Влияние общества на человека
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Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
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Classified roads, contour lines, elevation, mean sea level, projection, relief, topography, unclassified roads, UTM grid
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§ a square grid system based on the transverse Mercator projection, depicted on maps. It can be used to locate the position of features on the map accurately by distance or direction.
§ geometric representation of the curved surface of the earth on a flat sheet of paper.
§ lines on the map connecting points of equal elevation above mean sea level; using contour lines, relief features can be profiled into a three-dimensional perspective.
§ roads for which surface type, width and use are identified.
§ roads for which the surface is unidentified.
§ surface features both natural and cultural, collectively depicted on topographic maps.
§ the average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of tide, used as a reference surface from which elevations are measured.
§ the physical configuration of the earth's surface, depicted on a topographic map by contour lines and spot heights.
§ vertical distance from a datum (usually mean sea level) to a point or object on the earth's surface.
1. Read and translate the text:
A cadastral map is a map which provides detailed information about real property within a specific area. A simple example of a cadastral map might be a map of a village which shows the boundaries of all of the parcels or lots within the village, although cadastral maps can show other types of areas as well. These maps are usually maintained by the government, and they are a matter of public record; anyone who wishes to go to the office which maintains the records can ask to see them.
A cadastral map can include a number of details, including information about tax rates, who owns the land, which kinds of structures are present, what the zoning is in the region, and so forth.
One key feature of a cadastral map is that it carries detailed information about location. These maps do not just show the boundaries of lot lines, they provide measurements on each lot, and may use GPS locations as well, so that people clearly understand where everything on the map is in the real world. A cadastral map will also highlight specific landmarks which people can use to orient themselves within the map, including buildings and natural features such as lakes and streams.
The map also provides people with information about property rights, and a history of the rights in that area. Cadastral maps can show who retains mining or timber rights, for example, in contrast with who owns the land. The map can also provide a history of the owners, or a perusal through old maps can provide people with this information. Maps can also detail how the land is being used, so that people interested in land use patterns can easily identify areas of interest.
These maps are updated on a regular basis. It is a good idea to keep track of the cadastral survey, as information can change. Property owners would also do well to hire a surveyor to confirm that their property adheres to the information on the maps. If, for example, a neighbour moves a fence, it could cut into a property owner's lot, and if the situation is not recognized and addresses, in some communities, the neighbour would get to keep the land annexed by the fence after a certain period of time has elapsed.
2. Answer the following questions:
1) What is a cadastral map?
2) What can cadastral maps include?
3) What are the key features of cadastral maps?
4) What do cadastral maps provide people for?
5) Why are cadastral maps updated on a regular basis?
3. Complete the sentences:
1) A cadastral map is a map which ...
2) Cadastral maps are usually maintained by ...
3) A cadastral map can includes a number of details, including ...
4) Cadastral maps provide measurements on each lot, and may use ...
5) People can use maps to orient themselves within ...
6) These maps are updated on ...
7) The map can also provide a history ...
8) People interested in land use patterns can easily identify ...
4. Translate the text from Russian into English:
В основе наиболее развитых кадастровых систем, распространенных по преимуществу в европейских странах, лежат принципы французского кадастра, введенного Наполеоном в 1807 году. К идеям Наполеона относится введение:
· кадастровых округов, покрывающих территорию всей страны;
· кадастровых карт, производившихся систематически для каждого округа;
· кадастровых номеров недвижимости – уникального идентификационного кода для каждого объекта недвижимости, который не повторяется ни для какого другого объекта на территории всей страны на протяжении всей ее истории.
Основной задачей кадастра является описание объекта недвижимости, достаточное для того, чтобы предупредить все возможные недоразумения по поводу принадлежности различных его частей. Прежде всего, это касается границ земельного участка.
1. Read and translate the text:
Surveying is a means of relatively large-scale, accurate measurement of Earth surfaces. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and the establishment of relative position and size according to given measurement requirements.
Surveying has two similar but opposite functions:
1. The determination of existing relative horizontal and vertical position;
2. The establishment of marks to control construction or to indicate land boundaries.
For many centuries surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment.
Surveying is divided into the categories of plane surveying and geodetic surveying. Plane surveying concentrates on mapping relatively small areas (smaller than 12 miles (20 km) across), where the curvature of the Earth is not a significant factor, the calculations of plane trigonometry are sufficient.
Geodetic surveying covers large areas of the globe with the attendant corrections of the curvature of the earth. Such surveying must be very accurate, and geodetic instruments are precise.
Measurements made in the direction of gravity are designated as vertical, and measurements made perpendicular to the direction of gravity are designated as horizontal.
Surveying measurements are of four types:
1. horizontal lengths of distances;
2. vertical lengths or differences in height or elevation;
3. horizontal angles measured in horizontal planes;
4. vertical angles measured in vertical planes.
Horizontal lengths are generally measured in short, straight sections that together form short arc along the Earth’s surface. With a surveyor’s level the difference in height between two points can be determined. Directions are given in azimuths or bearings.
Land-areas surveys are made to determine the relative horizontal and vertical position of topographic features and to establish reference marks to guide construction or to indicate land boundaries. Reconnaissance of the area is followed by a preliminary survey. A map and then a plan are prepared based on this kind of survey. Surveys to establish property boundaries involve a thorough knowledge of real-estate laws as well as skills in survey techniques.
Surveys of water-covered areas determine the horizontal coordinates of points on the surface of the body of water (position fixing) and the water’s depth at those points. Position fixing requires that measurements are to be made both on land and on water.
2. Answer the following questions:
1) What is surveying?
2) What does surveying include?
3) What are the functions of surveying?
4) What are the main categories of surveying?
5) What are the main types of measurements in surveying?
6) How are horizontal lengths measured?
7) What are land surveys made for?
8) What do surveys involve? Why?
9) What is the difference between vertical and horizontal measurements?
10) How can you define the difference in height between two points?
3. Decide, whether the sentences are true or false:
1) Surveying is a means of relatively small-scale, accurate measurement of Earth surfaces.
2) Surveying includes only the determination of the measurement data.
3) For many centuries surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment.
4) Plane surveying concentrates on mapping relatively small areas.
5) Geodetic surveying covers also small areas of the globe with the attendant corrections of the curvature of the earth.
6) There are four types of surveying measurements.
7) Horizontal lengths are generally measured in long, curved sections that together form short arc along the Earth’s surface.
8) Directions are given in azimuths or bearings.
9) Land-areas surveys are made to determine the relative horizontal and vertical position of topographic features and to establish reference marks to guide construction or to indicate land boundaries.
10) Position fixing requires that measurements are to be made only on land.
1. Read and translate the text:
Functions of the Surveyor
A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one or more of the following activities:
1. To determine, measure and represent land, three-dimensional objects, point-fields and trajectories;
2. To assemble and interpret land and geographically related information;
3. To use that information for the planning and efficient administration of the land, the sea and any structures thereon;
4. To conduct research into the above practices and to develop them.
The surveyor’s professional tasks may involve one or more of the following activities which may occur either on, above or below the surface of the land or the sea and may be carried out in association with other professionals.
The detailed functions of the surveyor are:
· the determination of the size and shape of the Earth and the measurement of all data needed to define the size, position, shape and contour of any part of the Earth and monitoring any change therein;
· the positioning of objects in space and time as well as the positioning and monitoring of physical features, structures and engineering works on, above or below the surface of the Earth;
· the development, testing and calibration of sensors, instruments and systems for the above-mentioned purposes and for other surveying purposes;
· the acquisition and use of spatial information from close range, aerial and satellite imagery and the automation of these processes;
· the determination of the position of the boundaries of public or private land, including national and international boundaries and the registration of those lands with the appropriate authorities;
· the design, establishment and administration of geographic information systems (GIS) and the collection, storage, analysis, management, display and dissemination of data;
· the analysis, interpretation and integration of spatial objects and phenomena in GIS, including the visualization of such data in maps, models and mobile digital devices;
· the study of natural and social environment, the measurement of land and marine resources and the use of such data in the planning of development in urban, rural and regional areas;
· the planning, development and redevelopment of property, whether urban or rural and whether land or buildings;
· the assessment of value and the management of property;
· the planning, measurement and management of construction works, including the estimation of costs.
In the application of the foregoing activities surveyors take into account the relevant legal, economic, environmental and social aspects affecting each project.
2. Sum up information about the functions of a surveyor. Get ready to speak about your functions as a future surveyor. Use in your speech general formulas for expressing your point of view.
1. Put in the necessary word. Translate the sentences:
1) A cadastre is a register of the … of a country.
2) Accurate cadastral … help prevent disputes and lawsuits between landowners and allow for reliable ….
3) A cadastral map is a map showing … and … of land.
4) … may show the borders of natural reserves, protection belts as well as the exact position of a road or a telephone line.
5) Cartography or mapmaking is the study and practice of making ….
6) Maps function is visualization of ….
7) A topographic map shows the Earth’s surface by ….
8) Contours make it possible to measure the … of mountains, … of the ocean bottom, and … of slopes.
9) Topographic contours are shown in … by lines of different widths.
10) Each contour is a line of equal ….
2. Give definitions:
Map, map design, large-scale map, small-scale map, cultural map, projection, surveying, surveyor.
3. Sum up information about cartography and surveying. Tell about history of cartography, essentials of mapmaking, types of maps, surveying categories and measurements, and the main tasks of a surveyor (not less than 20 sentences).
1. Мюллер В.К., Дашевская В.Л. и другие. Новый англо-русский словарь. М., издательство «Русский язык», 1998.
2. Серафимова М.А., Шаевич А.М., Модестова М.И. Разговорные формулы. Л., Просвещение, 1974.
3. Электронный словарь ABBY LINGVO
4. Энциклопедия Britannica в 32 томах. Издательство: Encyclopaedia Britannica , 2010 г.
5. Charles D. Ghilani, Paul R. Wolf . Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2008
6. Karttunnen H., Krőger P. И другие. Fundamental astronomy. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag.
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