ТОП 10:

Write out of the text terminological words and word-combinations referring to civil engineering.

5.Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences.

1. Most early engineers were engaged, in the construction of

а) dams; b) bridges, c) fortifications.

2. The word " “building” is mainly used in the sense of …

a) water supply, b) roads, c) domestic dwellings.

3. Сіvil engineering was not distinguished from other branches of engineering until…

a) today, b) 200 years ago, c) 50 years ago.

4. Civil engineering is a very popular and …

a) difficult, b) extremely broad,

c) honourable profession.


6 Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What is civil engineering?

2. When was the term “civil engineering” used first?

3. What were most early engineers engaged in?

4. What branches is civil engineering subdivided into?

5. What branches of knowledge must civil engineering make use of?

6. What sciences is it connected with?

7. What is the difference between “construction” and “building”?

8. Why is civil engineering a popular and honourable profession?


Suggest subtitles for each paragraph of the text.

Express the main idea of the text in Ukrainian in the shortest possible way.

Render the text according to your own plan.

10.Annotate the text in English or in Utrainian.


The architect must be an artist, engineer, and executive. Special qualities are required of the architect. He or she must understand people. She or he must have a talent for creative design and have skill in math and science. And the architect must be able to communicate ideas and designs graphically.

The architectural drafter translates the ideas, sketches, and designs of an architect into sets of drawings from which a structure can be built. The work includes drawing, sketching, tracing, computation, and derailing.

The city planner studies and plans the development or redevelopment of large areas such as cities, communities, housing projects, commercial projects, and so forth. The plan­ning takes into account the utilities and neces­sities required for today's living. After designs are completed, the individual buildings may be designed by other architects.

The landscape architect controls the devel­opment of the site, which includes earthwork, planting, layout of streets and walks, and the orientation of the structure. She or he should have an understanding of plant life and a background in math, art, architectural draft­ing, and rendering.

The structural engineer,through the use of calculations, designs the structural part of buildings. He or she is usually a civil engineer who specializes in structures. Of all the pro­fessional areas in the building trades, this is considered one of the most difficult, because of the high competence it requires in physics and math.

The civil engineer does the calculating and designing that are also done by the structural engineer. In addition, he or she may survey, or may conduct large-scale planning of utilities, roads, structures, harbors, airfields, tunnels, bridges, and sewage plants. The field of civil engineering is so broad that a civil engineer has to specialize in one area, such as struc­tures. The civil engineer's college degree is in civil engineering.

Electrical engineers form the largest group of engineers. The need for them is great in the computer sciences and in the fields of avia­tion. The electrical engineer in the building trades designs the electrical components of structures. The electrical engineer's college degree is in electrical engineering.

The air-conditioningengineer designs the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems for structures. This person's college degree is in mechanical engineering, and he or she will specialize in air conditioning.

The acoustics engineer is responsible for controlling sound in the structure. However, this work is not confined to buildings; it can also be applied to noise suppression in ma­chines, industrial factories, aircraft, and rock­ets; anywhere there is loud noise. This field is very technical. The acoustics engineer needs a broad background in math and physics. Her or his college degree is in physics, engineer­ing, architecture, or math.

The mechanical engineer is the engineer who does not specialize in one area. He or she works in production, the use of power, and machines which use power. The mechanical engineer who works in the building trades designs for operational parts of a structure. The degree is in mechanical engineering.

The estimator prepares estimates of the cost of building projects by figuring material requirements and labor costs. Her or his work must be accurate, because mistakes are expensive.

An estimator working in large construction should have a general or specialized college degree and knowledge of construction and building. His or her math skills must be good. An estimator for small construction, such as that of homes, can come from the ranks ol the craftsman. The estimator's skills are largely learned in the office and in the field.

The specification writer prepares specifi­cations (a written description of exact materi­als, methods of construction, finishes, and tests and performances of everything required for the structure). Knowledge of all types of construction is needed, as is a technical back­ground and experience in building.

His or her college degree can be general or specialized. Specification writers for small construction can come from the ranks of the craftsman. The specification writer's skills are learned in the office and in the field.

The surveyor defines in both words and pic­tures (usually maps) the specific space, posi­tion, and topography of a piece of land. The accuracy of the work is essential for proper foundations and construction. This work is the first step in the construction of roads, air­fields, bridges, dams, and other structures. Her or his college degree is in civil engineer­ing.

The architectural designer designs and plans homes and other small buildings. She or he is usually an outstanding architectural drafter but does not have a degree in architec­ture. The engineering for their structures is done by architects or structural engineers.

Supplement III

Making Presentations: Key Points

This paper has been divided into 5 sections

The following checklist is a guide for your preparation.

Thinking About You're Audience

Determine the level of understanding

What are their expectations:

Ask around

Preparing your Presentation

Draw up a plan, with time limits, and identify objectives (max. of 3)

Be creative – brainstorm and mindmap

KISS: keep it short and simple

Use a variety of visual aids – but not too many

Know your room and equipment

Overcoming Nerves

Rehearse beforehand

Don't have too much material

Practice with equipment

Get perspective, think positive, use relaxation exercis

Be yourself!

The Presentation itself

Stand up, move around, establish eye contact

Don't be note-bound

Avoid fillers, runaways and apologies

Make it 3D

Project your voice


If it's a long presentation, make it interactive

Anticipate questions and formulate answers beforehand

Don't gather up notes and lose concentration

Ask for clarification if confused, repeat it for benefit of whole audience

Provide short and sharp answers

Speak to entire audience and not one questioner

Giving an Oral Presentation

Sub-skills Functions Recommended exponents
Introducing a presentation Creating and introducing oneself Good morning/afternoon. My name 's .../I am ... Let me introduce myself. Let me start by saying a few words about ...
General professional environment and routine Presenting the title/subject The subject of my presentation is ... The focus of my paper (academic) is ... Today I'd like to talk about... I'm going to tell you something about...
Specifying the purpose/objective We are here today to decide/ agree/learn about ... The purpose of the talk/ presentation is ... The talk /presentation is designed to ...
Signposting the presentation My presentation will be in ... parts. First/ Firstly/ First of all, I'll give you .... Second/secondly/Next/Then, ... Lastly/finally last of all.... I've divided my presentation into ... parts/sections. They are ... . I'll be developing ... main points. The first point will .... Second . … Lastly ... .
Sequencing and linking ideas Sequencing / ordering Firstly ... , secondly ... , thirdly ... . Then ... next... finally/lastly ... Let's start with ... Let's move /go onto ... Now we come to ... That brings us to ... Let's leave that... That covers ... Let's go back to ... Let me turn now to ...
Giving reasons/causes Therefore So, As a result, Consequently. That's why ... This is because of ... This is largely due to … It could lead to ... It may result in ...
Contrasting But On the other hand. … Although ... . In spite of this, ... However, ...
Comparing Similarly, In the same way,
Contradicting In fact, Actually,
Highlighting … in particular, … especially
Digressing By the way, In passing,
Giving examples For example, For instance, Such as A good example of this is … To illustrate this point, ...
Generalising Usually Generally As a rule
Involving the audience   Asking rhetorical questions What's the explanation for this? How can we explain this? How can we do about it? How will this affect ... ? What are the implications for … ?
Referring to the audience As I'm sure you Know /we'd all agree … We have all experienced ... You may remember ...
Describing and analysing performance[16]   Describing performance to date The ... performed well/poorly. The .. has/have shown considerable/slight growth/improvement/decrease...
Analysing performance The main explanation for this is ... A particular/one/another reason is … A key problem is ...
Describing trends, charts and graphs There is/has been a slight/dramatic/considerable/significant/moderate decrease/fall/drop/collapse/rise/increase in … … . remain(s)/has remained constant/stable … … has/have decreased/increased/fallen/risen dramatically/considerably/slightly/moderately
Using visual aids Preparing the audience for a visual Now, let's look at the position of... Now, I'll show you the ... For … the situation is very different. Let's move on now and took at ... The next slide shows ... If we now turn to the ... This chart compares ... and ... The (upper) part of the slide gives information about … You can see here the ... I'd like to draw your attention to ...
Focusing the audience's attention You can see the ... As you can see ... What is interesting/important is ... I'd like to draw your attention to ... Notice/Observe the ... It is important/interesting to notice that …
Ending a presentation Summarising To sum up... In brief... In short.... I'd like to sum up now … … I'll briefly summarise the main issues. Let me summarise briefly what I've said. if I can just sum up the main points. At this stage I'd /like to run through /to go over. Let's recap, shall we?
Concluding In conclusion, ... To conclude, ... As you can see, there are some very good reasons ... I'd like to leave you with the following thought/idea.
Recommending My/our suggestion/proposal/recommendation would be/is to ... We recommend/I'd like to suggest/I propose setting up....
Closing formalities I'd be happy to answer any questions. If you have any questions, I'd be pleased to answer them. I would welcome any comments/suggestions. Thank you for your attention.
Handling questions Clarifying questions So, what you are asking is ... If I understand the question correctly, you would like to know … When you say ... do you mean ...? I'm sorry, I didn't hear. Which slide was it? Sorry, could you repeat that? I'm not sure what you're getting at.
Avoiding giving an answer Perhaps we could deal with that later. Can we talk about that another time? I'm afraid that's not my field. I don't have the figures with me. I'm sure Mr X could answer that question. That's interesting, but I'd prefer not to answer that today. I'm afraid I'm not the right person to answer that. Could we leave that till later? I'm not sure this is the right place/time to discuss this particular question.
Checking the questioner is satisfied May we go on? Does that answer your question? Is that clear?


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