ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ



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ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ



Л. И. Воскресенская

 

 

ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT

Учебное пособие по английскому языку

 

 

 

 

Омск

Издательство ОмГТУ

УДК 621.9:811.111(075)+621.91:811.111 (075)

ББК 34.63-5я73+81.2Анг-923

В76

 

Рецензенты:

Е.Г. Кукля, канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков

ОмГПУ;

С.П. Афанасьева, канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой английского

языка ОмГПУ.

 

 

Воскресенская, Л. И.

В 76 Технологические машины и оборудование. – Technological Machines and Equipment:учеб. пособие по английскому языку / Л.И. Воскресенская. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2010. – 84 c.

 

ISBN 978-5-8149-0845-2

 

Данное учебное пособие нацелено на обучение студентов чтению и переводу литературы по специальности «Технологические машины и оборудование». Тексты, основанные на оригинальных источниках, содержат информацию о предмете специальности, деталях машин, видах и устройстве станков, технологических процессах, новых технологиях и безопасности на производстве, а также об истории возникновения механического оборудования. В пособие включена также разговорная тема по данной специальности.

К текстам даются пояснения по грамматике и словообразованию. Система упражнений способствует закреплению знаний студентов, а также развитию навыков говорения.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов II курса машиностроительных специальностей дневной, вечерней и заочной форм обучения.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета
Омского государственного технического университета

 

 

УДК 621.9:811.111(075)+621.91:811.111 (075)

ББК 34.63-5я73+81.2Анг-923

 

 

ISBN 978-5-8149-0845-2

 

 

© ГОУ ВПО «Омский государственный

технический университет», 2010

Topic

Qualification of Mechanical Engineer

Vocabulary: Special terms.

Word-formation: Conversion.

Speaking:The subject of the speciality.

 

Practise the reading of the words:

design [dI′zaIn]
objective [ɔb′dჳektIv]
specify [′spesIfaI]
criteria [kraI′tIərIə]
certain [sə:tn]
ancient [′eInòənt]
mechanics [mI′kænIks]
strength [streηθ]
trajectory [′trædჳIktərI]
hydraulics [haI′drɔ:lIks]
science [saIəns]
behavior [bI′heIvjə]
chemical [′kemIkəl]
lathe [leIð]
grinding [′graIndIη]
forging [fɔ:dჳIη]
failure [′feIljə]
hazardous [′hæzədəs]

Learn the pronunciation and meaning of the words:

to encompass [In′kʌmpəs] заключать, включать, содержать
emphasis [′emfəsIs] ударение, акцент, подчеркивание
to devise   придумывать, изобретать
consistent   совместимый, согласующийся
to practise [′præktIs] заниматься чем-либо; применять, осуществлять; практиковать
rupture [′rΛptòə] разрыв
shrinkage [′òrIηkIdჳ] сжатие, усадка
torsion   кручение
shear [òIə] сдвиг
spring   рессора
conjunction [ken′dჳΛηkòən] соединение
turret [′tΛrIt] револьверный станок
gear-cutting   зуборезный станок
transfer machine   агрегатный, автоматический станок
to spin (spun, span)   крутить, вертеть, вращать
thread   резьба

 

Vocabulary development: word building

В данном тексте употреблено довольно большое количество слов, являющихся разными членами предложения и относящихся к разным частям речи без изменения основы. Способ образования слов без помощи словообразовательных элементов (суффиксов или префиксов) называется конверсией (conversion).

Sample: trade (n) – торговля; trade (v) – торговать; trade (a) – торговый;

research (n) – исследование; research (v) – исследовать; research (adj) –
исследовательский.

Переведите на русский язык слова из текста, образованные по конверсии:

design – to design engineer – to engineer task – to task study – to study load – to load impact – to impact concern – to concern spin – to spin block – to block help – to help work – to work use – to use experience – to experience model – to model test – to test factor – to factor risk – to risk safeguard – to safeguard cover – to cover contact – to contact reach – to reach  

Text

Read the text on your speciality and use it while speaking on this theme

Section I

Text

Read the text paying attention to the division of engineering science and the variety of engineering specialities

Section II

Text

Section III

Hand Tools

Grammar:Gerund.

Word-formation: suffix –tion (-sion).

Speaking:Types and application of tools in mechanical work.

Practise the reading of the words:

pliers [plaIəz]
shears [òIəz]
die [daI]
square [skwεə]
gauge [′geIdჳ]
cutter [′kΛtə]
grinder [graIndə]
chisel [′tòIzəl]

 

Learn the meaning of the words:

work bench верстак
vice тиски
jaws тиски
leg-type vice верстачные (слесарные) тиски
hammer молоток
chisel долото, стамеска, зубило
pliers плоскогубцы, щипцы, клещи
file напильник
spanner, wrench гаечный ключ
screw driver отвертка
marking tool разметочный инструмент
measuring tool измерительный инструмент
gas pliers клещи для газовых труб
pincer pliers клещи
rasp рашпиль
needle file надфиль
cut напильник
bastard cut драчевый напильник
smooth cut личнóй напильник
dead smooth cut бархатный напильник
open-jaw spanner нераздвижной гаечный ключ
single-ended spanner односторонний гаечный ключ
box spanner накидной гаечный ключ
socket wrench торцевой ключ
adjustable spanner (=monkey wrench) раздвижной гаечный ключ
hand shears ручные ножницы (для резки металла)
hack saw ножовка (по металлу)
punch пробойник, пуансон
hand drill ручная дрель
grind stone точильный брусок
thread-screwing tool резьбонарезной инструмент
riveting tool клепальный инструмент
soldering tool паяльный инструмент
screw tap метчик
tap wrench ворот
stock and die (=die stock) клупп, винтовальная доска
nut setter гайковерт
prick punch (=center punch) разметочный (центровой) кернер
engineer’s compass (=divider) циркуль
straight-edge проверочная линейка
square угольник
calipers кронциркуль, штангенциркуль
micrometer микрóметр
gauge калибр, шаблон, щуп
measuring rule измерительная линейка
pattern шаблон
screw-thread gauge резьбовой калибр
gap gauge толщиномер, калибр для проверки зазоров
screw plate винторезная доска
punch штамп (прессовый), пуансон, кернер, пробойник, зубило
center punch кернер
prick punch разметочный или центровой кернер
transfer punch цилиндрический, разметочный кернер
pin punch пробойник
doming punch шаровой кернер
drift punch (=drift pin) кузнечный пробойник, зубило
fastener зажим, крепеж
taper конус

Grammar study: Gerund

Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами глагола и существительного. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к основе смыслового глагола и переводится на русский язык как существительным, так и глаголом. Герундий выполняет в предложении различные функции: подлежащего, именной части составного сказуемого, определения, дополнения и различных обстоятельств – времени, образа действия, сопутствующих обстоятельств, цели, условия. Признаками герундия являются: наличие перед ним предлога, притяжательного местоимения, существительного в притяжательном падеже.

Sample: marking – разметка; working – обработка.

 

Text

Hand Tools

In mechanical engineering hand tools are widely used. The fitter’s tools firstly include a work bench and a vice. The vice is secured to the table and is used to hold an object for working by a cut or a needle file. The fitter’s working place contains hammers, chisels, pliers, files, spanners, screw drivers, various marking and measuring tools, etc. Cold chisels are used for work on metals which are in a cold state. The cold chisel is used for chipping off, or cutting away, small pieces of metal and also for cutting out works from sheet metal. Pliers are used for gripping or holding small objects by manual operation. The most common type is the plain or straight-jaw type pliers. Among other types of pliers there are round-nosed pliers, gas pliers, pincer pliers, etc.

Other tools may also have several varieties. Files, for example, are divided according to their degree of roughness (по степени шероховатости насечки, а именно по классам точности). There are the following hand files: rasp or rough cuts, bastard cuts, smooth cuts, dead smooth cuts. As to their shape files may be flat, round, half-round, square, three-cornered, etc. Files used for delicate work are called needle files.

Spanners or wrenches are used for tightening up or unscrewing nuts and bolts. There are two chief types of open-jaw spanners: the single-ended and the double-ended. If the bolt head or nut are in position difficult to access ordinary spanners either a box spanner or socket wrench may be used. To serve several sizes of nuts and bolts adjustable spanners, or monkey wrenches are applied.

Among other hand tools used in craftman’s work there are hand shears, hack saws, drift punches, hand drills, grind stones and others. Besides, in mechanical job the application of thread screwing tools is also required. The tools comprise two forms: for internal thread cutting (screw taps) and for external thread formation (stock and die, screw plate). In addition to hand tools employed by a fitter electric and pneumatic tools are also used. Thus, a hand tool is a device for performing work on a material or a physical system using only hands. To such tools a punch may also belong. A punch is a hard metal rod with a shaped tip at one end and a blunt butt at the other that is usually struck by a hammer. A center punch is typically used as an aid to drilling operations. A center punch forms a small dimple in which the tip of the drill (if it is small) will fit. A prick punch serves an entirely different purpose. A prick punch is primarily used for the purposes of layout. A transfer punch is a punch of a specific outer diameter that is non-tapered and extend the entire length of the punch (except for the tip). It is used to transfer the center of the hole from one surface to another. A pin punch is used as a driving tool to affix a fixture to a rotating shaft. A doming punch is used in conjunction with a doming block to make spheres or hemispheres out of sheets of metal. The punch is generally made of tool steel, but can be made of wood. A drift punch, or drift pin. is used as an aid in aligning bolt or rivet holes prior to inserting a fastener. A drift punch is constructed as a tapered rod, with the hammer acting on the large end of the taper.

 

Exercise 1. Translate the words from the text in the form of Gerund into Russian:

working, measuring, cutting, gripping, holding, tightening, unscrewing, performing, screwing, marking, measuring, inserting.

 

Exercise 2. Translate word combinations into English:

 

рабочий инструмент, рабочее место, измерительный инструмент, разметочный инструмент, режущий инструмент, затяжная гайка, нарезное приспособление, операция сверления, шаровой кернер, крепежный болт.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:

1. The first fitter’s tools are …

2. The vice is used to …

3. The cold chisel is used for …

4. Files are divided according to …

5. The different types of files are …

6. According to their shape files may be …

7. Files used for delicate work are called …

8. Spanners (wrenches) are used for …

9. A punch is …

10. A hand tool is a device for …

 

Exercise 4. Insert the proper words into the sentences:

1. (Ручные инструменты) are widely used in mechanical engineering.

2. The fitter’s working place firstly included (верстак) and (тиски).

3. The fitter needs in (отвертки), (стамески) and (напильники).

4. The fitter also needs in (разметочных) and (измерительных инструментах).

5. (Напильники) used for delicate work are called (надфили).

6. (Гаечные ключи) are used for (закрепления) or (раскручивания) (гаек и болтов).

7. (Гаечные ключи) may be (раздвижными) and (нераздвижными).

8. The tool used for (нарезки внутренней резьбы) is called (клупп).

9. The tool used for (нарезки внешней резьбы) is called (винторезная доска).

10. (Кернер) is usually used in (сверлильных) operations.

 

Exercise 5. Find English equivalent to the Russian word:

1. инструмент а) instrument c) device

b) tool d) equipment;

 

2. верстак a) board c) bench

b) plate d) support;

 

3. гаечный ключ a) hammer c) jaws

b) pliers d) spanner;

 

4. напильник а) chisel c) screw driver

b) wrench d) file;

 

5. надфиль a) cut c) smooth cut

b) needle file d) bastard cut;

 

6. резьбонарезной a) grinding stone c) thread-screwing tool

инструмент b) riveting tool d) tap wrench;

 

7. резьба а) screw c) thread

b) needle d) punch;

 

8. шаблон a) divider c) pattern

b) square d) screw tap.

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

 

1. В машиностроении часто используется такое оборудование, как ручные инструменты.

2. Рабочее место слесаря оборудовано, как правило, тисками, плоскогубцами, напильниками и измерительными инструментами.

3. Ручные инструменты используются для обработки металлов в холодном состоянии.

4. Напильники бывают различных видов, в зависимости от класса точности обработки детали.

5. Напильники могут иметь различную форму: плоскую, круглую, полукруглую, квадратную и треугольную.

6. Гаечные ключи используются для затягивания или раскручивания гаек.

7. Накидной гаечный ключ или торцевой применяются там, где обычные ключи не работают.

8. Резьба делается с помощью резьбонарезного оборудования.

9. Пробойник – это прочный металлический стержень с острым концом с одной стороны.

10. Различные виды пробойников используются для пробивания отверстий.

 

Speaking:

Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:

f) the types of hand tools;

g) the functions of hand tools;

h) varieties of hand tools of one line;

i) furnishing a fitter’s working place.

 

Checklist for Section III:

1. How is Gerund formed and translated into Russian?

2. What words are formed with the suffix –tion (-sion)?

3. What are different hand tools used for?

4. What should a fitter or a mechanic know in order to use various hand tools?

 

 

Section IV

Mechanical Tools

Grammar:Degrees of comparison of adjectives.

Word-formation: suffixes –er, -ing (repetition).

Speaking:Types and functions of mechanical tools in production.

Practise the reading of the words:

shear [òIə]
archetypal [′ɑ:kItaIpl]
geometry [dჳI′ɔmItrI]
angle [′æηgl]
design [dI′zaIn]
accuracy [′ækjurəsI]
rescue [′reskju:]
pneumatic [nju:′mætIk]
height [haIt]
contour [′kɔntuə]

Learn the meaning and pronunciation the words:

shear deformation   деформация среза
archetype   прототип
tool bit   вставной резец
drill bit   буровая головка
milling cutter   фреза
clearance angle   угол зазора
dragging   трение, касание (резца)
cutting face   передняя грань (резца)
linear   продольный
single-point   однорежущий
broach   развертка
countersink [′kauntə/sIηk] зенковка, конический (конусный) зенкер
counterbore   торцовый зенкер, развертка
tap   метчик (для нарезки внутренней резьбы)
die [daI] пуансон, винторезная головка, штамп, матрица
reamer [′rI:mə] развертка
band saw blade   полотно (или диск) ленточной пилы
fly cutter   летучая фреза, однозубая фреза
high speed steel   быстрорежущая инструментальная сталь
grade   сорт
cobalt [kə′bɔ:lt] кобальт
rake angle   угол наклона
groove [gru:v] паз, канавка, желобок
helical   спиральный, винтовой
shank   хвостовик (инструмента); тело (болта)
end mill   концевая (хвостовая) фреза; торцевая фреза
slot mill   пазовая фреза
roughing mill   фреза для черновой обработки
ball nose mill   фреза с шаровым концом
slab mill   фреза для обточки плоских заготовок
side-and-face cutter   трехсторонняя лобовая фреза большого диаметра
circumference [sə′kΛmfərəns ] окружность
hobbing cutter   червячная фреза
emery [′emərI] наждак, корунд
anvil block   наковальня
ram   штемпель (пресса), баба (молота)
bottom die   нижний штамп, матрица
blank   заготовка, болванка
blanking die   вырубной штамп
punch plate   пробивная плита

Text

Mechanical Tools

Cutter

In the context of machining, a cutting tool (or cutter) is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. Archetypal examples are tool bits, drill bits, and milling cutters. Cutting tools must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. The angle of the cutting face is very important.

Non-grinding cutting tools often can be classified as linear or rotary. Linear cutting tools include tool bits (single-point cutting tools) and broaches. Rotary cutting tools include drill bits, countersinks and counterbores, taps and dies, milling cutters, and reamers. Other cutting tools, such as band saw blades and fly cutters, combine aspects of linear and rotary motion.

Cutting tools (non-grinding) are generally made of tool steels (today mostly of high speed steels (HSS), whether conventional HSS grades or cobalt HSS), carbides, ceramics, or industrial diamonds.

Milling Cutter

Milling cutters come in several shapes and many sizes. There is also a choice of coatings, as well as rake angle and number of cutting surfaces. The flutes (teeth) of the milling bit are deep helical grooves running up the cutter. The tooth cuts the material. Some cutter have more than one tooth. The more teeth a cutter has, the more rapidly it can remove material. The flutes of a milling cutter are almost always helical. If the flutes were straight, the whole tooth would impact the material at once, causing vibration and reducing accuracy and surface quality. The shank of a cutter is the cylindrical (non-fluted) part which is used to hold and locate it in the tool holder.

End mills are tools which have cutting teeth at one end, as well as on the sides. There are the following types of mills: slot, roughing, ball nose, slab, and others. Side-and-face cutter is designed with cutting teeth on its side as well as its circumference. Hobbing cutters are used in hobbing machines to generate gears.

Grinders

Technically, grinding wheels are a subset of cutting tools, as grinding is a true metalcutting process. Grinding wheels are usually made of abrasives such as aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, emery, or diamonds. An angle grinder or a side grinder is a handheld power tool used for cutting, grinding and polishing. The motor drives a geared head on which an abrasive disc is mounted that can be replaced when worn.

Angle grinders may be used both for removing excess material off a piece or simply cutting into a piece. There are many different kinds of disks that are used for various materials and tasks. Angle grinders are widely used in metalworking and construction, as well as in emergency rescues. There are a large variety of angle grinders depending on the power source – pneumatic or electric and the disk size.

Ram

Hammers are classified as mechanical and air-and-steam hammers. The part of the hummer, which serves as a rigid support during forging, is called the anvil block. The heavy falling part of the hammer is called the ram. The lower part of the ram, which comes into direct contact with the forging, is called the bottom die. The heavier the falling part of a hammer, and the greater the height and velocity of the fall, the greater will be the force of the blow of the hammer.

Die

Die (manufacturing) is a material-shaping device. A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Products made with dies range from simple to complex units used in advanced technology. The die is a metal block that is used for forming materials like sheet metal and plastic. Die operations are often named after the specific type of the die that performs the operation. For example, a bending operation is performed by a bending die. Some dies may incorporate multiple operation types. The bending operation is the act of bending blanks at a predetermined angle. A blanking die produces a flat piece of material by cutting the desired shape in one operation. The finish part is referred to as a blank. Generally, a blanking die may only cut the outside contour of a part without internal features. A compound die has the die block (matrix) mounted on a punch plate with perforators which allows the cutting of internal and external part features on a single press stroke. Forming dies bend the blank along a curved surface.

Exercise 1. Translate the word and word combinations with Gerund into Russian:

machining, cutting, cutting tool, milling, milling cutter, metal-cutting process, cutting edge, cutting face, grinding tool, cutting surface, milling bit, cutting teeth, roughing mill, hobbing cutter, hobbing machine, grinding wheel, polishing, removing excess material, metal working, forging, manufacturing, manufacturing industries, forming, bending, bending operation, bending die.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences:

1. A cutting tool is the tool used to …

2. Cutting tools must be harder than …

3. The tool must withstand …

4. The tool must have a specific …

5. Non-grinding cutting tools are classified as …

6. The flutes of the milling bit are …

7. The flutes of a milling cutter are almost always …

8. Grinding wheels are usually made of …

9. Angle grinders are widely used in …

10. A die is a specialized tool used to …

Exercise 3. Use the verbs in brackets in the proper forms of Indefinite Tense Active and Passive:

1. A cutting tool is a tool that (to use) to remove metal from the workpiece.

2. Cutting tools (to make) of hard material.

3. As a rule the tool (to withstand) high heating.

4. Any cutting tool (to have) a specific geometry.

5. Non-grinding cutting tools (to classified) into linear and rotary.

6. Some cutting tools (to combine) function of linear and rotary motion.

7. The flutes of the milling bit (to be) helical grooves.

8. The shank of a cutter (to hold) and (to locate) in the tool holder.

9. Side-and-face cutter (to design) with cutting teeth on its side.

10. Grinding wheels usually (to make) of abrasive materials.

11. The motor (to drive) a geared head on which an abrasive disk (to mount).

12. Cutting disks (to divide) into different kinds.

13. The heavy falling part of the hammer (to call) the ram.

14. Some materials (to shape) by using a press.

15. Sheets metal and plastics (to form) by a metal block which (to call) a die.

Exercise 4. Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following statements:

1. A workpiece is machined with a cutting tool by removing metal from it.

2. Cutting tool should not be softer than the machined workpiece.

3. Only the edges of a cutting tool should touch the workpiece by processing.

4. Broaches are non-grinding cutting tools.

5. Cutting tools are made of hard grades of steels.

6. The speed of removing materials depends on the number of teeth of a cutter.

7. The position of flutes influences the accuracy and surface quality of details.

8. Angle grinders are used not only in metal-cutting but in emergency situations,

9. The blow of hammer during forging is dependent on the height and velocity of the fall.

10. Various dies may perform operations changing the shape of material.

Exercise 5. Find English equivalent to the Russian word:

1. резец а) broach c) blade

b) saw d) cutter;

 

2. срез a) cut c) shear

b) edge d) milling;

 

3. развертка a) cuntersink c) reamer

b) die d) cutter;

 

4. головка а) head c) shank

b) bit d) angle;

 

5. трение, a) contact c) touching

касание резца b) dragging d) friction;

 

6. паз (фрезы) a) shank c) groove

b) bit d) slot;

 

7. заготовка а) workpiece c) blank

b) slab d) ram;

 

8. сорт стали a) type c) kind

b) grade d) variety.

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

1. Разновидностью режущего инструмента является фреза.

2. Режущие инструменты должны изготавливаться из твердых материалов.

3. Форма и угол резания имеют большое значение.

4. В зависимости от операции режущими инструментами являются метчики, пуансоны, развертки.

5. Для изготовления режущих инструментов используются различные сорта сталей.

6. Фреза – это стержень или диск с несколькими зубцами.

7. Зубцы фрезы должны иметь определенное расположение, влияющее на точность и качество обработки деталей.

8. Торцевые фрезы имеют зубцы, как на конце, так и с боков.

9. Абразивными материалами для шлифовальных станков являются алюминий, силикон, наждак и алмаз.

10. Вырубной штамп производит детали различной конфигурации.

 

Speaking:

Exercise 7. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:

a) the functions of cutting tools;

b) characteristics of cutting tools;

c) types of cutting tools;

d) geometry of milling cutters;

e) the principle of work of mechanical hammers;

f) the structure and usage of grinding tools;

g) the types and manufactural application of dies.

 

Checklist for Section IV:

1. How are the degrees of comparison of adjectives formed?

2. How is Gerund translated into Russian?

3. What are the types of cutting tools?

4. What are their functions?

Section V

Text

Section VI

The Structure of Lathes

Grammar:a) Participle I as adverbial modifier of time.

b) Compound conjunctions.

Word-formation: conversion (repetition).

Speaking:Basic parts of lathes.

Practise the reading of the words:

lathe [leIð]
machine [mə′òI:n]
design [dI′zaIn]
structure [′strΛktòə]
versatility [\və:sə′tIlItI]
either [′aIðə]
utilize [′ju:tIlaz ]
technique [tek′nIk]
worth [wə:θ]

 

Learn the meaning and pronunciation of the words:

precisely [prI′saIslI] точно, точный
advent [′ædvənt] появление, возникновение
inherent [In′hIərənt] присущий, неотъемлемый, свойственный
rigid [′rIdჳId] прочный, твердый, жесткий
headstock   передняя бабка
bed   станина (станка)
carriage   суппорт, салазки (станка)
tailstock   задняя бабка
robust [rə′bΛst] крепкий, прочный
chuck   патрон
face plate   планшайба (токарного станка)
taper   конус
insertion [In′sə:òən] вставление, помещение, вставка
to align [ə′laIn] устанавливать в одну линию, выравнивать, центрировать, делать соосным
to facilitate   облегчать, содействовать, способствовать
ground   пригнанный, неподвижный, закрепленный
ways   направляющие, параллели (станка)
to restrain   ограничивать, сдерживать
set track   направляющее устройство
rack-and-pinion   кремальера (зубчатая рейка)
rack   рама, полка
pinion [′pInjən] ведущая шестерня, малое зубчатое колесо, зубчатый валик
leadscrew   ходовой винт
feedscrew   ходовой винт
pitch   шаг (зубчатого зацепления)
change gear   сменное зубчатое колесо; сменная шестерня
intermediate gearbox   промежуточная шестерня
ratio [′reIòIou] соотношение, передаточное число
facing   обточка торца
compound rest   крестовый (сложный) суппорт
toolpost   резцедержатель
cross-slide   поперечный суппорт
to clamp   скреплять, зажимать

Text

The Structure of Lathes

Metalworking lathes were originally designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials – metals. However, with the advent of plastics and other materials, and with their inherent versatility, the lathes are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. These rigid machine tools remove material from a rotating workpiece via the movements of various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits. These machines consist, mainly, of a headstock, bed, carriage, tailstock and work-and-tool holder.

The headstock houses the main spindle, speed change mechanism and change gears. The headstock is required to be made as robust as possible due to the cutting forces involved. The main spindle is generally hollow to allow long bars to extend through to the work area. The spindle then runs in bearings and is fitted with holding devices such as chucks or faceplates. This end of the spindle will also have an included taper, usually Morse, to allow the insertion of tapers and centers.

The bed is a robust base that connects to the headstock and permits the carriage and tailstock to be aligned parallel with the axis of the spindle. This is facilitated by hardened and ground ways which restrain the carriage and tailstock in a set track. The carriage travels by means of a rack and pinion system, leadscrew of accurate pitch, or feedscrew.

The feedscrew is a long driveshaft that allows a series of gears to drive the carriage mechanisms. Both the feedscrew and leadscrew are driven by either the change gears or an intermediate gearbox known as a quick change gearbox or Norton gearbox. These intermediate gears allow the correct ratio and direction to be set for cutting threads or worm gears.

The carriage holds the tool bit and moves it longitudinally (turning) or perpendicularly (facing) under the control of the operator.

The compound rest is the part of the machine where the tool post in mounted. The compound rest axis can be adjusted independently of the carriage or cross-slide. It is utilized when turning tapers, to control depth of cut when screwcutting or precision facing, or to obtain finer feeds (under manual control) than the feed shaft permits.

The toolpost is the device into which the tool bit is mounted. Toolposts may be of different styles. Interchangeable tool holders allow all the tools to be preset to a center height that will not change.

The tailstock is a toolholder directly mounted on the spindle axis, opposite the headstock. The spindle includes a taper to hold drill bits, centers and other tooling. The tailstock can be positioned along the bed and clamped in position as required.

There are many variants of lathes within the metalworking field. It should be noted that nowadays the same principles and techniques used for metals may be applied for machining plastics and other composite materials. To variants of metal lathes, for example, belong centering lathes and engine lathes. A centering lathe is a dual head machine where the work remains fixed and the heads move towards the workpiece and machine a centre drill hole each end. Engine lathe is the lathe with automatic feed to the cutting tool. The word «engine» is used here in the meaning of mechanical device, opposed to the lathes with manual feed. It is worth mentioning that all these lathes are being rapidly replaced by CNC lathes.

 

Exercise 1. Translate the word combinations with Participle I in the function of adverbial modifier of time:

when turning tapes, when screw-cutting, when precision facing.

 

Exercise 2. Use the verbs in brackets in the proper Tense form:

1. Firstly metalworking lathes (to design) for machining hard materials.

2. Nowadays, the lathes (to use) in a wide range of application.

3. As a rule, machine-tools (to remove) material from a rotating workpiece.

4. Machine tools (to consist) of numerous parts.

5. The headstock (to house) a spindle and change gears.

6. The spindle (to run) in bearings and (to be fitted) with holding device.

7. The feedscrew (to allow) gears to drive the carriage mechanisms.

8. Intermediate gears (to allow) the correct direction for cutting threads.

9. The carriage (to hold) the tool bit and (to move) it longitudinally or perpendicularly.

10. The word «engine» (to be used) in the meaning of mechanical device.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the proper words corresponding to Russian in brackets:

1. Metalworking lathes were designed for (точной обработки) hard materials.

2. Machine-tools remove materials (с вращающейся заготовки).

3. (Передняя бабка) houses the main spindle and (механизм переключения скоростей).

4. The headstock must be made as (прочной) as possible.

5. The main spindle is usually (полый).

6. (Шпиндель) is fitted with (патроном или планшайбой).

7. One end of the spindle has an included (конус).

8. (Суппорт) and (задняя бабка) are to be aligned parallel with (осью) of the spindle.

9. (Направляющие параллели) restrain (суппорт) and (заднюю бабку) in (направляющем устройстве).

10. (Резцедержатель) is the device into which (вставной резец) is mounted.

 

Exercise 4. Find English equivalent to Russian word:

1. суппорт а) compound rest c) support

b) carriage d) bed;

 

2. присущий, a) described c) necessary

свойственный b) inherent d) needed;

 

3. станина (станка) a) machine c) track

b) carriage d) support;

 

4. малое зубчатое а) pinion c) rack

колесо b) gear d) pitch;

 

5. патрон а) toolpost; c) faceplate;

b) feedscrew; d) chuck;

 

6. направляющие a) set track c) ways

параллели b) faceplate d) carriage;

 

7. резцедержатель a) cross-slide c) spindle

b) chuck d) toolpost;

 

8. сменная шестерня a) intermediate gear c) change gear

b) leadscrew d) pitch.

 

Exercise 5. Translate into English:

1. Металлорежущие станки были созданы для обработки твердых материалов.

2. С появлением пластмасс станки стали использоваться в более широком диапазоне.

3. Станки снимают материал с заготовки с помощью режущих инструментов.

4. Режущим инструментом может быть резец, фреза или шлифовальный диск.

5. Основными узлами станков являются станина, суппорт, передняя и задняя бабка, держатель заготовки и инструмента.

6. Суппорт передвигается с помощью зубчатой рейки и зубчатого колеса.

7. Суппорт удерживает вставной резец и передвигает его продольно или перпендикулярно.

8. Сложный суппорт – это часть станка, на которой устанавливается резцедержатель.

9. Задняя бабка устанавливается вдоль станины и закрепляется в нужном положении.

10. За последнее время все станки заменяются станками с числовым управлением.

Speaking:

Exercise 6. Give the summary of the text, using key vocabulary and tell about:

a) the purpose of designing machine-tools;

b) the cutting tools used in machine-tools;

c) the basic parts of machine-tools;

d) moving parts of machine-tools;

e) immovable parts of machine-tools;

f) the varieties of lathes;

Checklist for Section VI:

1. How is Participle I in the functions of adverbial modifier of time translated into Russian?

2. What is the role of compound conjunctions?

3. What is the function of machine-tools in mechanical engineering?

4. What are the basic parts and units of machine-tools?

Section VII

Text

Section VIII

Text

Section IX

Text

Section X

Modern Machining Methods

Grammar:Functions of Infinitive (repetition).

Word-formation: Word composition.

Speaking:Laser Cutting Technology.

Practise the reading of the words:

precision [prI′sIჳən]
equipment [I′kwIpmənt]
grinding [′graIdIη]
edge [edჳ]
decade [dI′keId]
power [pauə]
driven [drIvn ]
automotive [/ɔ:tə′moutIv]
current [′kΛrənt]
hybrid [′haIbrId]
contour [′kɔntuə]

 

Learn the meaning and pronunciation of the words:

bound [baund] граница, предел
to emerge [I′mə:dჳ] появляться, возникать
gain   увеличение, рост, прибыль, выгода
to vary [′vεərI] отличаться, различаться
contamination   загрязнение
warping   коробление, искривление
to customize   приспосабливать
to modify [mɔdI′faI] модифицировать, изменять
to yield [jI:ld] приносить, давать (прибыль, урожай)
flat   плоский, гладкий
complementary   дополнительный, добавочный
to profile [′proufI:l] профилировать, обрабатывать по шаблону

Word composition

Часто в английском языке слова и термины образуются способом, называемым словосложение. При этом словообразование осуществляется путем соединения двух слов в одно. Сочетаться между собой могут слова, относящиеся к разным частям речи. Сложные слова пишутся либо слитно, либо через дефис: workpiece – деталь, заготовка, machine-tool – станок.

 

Text

Read the text and make acquaintance with new machining methods

 

Modern Machinery Methods

To meet the demand for production and precision, researchers and equipment builders are looking outside the bounds of conventional milling, drilling, turning and grinding. New cutting and machining processes continue to emerge along with methods for modifying the conventional techniques. One of new cutting processes is laser cutting.

Laser cutting is a technology which uses a laser to cut materials, and is usually used in industrial manufacturing. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high power laser at the material to be cut. The material then either melts, burns or vaporizes away leaving a cutting edge and a high quality surface finish.

For more than two decades, lasers have been a substantial part of the sheetmetal fabrication business. Increasing laser power has driven a tremendous productivity gain. Advantages of laser cutting over mechanical cutting vary according to the situation, but important factors are: lack of physical contact and, as the result, the absence of material contamination, and precision, since there is no wear on the laser. There is also a reduced chance of warping the material that is being cut as laser systems have a small heat affected zone. Disadvantages of laser cutting may include the high energy required.

Laser technique is considered by many manufactures to be flexible and versatile. It may be applied to various production processes, because it can be easily customized to handle either type of job. For example, in a volume automotive operation it is currently used to modify body segments. Laser cutting is flexible manufacturing without tools and reduces the number of stamping dies and handling and yields a large productivity gain. The newest development is the addition of a laser-based welding station for the sheetmetal shop.

The most popular lasers for cutting materials are CO2 and ND (dioxide nitrogen). Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials. Some 6-axis lasers can perform cutting operations on parts that have been pre-formed by casting or machining. There are several different types of industrial laser cutting machines: Flying Optics, Hybrid, Pivot and Pulsed lasers. Laser cutting machines can accurately produce complex exterior contours. The laser beam is typically 0,2 mm (0,008 in) diameter at the cutting surface with a power of 1000 to 2000 watts.

Laser cutting can be complementary to the CNC/Turret process. With 3-axis control, the laser cutting process can profile parts after they have been formed on the CNC/Turret process. Lasers work best on materials such as carbon steel or stainless steels. Metals such as aluminum and copper alloys are more difficult to cut due to their ability to reflect the light as well as absorb and conduct heat. This requires lasers that are more powerful.

 

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian the compound words and define the parts of speech of each component:

sheetmetal (fabrication), laser-based (welding), flat-sheet (material), workpiece, machine-tool, counterbore (см. раздел IV), dovetail (раздел V), tailstock (раздел VI), faceplate (раздел VI), leadscrew (раздел VI), toolpost (раздел VI).

 

Exercise 2. Define the function of infinitive:

1. To meet the demand for production, researchers are looking for new machining methods.

2. New cutting processes continue to emerge



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