Qualification of Mechanical Engineer



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Qualification of Mechanical Engineer



 

Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying technical and scientific knowledge in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems and processes that safely realize a desired objectives and meet specified criteria.

The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specified subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology. The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as fundamental inventions of mechanics were devised: pulley, lever, wheel, axle, wedge and screw. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern
definition of engineering, exploiting, basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects. One who practises engineering is called an engineer and should design and develop various kinds of machinery, to operate it and to foresee the behavior of equipment under specific operating conditions.

To fulfill all these tasks the students firstly study beside general educational subjects specialized ones. To the latter belong: strength of materials, theoretical mechanics, hydraulics, electrical engineering, details of machines, science of materials, technological processes. Strength of materials considers resistance to various loads: bending, rupture, compression, friction, shrinkage, torsion, shear and others. Theoretical mechanics deals with external loads – impacts of one body on the other, trajectories of their motion. Hydraulics studies movement of fluid, gas and air in tubes and aggregates. The principles of behavior of these constituents are implemented in such appliances, as pumps, turbines, hoses, pipes and tubes. Electrical engineering concerns electrical equipment, appliances and the sphere connected with electric current. Details of machines include: bearings, pistons, shafts, bars, cams, axles, cranks, crankshafts, meshes, gears, transmissions, springs and conjunction of these details. Science of materials concerns with the types and properties of materials, metallic and non-metallic constructional materials, their behavior under thermal chemical and mechanical conditions and the means of their processing and finishing. Technological processes involve the means of machining and treatment of various materials, maintenance of machines and equipment and are aimed at getting products.

The most important subject is the types, design and functioning various equipment and machine-tools. There are the following types of machine-tools: lathes, milling, drilling, grinding, boring, gear-cutting, transfer, stamping, forging machines, turret, engine, copying lathes, machining centres and СNС (computer numerical control). A lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations with the help of a cutting tool. The cutting tool may be a cutter, milling cutter and a grinder. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning and glassworking. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce plane surfaces and screw threads.

In practical work engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience in their field. Engineers should predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications by testing prototypes, models, by making destructive and stress tests. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure and to prevent accidents. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. In the design of machinery the safety engineer should cover all moving parts or keep them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cut-off switches within the reach of the operator and to eliminate dangerous sharp parts.

 

Speaking:

Answer the questions:

1. What does engineering deal with?

2. What should an engineer do and know?

3. What specialized subjects do the students study?

4. What subjects do you like best?

5. What is the most important specialized subject?

6. What types of machine-tools do you know?

7. How is it necessary to predict the good quality of equipment?

8. What should be done in the sphere of safety engineering?

Speak on your speciality touching the following items:

1. Why did you choose this speciality?

2. What are the demands for specialists in machinery?

3. What are the specialized subjects aimed at?

4. What are the basic mechanical principles?

5. What does engineering encompass?

6. What machine-tools should every engineer know?

 

Checklist for topic:

1. What do special terms express?

2. What do you know about conversion?

3. What is the concept and subject of engineering?

4. What knowledge should an engineer possess?

 

Section I



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