Mechanical Engineering Specialities



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Mechanical Engineering Specialities



 

Engineering is a broad discipline which is broken down into several subdivisions. These disciplines concern with different areas of engineering work.

Engineering is one of the most ancient occupations of people. It is defined as the science of building and controlling machines, houses, ships, locomotives, motor vehicles, machine - tools, roads, bridges, etc. Engineering presupposes the connection of theoretical sciences with practical application. As time went on, engineering specialities were widening and now there exist not only mechanical, civil, mining, metallurgical, military, chemical, electrical engineering, but also aerospace, nuclear, petroleum and electronic one.

The approximate division of engineering fields may be as follows:

1. mechanical engineering – the design of physical or mechanical systems, such as steam engines, internal combustion engines, turbines, pumps, compressors, machine tools, mechanisms, power trains, kinematic chains and vibration isolation equipment;

2. electrical engineering – in its turn is subdivided into two branches: a) power engineering dealing with generators, motors, transformers, transmissions, and b) electronics dealing with radio, radar, television;

3. civil engineering encompassing the design and construction of public and private works, such as dams, tunnels, roads, infrastructure, bridges and buildings;

4. structural engineering - creating structural details of machines and mechanism and buildings;

5. chemical engineering – is the conversion of raw materials and various substances and compounds into usable commodities;

6. aerospace (aeronautical)engineering is dedicated to design of aircrafts and spacecrafts.

With the rapid advancement of technology many new fields are gaining prominence and new branches are developing: computer engineering, software engineering, nanotechnology, molecular engineering, mechatronics, etc. These new specialities sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches such as mechanical engineering and mechatronics and electrical and computer engineering. For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the application of sciences to such disciplines as physics, chemistry and mathematics.

The growth in the number of engineering fields resulted in the growth of the large number of different kinds of engineers: metallurgists, the strength of materials experts, thermodynamics of heat experts, hydrodrive experts, cryogenics experts, tool designers and others. The specialists’ work in various branches of engineering requires special knowledge, proper education and good training. Each specialist should become more scientific and specialized. Improvements in engineering field largely depend on the application of science to manufacture. This is possible in the case of availability of large number of scientifically trained engineers. Therefore, there is a growing need for engineers who are familiar with the fundamental problems in metal processing and manufacturing. Mechanical engineers make the vast contribution to production by designing products, various components and materials, alloys by developing new products and production processes, equipment and devices, tools, assembly fixtures and so on.

Below several short definitions of some engineering specialities are given:

Engineer – a person who studies, plans, designs, develops and builds machines.

Mechanic – a skilled workman, one who makes or uses machinery.

Technologist – one who has studied technology, the science which deals with industrial arts.

Turner – one who works with a lathe.

Fitter – a mechanic who puts together parts of a machine.

Plumber – a man who fits and mends water-pipes, sanitary devices, etc.

Repairman – a person who mends, restores things to a perfect condition.

Machinist – one who makes, controls or repairs machinery.

Locksmith – one who makes and repairs locks.

Grinder – a person who grinds, polishes and cuts metals and other materials.

Miller – is that who cuts, shapes and threads parts with mechanical tools.

Electrician – a person who makes, manages, controls or repair electric machinery.

Operator – is one who handles, controls devices, equipment and machinery.

Metallurgist – one who is skilled in metallurgy, the art and science of preparing metals for use by separating them from ores, making them pure and casting various alloys.

Welder – the worker who joins together two pieces of metal in hot condition.

Technician – the person who deals with industrial branch, an expert in engineering.

Exercise 1. Use the verbs in brackets in the proper form in Present Indefinite Tense, Active:

1. Engineers (to design) and (to develop) machines.

2. Locksmith (to make) and (to repair) locks.

3. Electricians (to control) and (to repair) electrical appliances.

4. Fitter (to assemble) parts of machines.

5. Technologist (to study) and (to improve) production processes.

6. Repairmen (to mend) and (to restore) various apparatuses.

7. Operator (to control) and (to serve) equipment and devices.

8. Welder (to join) metallic parts.

9. Metallurgist (to cast) metals and alloys.

10. Technician (to manage) and (to control) manufacture.

 

 

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences:

1. Engineering is the most ancient …

2. Engineering is the connection of theoretical science with…

3. Engineering branch is divided into…

4. The growth in the number of engineering fields resulted in…

5. Working the specialists in various branches requires…

6. Improvements in engineering depend on …

7. There is a growing need for engineers familiar with…

8. Mechanical engineers make the contribution to production by … .

 

Exercise 3. Insert the proper words into the sentences:

1. Engineering is one of the most (древнее занятие) of people.

2. Engineering (определяется) as the science of building and (управление машинами).

3. As time went on, engineering specialities (расширялись).

4. There is (приблизительное деление) of engineering fields.

5. (Увеличение) in the number of engineering fields (стало результатом) the growth of the number of engineers.

6. Working in (различных областях) of engineering (требует специальных знаний).

7. (Улучшения в технике) depend on the application of science to (производство).

8. There is a growing need for engineers (которые знакомы) with fundamental problems in (металлообработки).

9. Mechanical engineers (вносят огромный вклад) to production.

10. There are a lot of specialities (в технике).

 

Exercise 4. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following statements:

1. Engineering combines theory and practice.

2. Engineering is characterized as the sphere of building and controlling machines.

3. At present engineering specialities became great in number.

4. Various machine-tools, mechanisms and engines are referred to mechanical engineering.

5. With the growth of engineering fields different kinds of engineers increase.

6. Job in various branches of engineering requires special skills.

7. Mechanical engineers contribute to manufacture by means of creative work.

8. There are a lot of proliferations in engineering.

 

Exercise 5. Compose sentences with the verbs:

to deal with; to be engaged in; to concern with; to work on; to be in charge of; to be busy with

 

1. The heat expert … with designing, developing and building machines.

2. The technologist … in studying technology.

3. The turner … on machining and processing parts.

4. The operator … of work and control of machinery and equipment.

5. The technician … with good condition and maintenance of equipment.

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

1. Машиностроение – это отрасль строительства машин, станков, оборудования, транспортных средств, домов, дорог и т.д.

2. Машиностроение – древний вид деятельности человека.

3. Машиностроение включает в себя большое количество отраслей.

4. Электротехника, гражданское строительство и химическая промышленность являются отраслями машиностроения.

5. Для успешной работы в области машиностроения требуются квалифицированные специалисты.

6. Хорошо подготовленные специалисты способствуют развитию и усовершенствованию промышленности.

7. Для работы в области машиностроения требуется большое количество специальностей: инженеры, технологи, токари, слесари, операторы, металлурги и другие.

8. Инженер олицетворяет (typifies) всю техническую работу, создавая и проектируя машины и механизмы.

 

Speaking:

Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:

a) the task of engineering;

b) branches of engineering;

c) the demand for specialists;

d) the approximate division of engineering;

e) occupations of some specialities.

 

Checklist for Section I:

1. How does a verb change in Present Indefinite Tense, Active?

2. What is the meaning of suffixes -er(-or), -ist, -cian?

3. What is engineering?

4. What are branches and specialities in engineering?

Section II



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