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Write out of the text terminological words and word-combinations referring to civil engineering.
5.Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences.
1. Most early engineers were engaged, in the construction of
а) dams; b) bridges, c) fortifications.
2. The word " “building” is mainly used in the sense of …
a) water supply, b) roads, c) domestic dwellings.
3. Сіvil engineering was not distinguished from other branches of engineering until…
a) today, b) 200 years ago, c) 50 years ago.
4. Civil engineering is a very popular and …
a) difficult, b) extremely broad,
c) honourable profession.
6 Answer the following questions on the text:
1. What is civil engineering?
2. When was the term “civil engineering” used first?
3. What were most early engineers engaged in?
4. What branches is civil engineering subdivided into?
5. What branches of knowledge must civil engineering make use of?
6. What sciences is it connected with?
7. What is the difference between “construction” and “building”?
8. Why is civil engineering a popular and honourable profession?
Suggest subtitles for each paragraph of the text.
Express the main idea of the text in Ukrainian in the shortest possible way.
Render the text according to your own plan.
10.Annotate the text in English or in Utrainian.
CAREERS RELATED TO CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
The architect must be an artist, engineer, and executive. Special qualities are required of the architect. He or she must understand people. She or he must have a talent for creative design and have skill in math and science. And the architect must be able to communicate ideas and designs graphically.
The architectural drafter translates the ideas, sketches, and designs of an architect into sets of drawings from which a structure can be built. The work includes drawing, sketching, tracing, computation, and derailing.
The city planner studies and plans the development or redevelopment of large areas such as cities, communities, housing projects, commercial projects, and so forth. The planning takes into account the utilities and necessities required for today's living. After designs are completed, the individual buildings may be designed by other architects.
The landscape architect controls the development of the site, which includes earthwork, planting, layout of streets and walks, and the orientation of the structure. She or he should have an understanding of plant life and a background in math, art, architectural drafting, and rendering.
The structural engineer,through the use of calculations, designs the structural part of buildings. He or she is usually a civil engineer who specializes in structures. Of all the professional areas in the building trades, this is considered one of the most difficult, because of the high competence it requires in physics and math.
The civil engineer does the calculating and designing that are also done by the structural engineer. In addition, he or she may survey, or may conduct large-scale planning of utilities, roads, structures, harbors, airfields, tunnels, bridges, and sewage plants. The field of civil engineering is so broad that a civil engineer has to specialize in one area, such as structures. The civil engineer's college degree is in civil engineering.
Electrical engineers form the largest group of engineers. The need for them is great in the computer sciences and in the fields of aviation. The electrical engineer in the building trades designs the electrical components of structures. The electrical engineer's college degree is in electrical engineering.
The air-conditioningengineer designs the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems for structures. This person's college degree is in mechanical engineering, and he or she will specialize in air conditioning.
The acoustics engineer is responsible for controlling sound in the structure. However, this work is not confined to buildings; it can also be applied to noise suppression in machines, industrial factories, aircraft, and rockets; anywhere there is loud noise. This field is very technical. The acoustics engineer needs a broad background in math and physics. Her or his college degree is in physics, engineering, architecture, or math.
The mechanical engineer is the engineer who does not specialize in one area. He or she works in production, the use of power, and machines which use power. The mechanical engineer who works in the building trades designs for operational parts of a structure. The degree is in mechanical engineering.
The estimator prepares estimates of the cost of building projects by figuring material requirements and labor costs. Her or his work must be accurate, because mistakes are expensive.
An estimator working in large construction should have a general or specialized college degree and knowledge of construction and building. His or her math skills must be good. An estimator for small construction, such as that of homes, can come from the ranks ol the craftsman. The estimator's skills are largely learned in the office and in the field.
The specification writer prepares specifications (a written description of exact materials, methods of construction, finishes, and tests and performances of everything required for the structure). Knowledge of all types of construction is needed, as is a technical background and experience in building.
His or her college degree can be general or specialized. Specification writers for small construction can come from the ranks of the craftsman. The specification writer's skills are learned in the office and in the field.
The surveyor defines in both words and pictures (usually maps) the specific space, position, and topography of a piece of land. The accuracy of the work is essential for proper foundations and construction. This work is the first step in the construction of roads, airfields, bridges, dams, and other structures. Her or his college degree is in civil engineering.
The architectural designer designs and plans homes and other small buildings. She or he is usually an outstanding architectural drafter but does not have a degree in architecture. The engineering for their structures is done by architects or structural engineers.
Making Presentations: Key Points
This paper has been divided into 5 sections
The following checklist is a guide for your preparation.
Thinking About You're Audience
Determine the level of understanding
What are their expectations:
Preparing your Presentation
Draw up a plan, with time limits, and identify objectives (max. of 3)
Be creative – brainstorm and mindmap
KISS: keep it short and simple
Use a variety of visual aids – but not too many
Know your room and equipment
Don't have too much material
Practice with equipment
Get perspective, think positive, use relaxation exercis
The Presentation itself
Stand up, move around, establish eye contact
Don't be note-bound
Avoid fillers, runaways and apologies
Make it 3D
Project your voice
If it's a long presentation, make it interactive
Anticipate questions and formulate answers beforehand
Don't gather up notes and lose concentration
Ask for clarification if confused, repeat it for benefit of whole audience
Provide short and sharp answers
Speak to entire audience and not one questioner
Giving an Oral Presentation
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