
· education and knowledge
· system of higher education in Belarus
· institutions of higher education in the RB
Knowledge is very important in modern life; it helps young people to choose a profession according to their brain and abilities, to be active, useful citizens of the country, to develop the national economy. Only highly qualified specialists can solve the most complex problems facing our society. “An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He is also finding out more about the world around him.” Knowledge, science and culture open prospects for the future. Scientific and intellectual potential is the main strategic resource of Belarus. Development and enhancement of the national educational system is the top priority of the public policy. In compliance with the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus and the Act on Education every citizen has a right to universal secondary education and further professional education. One of the necessary qualifications for higher establishments is complete secondary education. The government tries to preserve the democratic character of education, paying much attention to common human values, developing independent critical thinking instead of simple perception of information.
The republic is reforming its system of education today with the aim of creating an independent, qualitatively new national school, corresponding to international standards and ensuring each citizen the right to the high-quality education according to his abilities and inclinations.
Another important issue is the control over the quality of education. Regardless of the pattern of ownership all educational establishments are subject to accreditation procedure, which takes place every five years. Accreditation is aimed at confirmation of adequate level of quality and contents of education and graduate training, which should meet the requirements of established educational standards. Accreditation entitles the educational establishment in question to issue a standard certificate of education of a corresponding level.
Institutions of higher education in RB fall into four major types: University, Academy, Institute and Higher College. Universitycarries out fundamental research in a wide range of natural sciences, humanities and other sciences, culture. University is the centre of developing education, science and culture. University trains specialists at all levels of higher education over a wide range of fields of study. Academytrains specialists at all levels in one field of study, carries out applied and fundamental research, mainly in one branch of science or engineering. Institute trains specialists, as a rule, at the first level of higher education in a number of specialties of one field of study. Higher College trains specialists at the first level of one or several specialties. Altogether there are 53 higher educational establishments, of which 43 are state owned (28 universities, 8 academies, 1 institute, 5 higher colleges, 1 higher school), 10 are private and 2 are run by religious organizations. Every establishment occupies its particular niche in training of highly qualified specialists for various branches of national economy. They train students in more than 320 specialties and in over 1,200 majors allowing the national economy actually to fully meet its needs in the specialists. In 2007-2008 the number of students was 413,658, that is, there are 425 students for 10,000 citizens of Belarus. All higher educational establishments are subordinate to the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus. The oldest higher educational institutions of the country are the Belarusian Agricultural Academy; the Belarusian, Mogilev and Vitebsk State Universities; the Belarusian Polytechnic Academy; Vitebsk Veterinary Medicine Academy.
Higher educational establishments provide a two level system of higher education. The 1st- level (stage) education is completed by passing the examinations and/or defending a diploma thesis. The students, who successfully completed the education, are issued a diploma and awarded a qualification (a Bachelor’s Degree). A more stringent selection and much more advanced 2nd- stage curriculum (for obtaining the Master’s Degree) allow perfectly educated intellectual elite of the country to be formed. Also after university graduation young specialists have the possibility to get a postgraduate education. Here training of the scientific personnel with highest qualifications is conducted with granting scientific degrees of Candidate of Science (equivalent of PhD) and Doctor of Science. The old 5-year curriculum is still in use. Curricula and programs take into account both specific features of the national system of higher education and necessity of its integration into the world’s educational space. The curriculum structure includes study of disciplines of humanitarian and social-economic type, of general scientific and general professional type, of special disciplines, of specialization disciplines.
It is not easy to become a student. High demand for higher education led to high entrance competition regardless of the form of study or specialty. The rules of enrollment to the institutions of higher education provide for unified conditions for admission. Therefore only the very best can study at the budget cost. In order to obtain free education an applicant has to pass the compulsory centralized testing in two or three admission disciplines successfully. The entrants who passed the entrance exam successfully but did not win the competition (did not get the necessary entrance score) have the opportunity to study on their own account. As regards tuition fee, it does not significantly exceed education services costs and stays within 500- 3500 US$ for the most prestigious specialties. The paying students can make use of lax credit system.
Three forms of learning are available at Belarusian higher educational establishments: full-time, evening and by correspondence. Full-time learning is the most widespread and in the greatest demand with 2/3 of the students. Full-time students with positive grades receive a monthly allowance. Its size depends on a student’s academic success. Some groups of students are granted social allowances; the most gifted young people can also apply for the scholarship from a special President fund on social support of gifted students. Less than 1% of students use evening form of learning and over 35% learn by correspondence. These forms of learning are a good opportunity for persons with financial, age, physical and other limitations.
External studies represent another form of receiving higher education. It is based on the independent study of subjects from regular curriculum. This form is available to persons with secondary education, who cannot study full-time or leave their workplace. Diplomas are granted to external students on a regular basis.
The efficiency of any form of learning is ensured by qualified teaching staff including a large number of candidates and doctors of science, associate professors and professors.
But higher education in Belarus does not only mean lectures, seminars and exams. In addition Belarusian students participate in international scientific conferences and competitions, student exchange programs. Belarusian teams take first places at competitions in mathematics, economy and programming. However, organization of the educational process is not the only concern of the Higher School. Much attention is paid to students’ living conditions, providing non-residents with hostel accommodation. University administration renders assistance in conducting leisure activities of students (sports meetings, festivals, tourist programs).
After graduation the budget students are provided with the first workplaces. Finding a good job on specialty both in the republic and abroad is not a problem for paying students either. Belarus has a bilateral agreement on mutual recognition of education certificates with dozens of the world countries. The Belarusian specialists are much in demand in the world.
Belarusian education is ranked among the best ones and intellectual resources are the major wealth of the republic. We have every right to say that the future of the country in many respects depends upon the quality of education received by its citizens.
2. Answer to the following questions:
1) What is education?
2) How important is knowledge in modern life?
3) Why so much importance is given to education in the country?
4) What sort of education can be called really valuable to society?
5) What helps to make a person educated?
6) What does the phrase “the right to education” mean? What is it ensured by?
7) In what way is the Belarus reforming its system of education?
8) What is the chief function of universities?
9) How many higher educational establishments are there in Belarus?
10) How many years does training take?
11) Is it easy to become a student?
12) What do applicants have to do if they wish to enter the university?
13) What are the main forms of learning?
1. Give words defined by the following:
1) a person with authority to maintain discipline, the head of a department of studies;
2) charge or payment for professional advice or services; cost of examination;
3) a right, opportunity or means of reaching, using and approaching;
4) a list of times for doing things;
5) a list of all the courses of study offered by a university;
6) the principal field of study of a student at a university;
7) to get or gain smth. such as trait or ability;
8) a person who applies, a candidate;
9) required by laws;
10) permission to enter;
11) an instruction;
12) person who has been awarded the first degree from a university.
2. Choose the appropriate word from the brackets.
1) My daughter wants to … in a small college in our city. (enroll/ go/ attend)
2) My sister has several opportunities to get a university degree, but she wants to talk this … with our parents. (back/ over/ into)
3) My son is working really hard to…good grades and work part-time, but it is difficult. (analyze/ conserve/ maintain)
4) She received a …to pay for university expenses, so things should be easier for her now. She doesn’t have to worry about paying back any money either. (scholarship/
5) So what is your … at university? Someone told me you were studying management or something like that. (major/ teacher/ class)
3. Fill in the missing word to complete the sentences below:
1) The Belarusian system of … education includes educational and research institutions that use unified standards in the processes of teaching, management, assessment and research.
a) higher b) secondary c) post-graduate
2) In 2002 a … system of higher education was introduced in Belarus.
a) three-stage b) four-stage c) two-stage
3) Those who have successfully completed their studies may be given a … degree.
a) Master’s b) Bachelor’s c) Doctor’s
4) …. carries out fundamental research in natural sciences, humanities and other sciences.
a) Academy b) University c) Institute
5) All educational establishments are subordinate to the …. of the Republic of Belarus.
a) President b) Ministry of Education c) Government
6) …. forms of learning are available at Belarusian higher educational establishments.
a) Three b) Two c) Four
7) To obtain free education a person has to successfully pass the compulsory centralized testing in … admission disciplines.
a) two b) three c) four
8) … form of learning is for those with secondary education, who cannot leave their workplace.
a) full-time b) evening c) part-time
9) … disciplines constitute a major portion of disciplines in the curriculum structure.
a) specialization b) general professional c) extra-curricular
10) Belarus provides the … percentage of the national income for education among the CIS countries.
a) lowest b) highest c) fixed
11) The …. is authorized to make some restrictions on pretender’s health conditions for certain specialties if these conditions could be dangerous when student runs the program or starts the profession.
a) Ministry of Education b) Rector c) Ministry of Healthcare
12) The Ministry of education adopted the decision of … scale introducing.
a) 5-grade b) 10- grade c) 100-grade
4. Use the following words in the sentences given below:
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