The concept of Nanotechnology



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The concept of Nanotechnology



Read the text telling about the essence of new technology:

 

to coin   придумывать, создавать новые слова
premise   предпосылка
to enable to   способствовать чему-либо
subsequently [′sʌbsɪkwəntlɪ] впоследствии, потом, позже
distinct   отдельный, особый, отличный (от других), определенный
pharmaceutical [fɑ:mə′sju:tikəl] фармацевтический
tissue [′tɪsju:] ткань (биологическая)
supra [′sju:prə] сверх-…
to encompass [ɪn′kʌmpəs] заключать, включать
adverse   неблагоприятный
to inhail; [ɪn′heɪl] вдыхать
to digest [dɪ′dʒest] переваривать, усваивать

 

The concept of Nanotechnology

 

When the term “nanotechnology” was coined and popularized by Eric Drexler, it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular-scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated that molecular machines were possible, and that manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of such components as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members would enable programmable positional assembly to atomic specification.

The term “nanotechnology” was subsequently applied to other uses, new terms evolved to refer to this distinct usage: “molecular nanotechnology”, “molecular manufacturing”, and most recently “productive nanosystems”. Advanced nanotechnology, called molecular manufacturing, is a term given to the concept of engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale.

Nanotechnology covers a wide range of industries, and therefore the potential benefits, are also widespread. Telecommunications and information technology could benefit in terms of faster computers and advanced data storage. Healthcare could see improvements in skin care and protection, advanced pharmaceuticals, drug delivery systems, biocompatible materials, nerve and tissue repair, and cancer treatments.
Other industries benefits include catalysts, sensors and magnetic materials and
devices.

One of the problems facing nanotechnology concerns how to assemble atoms and molecules into smart materials and working devices. A very important tool here is supramolecular chemistry. The definition of nano-composite material has broadened significantly to encompass a large variety of systems such as one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional and amorphous materials, made of distinctly dissimilar components and mixed on the nanometer scale.

However, in these new technologies there exist the potential risks. Critics of nanotechnology point to the potential toxicity of new classes of nanosubstances that could adversely affect the stability of cell membranes or disturb the immune system when inhailed, digested or absorbed through the skin. Nanoparticles in the environment could potentially accumulate in the food chain.

 

Speaking:

I. Divide the text into some meaningful parts, giving them the proper title.

 

II. Render the text, using the following phrases:

a) in the text it is stated that… ;

b) the main idea of the text concerns…;

c) it is well-known that…;

d) it is believed that…;

e) the latest studies say, that…;

f) referring to…;

g) another consideration is…;

h) it is necessary to take into account… .

 

Text V

 

Read the text about the new turning machine-tools with the help of the following words:



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