ТОП 10:

Geodesy and Cartography for Cadastral Engineers



Geodesy and Cartography

For Cadastral Engineers

 

(Геодезия и картография для кадастровых инженеров)

 

Методическое пособие по английскому языку

 

Пермь

ФГОУ ВПО “Пермская ГСХА”

УДК 42 Англ +631.12

Долматова Н.С. Geodesy and cartography for cadastral engineers (Геодезия и картография для кадастровых инженеров): методическое пособие по английскому языку/ Н.С.Долматова, ФГОУ ВПО «Пермская ГСХА». Пермь: изд-во ФГОУ ВПО «Пермская ГСХА», 2012 – 65с; 20см. – 50 экз.

 

Рецензент: Михайлова Ю.В., старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков ФГОУ ВПО «Пермская ГСХА»

Методическое пособие по английскому языку Geodesy and cartography for cadastral engineers (Геодезия и картография для кадастровых инженеров) для студентов второго курса факультета землеустройства и кадастра составлено в соответствии с программой по английскому языку для неязыковых высших учебных заведений, предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы.

 

Печатается по решению методической комиссии лесотехнического факультета Пермской государственной сельскохозяйственной академии

(протокол №__ от _____ )

Учебное издание

Наталья Сергеевна Долматова

Geodesy and Cartography for Cadastral Engineers

(Геодезия и картография для кадастровых инженеров)

Методическое пособие по английскому языку

 

Подписано в печать Формат 60x84 1/16

Усл. печ. л. 3,5. Тираж 50 экз. заказ №_

ИПЦ «ПрокростЪ»

Пермской государственной сельскохозяйственной академии

имени академика Д.Н. Прянишникова,

614000, Россия, г. Пермь, ул. Петропавловская,23

тел. 210-35-34

 

© ФГОУ ВПО « Пермская ГСХА», 2012


Предисловие

Методическое пособие составлено в соответствии с программой по английскому языку для неязыковых специальностей высших учебных заведений, предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов второго курса факультета землеустройства и кадастра.

Материалы пособия сгруппированы по двум разделам: геодезия и картография. Содержательную основу текстов составляют аутентичные материалы научного и научно-популярного характера.

Тексты и упражнения подобраны с учетом профессиональной направленности обучения студентов. Предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания предназначены для развития навыков ознакомительного, изучающего и информативного чтения, а также призваны способствовать развитию коммуникативных умений в профессиональной сфере.

Часть заданий выполняются студентами самостоятельно, но при условии предварительной подготовительной работы под руководством преподавателя.

Пособие снабжено англо-русским словарем, содержащим большинство лексических единиц, встречающихся в текстах.

Table of Contents

Part 1. Geodesy as a Science

Text 1. Geodesy..............................................................................5

Text 2. Alexander Ross Clarke........................................................7

Text 3. Methods of Geodesy............................................................8

Text 4. Introduction of Triangulation...............................................10

Text 5. The Main Geodetic Concepts…………………………………11

Text 6. Geodetic Observing Instruments……………………………...12

Text 7. From the History of Geodetic Tools………………………….15

Revision…………………………………………………………………..18

Part 2. Mapping and Surveying

Text 1. Cartography in the Ancient World and Middle Ages……….21

Text 2. Cartography in the Age of Discovery and Exploration…….23

Text 3. Cartography of the 18th Century………………………………23

Text 4. Modern Cartography……………………………………………24

Text 5. Essentials of Mapmaking………………………………………25

Text 6. Types of Maps…………………………………………………..28

Text 7. Topographic Maps…………………………………………..…33

Text 8. Cadastral Map ...................................................................38

Text 9. Surveying……………………………………………………..…41

Text 10. Functions of the Surveyor……………………………………43

Revision .........................................................................................46

Vocabulary............................................................................................47

Bibliography ………….……………………………………………….……...65

Part 1. Geodesy as a Science

Text 1

1. Match the English equivalents with Russian ones:


1) three-dimensional space

2) representation of the Earth

3) gravitational field

4) crustal motion

5) geodetic network

6) horizontal plane

7) plane surveying

8) curvature

9) engineering surveying

10) measurement

11) real estate

12) evaluation

13) temporal variations

14) earth tides

15) cadastral survey

 

 

a) недвижимость

b) гравитационное поле

c) межевая (кадастровая) съемка

d) оценка

e) трехмерное пространство

f) горизонтальная съемка местности

g) изображение Земли

h) геодезическая сеть

i) горизонтальная плоскость

j) земные приливы и отливы

k) инженерные изыскания

l) изменение во времени

m) искривление

n) движение земной коры

o) измерение



2. Read and translate the text:

Geodesy

Geodesy, also called geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion, earth tides, and crustal motion) in three-dimensional time space.

Geodesy is primarily concerned with positioning and the gravity field and geometrical aspects of their temporal variations, although it can also include the study of the Earth's magnetic field.

Geodesy may be divided into the areas of global geodesy, national geodetic surveys, and plane surveying. Global geodesy is responsible for the determination of the figure of the Earth and of the external gravity field. A geodetic survey establishes the fundamentals for the determination of the surface and gravity field of a country. This is realized by coordinates and gravity values of a sufficiently large number of control points, arranged in geodetic and gravimetric networks. In this fundamental work, curvature and the gravity field of the earth must be considered. In plane surveying (topographic surveying, cadastral surveying, engineering surveying) the details of the terrain are obtained. In plane surveying the horizontal plane is generally sufficient.

There is close cooperation between global geodesy, geodetic surveying and plane surveying. The geodetic survey adopts the parameters determined by measurements of the earth, and its own results are available to those who measure the earth. The plane surveys, in turn, are generally tied to the control points of the geodetic surveys and serve then particularly in the development of national map series and in the formation of real estate cadastres. Measurement and evaluation methods are largely identical in global geodesy and national geodetic surveys. Particularly space methods (satellite geodesy) enter more and more into regional and even local surveys. This also implies more detailed gravity field determination on regional and local scale.

 

3.Answer the following questions:

1) What does geodesy deal with?

2) What are the main sections of geodesy?

3) What is global geodesy responsible for?

4) What science establishes the fundamentals for the determination of the surface and gravity field of a country? How is it realized?

5) What are the main subdivisions of plane surveying?

6) Are there close cooperation between global geodesy, geodetic surveying and plane surveying? Why?

 

Text 2

1. Read and translate the text:

Alexander Ross Clarke

A.R.Clarke (1828 – 1914) was an English geodesist whose calculations of the size and shape of the Earth were the first to approximate accepted modern values with respect to both polar flattening and equatorial radius. The figures from his second determination (1866) became a standard reference for U.S. geodesy, even after the acceptance of other figures by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in 1924.

Appointed to the Royal Engineers (1847), Clarke remained with the British ordnance survey at Southampton from 1850 to 1881. He was responsible for the principal triangulation (long-distance trigonometric surveying) of the British Isles and published the results of the first geodetic survey of Great Britain in 1861. Entrusted with comparing the standards of length for measuring an international arc of triangulation from Ireland to Russia, he published his results in 1866. His Geodesy (1880) has remained one of the best textbooks on the subject.

 

2. Find information about other Russian and foreign geodesists. Get ready to tell this information in the classroom. Use in your speech different general formulas such as:


They say…

First of all…

To begin with…

In my opinion…

To my mind…

As to me…

Talking of…

Apparently…

Obviously…

Evidently…

Generally speaking…

Practically speaking…

In fact …

As far as I know…

As far as I remember…

The matter is that …

I want to press the point…

On the one hand…

On the other hand…

Above all…

All in all…

Summing it up …


 

Text 3

1. Read and translate the text:

Methods of Geodesy

Until the advent of satellites, all geodesic work was based on land surveys made by methods employing a geodesic coordinate system.

Triangulation in navigation, surveying, and civil engineering, is a technique for precise determination of distances and angles for location of a ship’s or aircraft’s position, and in such attempts as road building, tunnel alignment, and other construction. It is based on the laws of plane trigonometry, that if one side and two angles are known, the other two sides and angle can be readily calculated. One side of the selected triangle is measured. This is the baseline. The two adjacent angles are measured by means of a surveying device known as a theodolite, and the entire triangle is established. By constructing a series of such triangles, each adjacent to at least one other, values can be obtained for distances and angles not otherwise measurable. Triangulation points are usually placed on the tops of the hills because the neighbouring points must be clearly visible.

Triangulation was used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and other peoples at a very early date, with crude sighting devices that were improved into the diopter (an early theodolite) in the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria.

Trilateration is a method of surveying in which the lengths of the sides of a triangle are measured, usually by electronic means, and from this information, angles are computed. By constructing a series of triangles, adjacent to one another, a surveyor can obtain other distances and angles. Formerly, trilateration was little used in comparison to triangulation, because of the difficulty of the computations involved. But the development of electronic distance-measuring devices has made trilateration a common and preferred system.

 

2. Answer the questions:

1) What was all geodesic work based until the advent of satellites on?

2) What are the main geodetic methods used nowadays?

3) What is the main principle of triangulation?

4) When and where was triangulation introduced?

5) Where are usually triangulation points placed on? Why?

6) What is the main idea of trilateration?

7) How can a surveyor obtain distances and angles using this method?

 

3. Complete the sentences:

1) Triangulation is a technique for...

2) Triangulation is based on the laws of plane trigonometry, that if...

3) Triangulation points are usually placed on the …

4) Triangulation was used by …

5) Trilateration is a method of ...

6) A surveyor can obtain other distances and angles by …

7) Trilateration was little used in comparison to triangulation, because …

8) … has made trilateration a common system.

 

Text 4

1. Read and translate the text:

Text 5

The Main Geodetic Concepts

1. Make word combinations and translate them:


1) celestial

2) opposite

3) gravity

4) direction

5) angular

6) spin

7) topocentric

8) local

9) meridian

10) local

11) south

12) observational

a) pole

b) plane

c) meridian

d) coordinates

e) angle

f) sphere

g) height

h) axis

i) point

j) vector

k) concept

l) observer


 

2. Read and translate the text:

Here we define some basic observational concepts, like angles and coordinates, defined in geodesy (and astronomy as well), mostly from the viewpoint of the local observer.

· The plumb-line or vertical is the direction of local gravity, or the line that results by following it.

· The zenith is the point on the celestial sphere where the direction of the gravity vector in a point, extended upwards, intersects it.

· The nadir is the opposite point, where the direction of gravity extended downward intersects the (invisible) celestial sphere.

· The celestial horizon is a plane perpendicular to a point's gravity vector.

· Azimuth is the direction angle within the plane of the horizon, typically counted clockwise from the north or south.

· Elevation is the angular height of an object above the horizon.

· Local topocentric coordinates are azimuth (direction angle within the plane of the horizon) and elevation angle (or zenith angle) and distance.

· The north celestial pole is the extension of the Earth's (precessing and nutating) instantaneous spin axis extended northward to intersect the celestial sphere (similarly for the south celestial pole).

· The celestial equator is the intersection of the (instantaneous) Earth equatorial plane with the celestial sphere.

· A meridian plane is any plane perpendicular to the celestial equator and containing the celestial poles.

· The local meridian is the plane containing the direction to the zenith and the direction to the celestial pole.

 

3. Answer the questions:

1) What are the main geodetic concepts?

2) Give definitions to the main geodetic concepts.

 

Text 6

1. Read and translate the text:

Text 7

1. Read and translate the text:

Revision

1. Complete the text about the level Ni 002 introduced by Carl Zeiss with the words given below:


Accuracy

Applications

Area

Distance

Geodetic

Height

Horizon

Level

Levelling rod

Precision

Readings

Self-aligning

Station

Surveying

Targets


Carl Zeiss introduced the model Ni 002 automatic geodetic 1) ... around 1973, terming it a 2) ... level of maximum 3) ....

When the NI 002 was presented to the 4) ... community in 1973, nobody foresaw that this opened a new chapter in 5) ... levelling. The NI 002 was designed to satisfy the most exacting demands of 6) ... transfer in general. The instrument's well-proven 7) ... of + 0.2 mm/km is achieved by its design concept. The elements provide what is called a "quasi-absolute 8) ...". The mean of the two 9) ... is nearly independent of the 10) ... between instrument and 11) .... With the NI 002 it is possible to carry out precise lines of levels without equalizing backsight and foresight distances to within 10 cm. The greater freedom of instrument stationing is an advantage also in industrial 12) .... Before, precise 13) ... levelling was only possible with relocating the instrument several times, while the NI 002 and its successors can remain at a single 14)..., from which sightings can be taken to 15) ... at different distances.

 

2. Match the terms with their definitions. Fill in the table below.


a) Angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the equator.

b) Angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Greenwich meridian.

c) Art of obtaining reliable measurements or information from photographs or other sensing systems.

d) Degree of conformity with a standard.

e) Figure of the Earth visualized as a mean sea level surface extended continuously through the continents.

f) Great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the geographical poles and any given point on the Earth's surface.

g) Horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from the meridian plane.

h) Method of extending horizontal position on the surface of the earth by measuring the angles of triangles and the included sides of selected triangles.

i) Method of surveying wherein the lengths of the triangle sides are measured, usually by electronic methods, and the angles are computed from the measured lengths.

j) Monument of material mark or fixed object used to designate a land boundary on the ground.

k) Periodic rise and fall of the water resulting from gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth.

l) Surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.


m) Precision surveying instrument; a theodolite in which the telescope can be reversed in direction by rotation about its horizontal axis.

n) Relatively permanent material object, natural or artificial, bearing a marked point whose elevation above or below an adopted datum is known.

o) Science concerned with the measurement and mathematical description of the size and shape of the earth and its gravitational fields.

p) Sequence of lengths and directions of lines connecting a series of stations, obtained from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the stations

q) Surveying instrument designed for use in the rapid determination of distance, direction, and difference of elevation from a single observation.

r) Surveying operation in which heights of objects and points are determined relative to a specified datum.

s) Tidal datum that is the arithmetic mean of the hourly water elevations.

t) Unit of length equal to 66 feet, used especially in the U.S. public land surveys.

u) Vertical distance of a point above or below a reference surface or datum.

v) An instrument used in surveying to measure the height of distant points in relation to some datum.


Accuracy   Azimuth   Benchmark   Chain   Elevation   Geodesy   Geoid   Landmark   Latitude   Longitude   Surveyor’s level   Mean sea level   Meridian   Photogrammetry Tacheometer   Theodolite Tide   Transit   Traverse   Levelling   Triangulation   Trilateration  
                                           

3. Sum up information about geodesy, its methods, concepts and the main geodetic instruments. Get ready to tell this information (not less than 20 sentences).

 

Text 1

Text 2

Text 3

Cartography of the 18th Century

Reformation in mapmaking at that time was characterized by (scientific, agricultural, military) trends and more accurate detail. Monsters, lions, and swash lines disappeared and were replaced by more actual content.

The new cartography was also based on better instruments, such as the telescope and the chronometer.

Many countries of Europe began to undertake the systematic topographic mapping for their territories. Such surveys required facilities and capabilities far beyond the means of private cartographers. Military, national survey organizations gradually became civilian. The Ordnance Survey of Britain, the Institut Geographique National of France, and the Landestopographie of Switzerland are examples.

Progress in mapping stimulated the English to start a national (survey, chart, cartography) which was completed in 1787.

Text 4

Modern Cartography

The instrumentation, procedures, and standards involved in making surveys have improved remarkably in recent years. Geodetic, topographic, hydrographic, and cadastral surveys have been facilitated by the application of electronics and (soil, social, computer) sciences. At the same time, superior optics and more refined instruments have enhanced the precision of observations and accuracies of the end product.

2. Make up 5 questions to the topic “History of Mapmaking – from the Ancient World to the Modern Cartography”

3. Work in small groups and ask each other these questions. Use in your questions and answers conversational formulas for expression of request, possible positive or negative replies, agreement and disagreement given below.

request replies agreement disagreement
Would you answer my question? Sure. Naturally. I fully agree. Settled! I differ from you. I object to it!
Be good enough to … Not at all! Not in the least! I’m of the same opinion. You are mistaken. I’m against it!
Could you possibly …, please. With pleasure! Right you are! All right! Far from it! Not at all!
Be so kind as to … You can count on me. Exactly so! Just it! Certainly not! Surely not!
May I ask you to … You can rely on me. Highly probable. Impossible!
Would you mind answering my question? By all means! Naturally! Definitely! Precisely! Nothing of the kind. On the contrary!  
I’ll thank you if you … No trouble at all! Fantastic! Fabulous! Nonsense! Rubbish!
Could you do me a favour? I’m afraid I can’t. I won’t deny. Looks like that. There’s something in what you say, but…
Would you kindly … I’d rather not. I suppose so. You are wrong.
Could I trouble you for … Willingly! Good for you! I disagree with you on that point.

Text 5

1. Read and translate the text:

Essentials of Mapmaking

In view of the variety of maps, we may find it difficult to summarize what they all have in common. Cartography, being an art and science of map-making, does include a series of processes that are common to all the maps. These processes that may also be referred to as essentials of maps are:

· scale

· map projection

· map generalization

· map design

· map construction and production

Scale: we know that all maps are reductions. The first decision that a map-maker has to take is about the scale of the map. The choice of scale is of utmost importance. The scale of a map sets limits of information contents and the degree of reality with which it can be delineated on the map.

Projection: we also know that maps are a simplified representation of the three-dimensional surface of the earth on a plane sheet of paper. The transformation of all-side-curved-geoidal surface into a plane surface is another important aspect of the cartographic process. We should know that such a radical transformation introduces some unavoidable changes in directions, distances, areas and shapes from the way they appear on a geoid. A system of transformation of the spherical surface to the plane surface is called a map projection. Hence, the choice, utilization and construction of projections are of prime importance in map-making.

Generalization: every map is drawn with a definite objective. For example, a general purpose map is drawn to show information of a general nature such as relief, drainage, vegetation, settlements, means of transportation, etc. Similarly, a special purpose map exhibits information pertaining to one or more selected themes like population density, soil types or location of industries. It is, therefore, necessary to plan carefully the map contents while the purpose of the map must be kept in the forefront. As maps are drawn at a reduced scale to serve a definite purpose, the third task of a cartographer is to generalize the map contents. In doing so, a cartographer must select the information (data) relevant to the selected theme and simplify it as per the needs.

Map design: the fourth important task of a cartographer is the map design. It involves the planning of graphic characteristics of maps including the selection of appropriate symbols, their size and form, style of lettering, specifying the width of lines, selection of colours and shades, arrangement of various elements of map design within a map and design for map legend. The map design is, therefore, a complex aspect of mapmaking and requires thorough understanding of the principles that govern the effectiveness of graphic communication.

Map construction and production: the drawing of maps and their reproduction is the fifth major task in the cartographic process. In earlier times, much of the map construction and reproduction work used to be carried out manually. Maps were drawn with pen and ink and printed mechanically. However, the map construction and reproduction has been revolutionized with the addition of computer assisted mapping and photo-printing techniques in the recent past.

 

2. Answer the following questions:

1) What can we define as essentials of maps?

2) What does the scale of a map set?

3) How is a system of transformation of the spherical surface to the plane surface called?

4) What objectives are different maps drawn with?

5) How must a cartographer select information for mapping?

6) What does the process of map design include?

7) Why is the map design an important aspect of mapmaking? What does it require?

8) What were earlier maps drawn with?

9) How are map construction and reproduction made nowadays?

 

3. Complete the sentences:

1) The most important aspects in mapmaking are …

2) All maps are …

3) … sets limits of information contents and the degree of reality.

4) Maps are a simplified representation of …

5) General purpose map is drawn to show information of a general nature such as …

6) Map design involves the planning of graphic characteristics of maps including …

7) … is a complex aspect of mapmaking and requires thorough understanding of the principles that govern the effectiveness of graphic communication.

8) Map construction and reproduction has been revolutionized with the addition …

 

Text 6

1. Match the English equivalents with Russian ones:


1) Earth's surface

2) compass rose

3) large scale map

4) urban area

5) mapping agency

6) transport-network system

7) administrative division

8) relative humidity

9) population distribution

10) linguistic and social groups

11) educational attainment

12) small-scale map

13) to estimate distances

14) precise survey

 

 

a. агентство по изготовлению карт

b. административное деление

c. городская местность

d. достижения в сфере образования

e. крупномасштабная карта

f. мелкомасштабная карта

g. относительная влажность

h. оценить расстояние

i. поверхность Земли

j. распределение населения

k. роза ветров

l. система транспортных сетей

m. точная съемка

n. языковые и социальные группы


2. Read and translate the text:

Types of Maps

A map is a picture or representation of the Earth's surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction, and size. Maps are a way of showing many things about a portion of the earth's surface on a flat piece of paper that can be carried and transported easily.

There are several types of maps. Each shows different information. Most maps include a compass rose, which indicates which way is north, south, east and west. They also include a scale so you can estimate distances.

Here's a look at some different types of maps.

Types of maps based on scale: on the basis of scale, maps may be classified into large-scale and small-scale. Large scale maps are drawn to show small areas at a relatively large-scale. For example, the topographical maps drawn at a scale of 1: 250,000, 1:50,000 or 1:25,000 and the village maps, the zonal plans of the cities and house plans prepared on a scale of 1:4,000, 1:2,000 and 1:500 are large scale maps.

On the other hand, small-scale maps are drawn to show large areas. For example, atlas maps, wall maps, etc.

Large-scale maps are further divided into the following types:

(a) Cadastral maps

(b) Topographical maps

(a) Cadastral maps: the term ‘cadastral’ is derived from the French word ‘cadastre’ meaning ‘register of territorial property’. These maps are drawn to show the ownership of landed property by demarcating field boundaries of agricultural land and the plan of individual houses in urban areas. The cadastral maps are prepared by the government agencies to realize revenue and taxes, along with keeping a record of ownership. These maps are drawn on a very large scale, such as the cadastral maps of villages at 1 : 4,000 scale and the city plans at a scale of 1 : 2,000 and larger.

(b) Topographical maps are also prepared on a fairly large scale. The topographical maps are based on precise surveys and are prepared in the form of series of maps made by the national mapping agencies of almost all countries of the world.

Small-scale maps are further divided into the following types:

(a) wall maps

(b) atlas maps

(a) Wall maps are generally drawn on large size paper or on plastic base for use in classrooms or lecture halls. The scale of wall maps is generally smaller than the scale of topographical maps but larger than atlas maps.

(b) Atlas maps are very small-scale maps. These maps represent fairly large areas and present highly generalized picture of the physical or cultural features. Even so, an atlas map serves as a graphic encyclopedia of the geographical information about the world, continents, countries or regions. When consulted properly, these maps provide a wealth of generalized information regarding location, relief, drainage, climate, vegetation, distribution of cities and towns, population, location of industries, transport-network system, tourism and heritage sites, etc.

Types of maps based on function: the maps may also be classified on the basis of their functions. For example, a political map serves the function of providing administrative divisions of a continent or a country and a soil map shows the distribution of different types of soils. Broadly, maps based on their functions may be classified into physical maps and cultural maps.

Physical maps show natural features such as relief, geology, soils, drainage, elements of weather, climate and vegetation, etc.

(a) Relief maps show general topography of an area like mountains and valleys, plains, plateaus and drainage.

(b) Geological maps are drawn to show geological structures, rock types, etc.

(c) Climatic maps depict climatic regions of an area. Besides, maps are also drawn to show the distribution of temperature, rainfall, cloudiness, relative humidity, direction and velocity of winds and other elements of weather.

(d) Soil maps are also drawn to show the distribution of different types of soils and their properties.

Cultural maps show man-made features. These include a variety of maps showing population distribution and growth, sex and age, social and religious composition, literacy, levels of educational attainment, occupational structure, location of settlements, facilities and services, transportation lines and production, distribution and flow of different commodities.

(a) Political maps show the administrative divisions of an area such as country, state or district. These maps facilitate the administrative machinery in planning and management of the concerned administrative unit.

(b) Population maps are drawn to show the distribution, density and growth of population, age and sex composition, distribution of religious, linguistic and social groups, occupational structure of the population, etc. Population maps serve the most significant role in the planning and development of an area.

(c) Economic maps depict production and distribution of different types of crops and minerals, location of industries and markets, routes for trade and flow of commodities.

(d) Transportation maps show roads, railway lines and the location of railway stations and airports.

 

3. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

1) Which one of the following is essential for the network of lines and polygons to be called a map?


a) map legend

b) symbols

c) north direction

d) map scale


2) A map bearing a scale of 1:4000 and larger is called:


a) cadastral map

b) topographical map

c) wall map

d) atlas map


3) Which one of the following is not an essential element of maps?


a) map projection

b) map generalization

c) map design

d) history of maps


4) On the basis of scale, maps may be classified into:


a) atlas and cadastral maps

b) large-scale and small-scale maps

c) physical and cultural maps

d) wall and atlas maps


5) Maps based on their functions may be classified into:


a) geological and cadastral maps

b) large-scale and small-scale maps

c) physical and cultural maps

d) soil and climatic maps


6) A map that serves the function of providing administrative divisions of a continent or a country is:


a) a political map

b) a cadastral map

c) a soil map

d) an economic map


7) All maps include a scale so you can:


a) measure angles

b) measure heights

c) estimate distances

d) show relief


 

4. Answer the following question:

1) What is a map?

2) What are the main two principles in classification of maps?

3) What are different types of small-scale maps?

4) List out two major types of large-scale maps?

5) What are cadastral maps drawn for?

6) What are topographic maps based on?

7) What are the main types of maps based on their functions?

8) How is a map different from a sketch?

Text 7

1. Read and translate the text:

Topographic maps

Topographic maps are used for a wide variety of applications, from camping, canoeing, hunting and fishing, to urban planning, resource development and surveying.

Why? Because they accurately represent, to scale, the earth's features on a two dimensional surface; that is to say, every feature shown on a map is where it actually is on the earth's surface.

A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground.
A topographic map identifies numerous cultural and natural ground features, which can be divided into the following categories:

· culture: roads, buildings, urban development, boundaries, railways, power transmission lines;

· water: lakes, rivers, streams, swamps, rapids;

· relief: mountains, valleys, slopes, depressions;

· vegetation: wooded and cleared areas, vineyards and orchards;

· toponymy: place names, water feature names, highway names.

Seven colours can be found on a map, each relating to different types of features.

Ø Black shows cultural features such as buildings, railways and power transmission lines. It is also used to show geographical names (toponymy), certain symbols, geographic coordinates, precise elevations, border information and surround information.

Ø Red is used for paved roads, highway numbers, interchange exit numbers, certain symbols as well as for names of major transportation routes. A red tint is used to show urban development.

Ø Orange indicates unpaved roads and unclassified roads and streets.

Ø Brown shows contour lines, contour elevations, spot elevations, sand and eskers. Contour lines connect a series of points of equal elevation and are used to illustrate relief on a map. For example, numerous contour lines that are close to one another show hilly or mountainous terrain; when far apart, they indicate a gentler slope. Each contour is a line of equal elevation; therefore, contours never cross. To help the user determine elevations, index contours are wider.

Ø Blue represents water features, such as lakes, streams, falls, rapids, swamps and marshes. The names of water bodies and water courses are also shown in blue.

Ø Green is used for wooded areas, orchards and vineyards.

Ø Grey is used on the back of the map to indicate the different symbols and a glossary of terms and abbreviations.

Ø Purple can be used to show added information (update) over the original map detail.

Since a map is a reduced representation of the real world, map symbols are used to represent real objects. Without symbols, we wouldn't have maps.

Both shapes and colours can be used for symbols on maps. A small circle may mean a point of interest, with a brown circle meaning recreation, red circle meaning services, and green circle meaning rest stop. Colours may cover larger areas of a map, such as green representing forested land and blue representing waterways.

To ensure that a person can correctly read a map, a map legend is a key to all the symbols used on a map. It is like a dictionary so you can understand the meaning of what the map represents.

Here are some common symbols:


 


Topographic maps also show both a geographic grid (latitude/longitude) and a UTM grid allowing the user to determine precise positions.
Scale refers to the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground. At a scale of 1:50 000 for example, one unit of measure on the map represents 50 000 equivalent units of measure on the ground. Medium-scale maps (e.g. 1:50 000) cover smaller areas in greater detail, whereas smaller-scale maps (e.g. 1:250 000) cover large areas in less detail.

 

2. Answer the questions:

1) What are topographic maps used for?

2) Why are topographic maps used in a variety of applications?

3) What is a topographic map?

4) What does this map type identify?

5) How can natural and cultural features be divided?

6) What colours can be found on topographic maps?

7) What are contour lines used for?

8) What do different colours on maps mean?

9) What is used for representation of real objects on maps?

10) What can symbols of different shapes and colours mean?

11) What is the difference between medium-scale and small-scale maps?

 

3. Decide whether the statements are true or false:

1) Topographic maps are used only for urban planning.

2) A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground.

3) Seven colours can be found on a map, each relating to different types of features.

4) Black indicates unpaved roads and unclassified roads and streets.

5) Brown shows contour lines, contour elevations, spot elevations, sand and eskers.

6) Contour lines are used to illustrate density and growth of population on a map.

7) Water features are shown in grey.

8) A map legend is a key to all the symbols used on a map.

9) Topographic maps show both a geographic grid (latitude/longitude) and a UTM grid allowing the user to determine precise positions.

10) Scale doesn’t refer to the relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground.

 

4. Fill in the tables with topographic symbols:



 

5. Look at the topographic terms often used and find their definitions:

Text 8

1. Read and translate the text:

Cadastral Map

A cadastral map is a map which provides detailed information about real property within a specific area. A simple example of a cadastral map might be a map of a village which shows the boundaries of all of the parcels or lots within the village, although cadastral maps can show other types of areas as well. These maps are usually maintained by the government, and they are a matter of public record; anyone who wishes to go to the office which maintains the records can ask to see them.

 

A cadastral map can include a number of details, including information about tax rates, who owns the land, which kinds of structures are present, what the zoning is in the region, and so forth.

One key feature of a cadastral map is that it carries detailed information about location. These maps do not just show the boundaries of lot lines, they provide measurements on each lot, and may use GPS locations as well, so that people clearly understand where everything on the map is in the real world. A cadastral map will also highlight specific landmarks which people can use to orient themselves within the map, including buildings and natural features such as lakes and streams.

The map also provides people with information about property rights, and a history of the rights in that area. Cadastral maps can show who retains mining or timber rights, for example, in contrast with who owns the land. The map can also provide a history of the owners, or a perusal through old maps can provide people with this information. Maps can also detail how the land is being used, so that people interested in land use patterns can easily identify areas of interest.

These maps are updated on a regular basis. It is a good idea to keep track of the cadastral survey, as information can change. Property owners would also do well to hire a surveyor to confirm that their property adheres to the information on the maps. If, for example, a neighbour moves a fence, it could cut into a property owner's lot, and if the situation is not recognized and addresses, in some communities, the neighbour would get to keep the land annexed by the fence after a certain period of time has elapsed.

 

2. Answer the following questions:

1) What is a cadastral map?

2) What can cadastral maps include?

3) What are the key features of cadastral maps?

4) What do cadastral maps provide people for?

5) Why are cadastral maps updated on a regular basis?

 

3. Complete the sentences:

1) A cadastral map is a map which ...

2) Cadastral maps are usually maintained by ...

3) A cadastral map can includes a number of details, including ...

4) Cadastral maps provide measurements on each lot, and may use ...

5) People can use maps to orient themselves within ...

6) These maps are updated on ...

7) The map can also provide a history ...

8) People interested in land use patterns can easily identify ...

 

4. Translate the text from Russian into English:

В основе наиболее развитых кадастровых систем, распространенных по преимуществу в европейских странах, лежат принципы французского кадастра, введенного Наполеоном в 1807 году. К идеям Наполеона относится введение:

· кадастровых округов, покрывающих территорию всей страны;

· кадастровых карт, производившихся систематически для каждого округа;

· кадастровых номеров недвижимости – уникального идентификационного кода для каждого объекта недвижимости, который не повторяется ни для какого другого объекта на территории всей страны на протяжении всей ее истории.

Основной задачей кадастра является описание объекта недвижимости, достаточное для того, чтобы предупредить все возможные недоразумения по поводу принадлежности различных его частей. Прежде всего, это касается границ земельного участка.

 

Text 9

1. Read and translate the text:

Surveying

Surveying is a means of relatively large-scale, accurate measurement of Earth surfaces. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and the establishment of relative position and size according to given measurement requirements.

Surveying has two similar but opposite functions:

1. The determination of existing relative horizontal and vertical position;

2. The establishment of marks to control construction or to indicate land boundaries.

For many centuries surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment.

Surveying is divided into the categories of plane surveying and geodetic surveying. Plane surveying concentrates on mapping relatively small areas (smaller than 12 miles (20 km) across), where the curvature of the Earth is not a significant factor, the calculations of plane trigonometry are sufficient.

Geodetic surveying covers large areas of the globe with the attendant corrections of the curvature of the earth. Such surveying must be very accurate, and geodetic instruments are precise.

Measurements made in the direction of gravity are designated as vertical, and measurements made perpendicular to the direction of gravity are designated as horizontal.

Surveying measurements are of four types:

1. horizontal lengths of distances;

2. vertical lengths or differences in height or elevation;

3. horizontal angles measured in horizontal planes;

4. vertical angles measured in vertical planes.

Horizontal lengths are generally measured in short, straight sections that together form short arc along the Earth’s surface. With a surveyor’s level the difference in height between two points can be determined. Directions are given in azimuths or bearings.

Land-areas surveys are made to determine the relative horizontal and vertical position of topographic features and to establish reference marks to guide construction or to indicate land boundaries. Reconnaissance of the area is followed by a preliminary survey. A map and then a plan are prepared based on this kind of survey. Surveys to establish property boundaries involve a thorough knowledge of real-estate laws as well as skills in survey techniques.

Surveys of water-covered areas determine the horizontal coordinates of points on the surface of the body of water (position fixing) and the water’s depth at those points. Position fixing requires that measurements are to be made both on land and on water.

2. Answer the following questions:

1) What is surveying?

2) What does surveying include?

3) What are the functions of surveying?

4) What are the main categories of surveying?

5) What are the main types of measurements in surveying?

6) How are horizontal lengths measured?

7) What are land surveys made for?

8) What do surveys involve? Why?

9) What is the difference between vertical and horizontal measurements?

10) How can you define the difference in height between two points?

 

3. Decide, whether the sentences are true or false:

1) Surveying is a means of relatively small-scale, accurate measurement of Earth surfaces.

2) Surveying includes only the determination of the measurement data.

3) For many centuries surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment.

4) Plane surveying concentrates on mapping relatively small areas.

5) Geodetic surveying covers also small areas of the globe with the attendant corrections of the curvature of the earth.

6) There are four types of surveying measurements.

7) Horizontal lengths are generally measured in long, curved sections that together form short arc along the Earth’s surface.

8) Directions are given in azimuths or bearings.

9) Land-areas surveys are made to determine the relative horizontal and vertical position of topographic features and to establish reference marks to guide construction or to indicate land boundaries.

10) Position fixing requires that measurements are to be made only on land.

 

Text 10

1. Read and translate the text:

Functions of the Surveyor

A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one or more of the following activities:

1. To determine, measure and represent land, three-dimensional objects, point-fields and trajectories;

2. To assemble and interpret land and geographically related information;

3. To use that information for the planning and efficient administration of the land, the sea and any structures thereon;

4. To conduct research into the above practices and to develop them.

The surveyor’s professional tasks may involve one or more of the following activities which may occur either on, above or below the surface of the land or the sea and may be carried out in association with other professionals.

The detailed functions of the surveyor are:

· the determination of the size and shape of the Earth and the measurement of all data needed to define the size, position, shape and contour of any part of the Earth and monitoring any change therein;

· the positioning of objects in space and time as well as the positioning and monitoring of physical features, structures and engineering works on, above or below the surface of the Earth;

· the development, testing and calibration of sensors, instruments and systems for the above-mentioned purposes and for other surveying purposes;

· the acquisition and use of spatial information from close range, aerial and satellite imagery and the automation of these processes;

· the determination of the position of the boundaries of public or private land, including national and international boundaries and the registration of those lands with the appropriate authorities;

· the design, establishment and administration of geographic information systems (GIS) and the collection, storage, analysis, management, display and dissemination of data;







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