ТОП 10:

Work in groups of three or four. Try to collect as much information as possible about your native town. Get ready to present this information to your class and to answer questions about it.



5. Discuss the basic situations: a) you show your city to English-speaking visitors; b) you take them on a sightseeing route; c) you answer the guest’s questions.

 

Ukraine

1. Read and memorize the following words and word-combinations:

chronicle літопис
ancient Slavs стародавні слов’яни
to cover the territory займати територію
according to its size за своїми розмірами
to border межувати
to be washed омиватися
armed forces збройні сили
coal кам’яне вугілля
different ores різні руди
basis of industrial development основа промислового розвитку
latitude north північна широта
mild climate м’який клімат
fertile black soil родючий чорнозем
watershed басейн (річки)
access доступ
to criss-cross перехрещувати
railroad залізниця
highway автомагістраль
oil and gas pipelines нафто- і газопроводи
high voltage transmission line лінія високовольтної передачі
to ensure забезпечувати
close economic ties тісні економічні зв’язки
flat plain плоска рівнина
lowland низина, низька місцевість
elevation підвищення, височина
within the borders у межах кордонів
folded mountains складчаті гори
treeless summit вершина без рослинності
gentle (steep) slope пологий (стрімкий) схил
artificial diamond штучний діамант
electric welding електрозварювання
nuclear physics ядерна фізика
to vest in надавати повноваження

2.Read the text and do the tasks that follow:

The term Ukraine first appeared in the chronicles of ancient Slavs in the 12th century as a geographical name of southern lands of the ancient Kyiv Rus’.

Now Ukraine covers the territory of 603,7 thousand square kilometers and has the population of nearly 47 mln. People. Two such countries as Italy could be located in this area. Ukraine’s territory is the 42nd in the world according to its size.

In the west Ukraine borders on Poland and Slovakia, in the south-west on Hungary, Rumania and Moldova, in the north on Byelorus’, in the north-east on the Russian Federation.

In the south Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

Ukraine is a highly-industrialized country whose economic potential is great.

Ukraine has its own armed forces, and maintains its diplomatic relations with foreign countries.

Ukraine is rich in coal, gas, different ores, gold and other natural resources. The basis of industrial development is metal.

Ukraine is in ideal geographical position for the development of its resources, lying between 44° and 52° latitude north, on the same latitude as the USA, Britain, China and Japan. The climate is mild and warm with a long summer and a short winter. Together with its fertile black soil, this makes it ideal for the development of intensive agriculture. The main part of Ukraine is located in the watershed of the Dnieper River, which divides Ukraine into two parts: Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine.

Ukraine also lies on the Danube, and this gives it access to European countries. Through the Siversky Donets it has access to the Don.

The territory of Ukraine is criss-crossed by railroads and highways, oil and gas pipelines and high-voltage transmission lines – all of which ensure close economic ties with Eastern and Western Europe.

Ukraine consists largely of a flat, fertile plain with no natural boundaries except the Carpathian Mountains in the south-west and the Black Sea in the south. Great areas are occupied by steppes and forest-steppe regions.

Lowlands occupy a considerable part of the country. In the north lies the Polissia Lowland. On the Left Bank, the Dnieper Lowland runs along the Dnieper River. The Volhynia Plateau is 200-300 m in elevation.

Within the borders of Ukraine we find the Carpathian Mountains with the highest peak Hoverla (2061 m) which is located in the Chornohora massif. The Carpathians are young folded mountains, so they have flat summits and gentle slopes. The flat area of the treeless summit is called a polonyna.

The Crimean Mountains stretch in three parallel ranges. Their southern slopes are steep, the northern ones more gentle. The Main Range is the highest rising to 1500 m above sea level. Its highest peak is Roman Kosh (1545 m).

The Ukrainian scientists have discovered a way of manufacturing artificial diamonds and have developed methods of electric welding: they have made outstanding progress in nuclear physics, chemistry and other branches.

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine, its industrial, scientific, administrative and cultural centre.

Ukraine was proclaimed independent state on August 24th 1991. By the Constitution the government is composed of three coordinate branches: the executive, the legislative and the judicial power.

The executive power is vested in the president who holds office for five years. The legislative power is vested in the Verhovna Rada, Parliament of Ukraine. The Supreme Court of Ukraine constitutes the judicial branch.

Being one of the founders of the United Nations Organization in 1945, Ukraine actively participates in its work aimed at preserving peace and friendship among different states.

3. Answer the following questions:

1. When and where did the term Ukraine first appear?

2. What is the total area of Ukraine?

3. What is the population of Ukraine?

4. Which countries does Ukraine border on?

5. Is Ukraine washed by any sea?

6. What is the basis of industrial development of Ukraine?

7. Ukraine is in ideal geographical position in terms of development of its resources, isn’t it?

8. What natural resources is our country rich in?

9. Where is the main part of Ukraine located?

10. What ensures close economic ties of Ukraine with Eastern and Western Europe?

11. What transport infrastructure is the territory of Ukraine criss-crossed by?

12. Are there any natural boundaries in the country except the Carpathians in the south-west and the Black Sea in the south?

13. Lowlands occupy an insignificant part of Ukraine, don’t they?

14. What are the highest peaks of the Carpathian and Crimean Mountains?

15. What are the achievements of Ukrainian scientists?

16. When was Ukraine proclaimed independent state?

17. Which coordinate branches does the government consist of?

18. What is the highest body of legislative power in Ukraine?

19. How many people’s deputies are there in the Supreme Council?

20. Does Ukraine actively participate in the work of any international organization?

 

4. Speaking about our country:

Step 1.Decide which of these statements are true and which are false:

1. In the south Ukraine is washed by the Baltic and the White Seas.

2. Ukraine was first mentioned in the chronicles in 1213.

3. Three such countries as France could be located in Ukraine’s territory.

4. The basis of industrial development of Ukraine is coal.

5. Ukrainian scientists have created the first electronic computers.

6. Our country is one of the founders of the United Nations Organization in 1949.

7. The president of Ukraine is elected for a term of seven years.

8. There are three branches of power in Ukraine: the executive, the legislative and the judicial ones.

9. Ukraine is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country.

10. The highest body of the legislative power is the Supreme Court.

11. Most of the research institutes of Ukraine are located in Kharkiv.

12. Great areas are occupied by forests, treeless plains and valleys.

13. On the Right Bank, the Dnieper Lowland runs along the Dnieper River.

14. The southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are gentle.

Step 2. Finish the following sentences:

· The climate of Ukraine is mild and … .

· The main part of Ukraine is located in the … .

· The highest body of the executive power is … .

· Ukraine lies on the same latitude as … .

· Ukrainian scientists have created the first … .

· The southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are … .

· The territory of Ukraine is criss-crossed by … .

· Great areas are occupied by steppes and … .

· The name Ukraine first appeared in … .

· Ukraine is a highly industrialized country, whose economic … .

· Two such countries as Italy could be … .

· Its fertile black soil makes it ideal for … .

· In the west, Ukraine borders on … .

· The president of Ukraine is elected for a term … .

· There are three branches of power … .

· Our country is one of the founders of the UNO in … .

· Ukraine proclaimed its independence on … .

· In the south, Ukraine is washed by … .

· It is in ideal geographical position for … .

· Our country lies between 44° and … .

· Ukraine has its own armed forces, and maintains … .

· The territorial structure of Ukraine consists of … .

 

Step 3. Using the material of the text and of the tasks carried out, make up a story related to Ukraine according to the following plan:

1. Перша згадка про назву нашої країни в літописах.

2. Загальна площа, кількість населення, географічне положення.

3. Країни, що межують з Україною

4. Клімат, природні ресурси, корисні копалини.

5. Державна система, державні символи України.

6. Промисловість, сільське господарство.

7. Наука, освіта, культура.

8. Гілки влади, їх головні функції.

9. Територіальна структура, найбільші міста.

10. Членство у міжнародних організаціях.

Great Britain

1. Read and memorize the following words and word-combinations:

parliamentary monarchy парламентська монархія
total area загальна площа
minority меншість, менша частина
isle острів, острівець
to separate відокремлювати
to surround оточувати
peninsula півострів
health resort літній курорт
coast узбережжя
humid вологий
thinly рідко, негусто
decline занепад
temperate помірний
highland узгір’я, високогірна місцевість
to divide ділити, розділяти
cradle колиска
military base військова база
hereditary спадковий
signature підпис
upper house верхня палата
attractive scenery привабливий пейзаж
unspoiled natural environment незаймане природне середовище
maritime climate морський клімат
to increase збільшувати, зростати
plague чума, моровиця
shipbuilding суднобудування
to recover відновлювати, відроджуватись
to expand розширюватися, розвиватися
to prosper процвітати
to define визначати
to come into being виникати, з’являтися
to introduce proposals вносити пропозиції
to approve схвалювати, затверджувати
to accept прийняти (пропозицію)

 

2. Read the text and do the tasks that follow:

The official name of the state is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is designated as a parliamentary monarchy. The total land area is 244,000 sq. km or 94,500 square miles and the population is 58,200,000. The capital city is London. English is the official language, but there are many minority languages, notably those spoken by the various Asian communities in many British cities; Gaelic is spoken in the Highlands of Scotland, parts of Ireland and the Isle of Man. Welsh is the first official language in Western Wales.

The British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of Europe, consist principally of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel islands. There are also many other small islands at the coast of Great Britain. The four main administrative components of the United Kingdom are England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands have a certain administrative autonomy.

Great Britain is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, north-west and south-west. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel. In the west, Great Britain is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea.

Lying in temperate latitudes and surrounded by water, the British Isles have a mild, temperate, cool and humid climate, though in the highlands of Scotland it is much more severe. The chief rivers of Great Britain are the Severn, the Thames, the Wye and the Tyne in England, and the Tay, the Clyde and the Tweed in Scotland. The largest cities in Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds and Edinburgh.

Of the four countries which make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland England is the largest. It occupies an area of 131,8 thousand sq. km and has the population of 46.1 m. people The mainland of England can physically be divided into Northern England, the Midlands, South-East England and South-West England.

Wales is a peninsula with a territory of 20,800 sq. km and a population of about 3 mln. It is a thinly populated region. The capital of Wales is Cardiff.

Scotland occupies an area of 78,8 thousand sq. km and has a population of 5.2 mln. people. Its territory can be divided into the industrialized Central Lowlands, the cradle of the Scottish nation, the Southern Uplands, famous for their attractive scenery and health resorts, and the Highlands with an unspoiled natural environment and strong historical traditions. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh.

Northern Ireland occupies the north-east section of the island of Ireland. The territory of Northern Ireland is 5,462 sq. miles and it has a population of 1.5 mln. It has a typical maritime, oceanic climate and is an agrarian-industrial region. On the coast, the chief occupations are shipbuilding and fishing. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.

London’s history begins about the year 43 A.D., when it was founded by the Romans as a military base. In the late 11th century London became the capital of England. Ever since the beginning of the 14th century, the reign of King Edward III, it has continued to increase in importance as a centre of commerce. In the 17th century the plague and the Great Fire of London almost ruined the city. However, it soon recovered and continued to expand and prosper.

The U.K is defined as a constitutional monarchy. The British Parliament is the oldest in the world and is known as the “mother of parliaments”. It came into being in the late 13th century and consists of two chambers – the House of Commons, consisting of 635 elected Members of Parliament (MPs), and the House of Lords, a mainly hereditary upper house. The political party which gains a majority of members in the House of Commons in popular elections forms the government. In recent history, the government has been in the hands of one of the two major parties, Labour or Conservative. The party in government introduces proposals for new legislation (known as “bills”) to Parliament. If, after three “readings”, i.e. debates, a bill is approved by a majority of MPs, it then goes before the House of Lords. If the Lords accept the bill, it is placed before the Queen for the formal signature of approval and becomes an Act of Parliament (it becomes law). Otherwise, the bill returns to the Commons for further debate. However, if it is passed a second time by the House of Commons, the House of Lords may not veto it and the bill becomes law. Any MP may introduce a bill, including members of the opposition parties.

The traditional industries of coal-mining, metal working, engineering and textile manufacture, which were concentrated in the Midlands and Northern England are now in decline. Even the more modern branches of industry such as electronics face strong competition from abroad and service industries are gaining in importance. Great Britain has made major contributions to science, art, literature and world culture.

 

3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the total area of Great Britain?

2. What parts does Great Britain consist of?

3. Where is the United Kingdom situated?

4. What is the state system in Britain?

5. Who is the head of the state in the U.K.?

6. What can you say about the monarchy in Great Britain?

7. What is the Supreme legislative authority in the U.K.?

8. Do you know anything from the history of the British Parliament?

9. What chambers is the British Parliament composed of?

10. Are seats in the Parliament hereditary or elected?

11. When does the bill return to the House of Commons for further debate?

12. What are the major political parties in Britain?

13. What is the climate of Great Britain?

14. What rivers of Great Britain do you know?

15. Is Wales a densely populated region?

16. Whom was London founded and when?

17. When did London become the capital of England?

18. What historical monuments and places of interest are there in London?

19. What are the traditional industries in the U.K.?

20. Has Great Britain made any contribution to science, art, literature and world culture?

 

4. Speaking about Great Britain:

Step 1.Choose a partner and ask each other questions about Great Britain introducing these questions with the following phrases:

Could you tell me …? Do you know …?

Do you happen to know …? Is it true that …?

I’ve heard that … Is it really true?

I’d like to know if …?

Could you explain why / where / how / what …?

What is your opinion about … ?

What do you think of … ?

Do you agree with …?

I wonder if you take part in …?

Step 2. Prove that:

а) The U.K. is defined as a constitutional monarchy.

b) The traditional industries are in decline in Britain.

c) The Queen’s power is symbolic.

d) The House of Commons is considered more important.

e) The country has a typical maritime climate.

Use the following words and phrases: I think that…; Frankly speaking…; I’d like to call your attention to…; This is my

point of view…; I’m sure that… .

 

Step 3. Divide the text into logical parts and try to annotate each of them.

Step 4. Get ready to speak about:

a) The official name of the state.

b) The capital of the U.K.

c) The official language and minority languages.

d) The geographical location of Great Britain.

e) The major parts of the U.K.

f) The state system of Great Britain.

g) The political parties of the country.

h) The traditional industries of Britain.

 

Step 5. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.

/settlement, nearly, the capital, dependent, cattle and sheep, grain, have been built, was founded, business centre, stretches, rainfall, food supplies, businessmen and financiers, engaged, developed it into./

 

For centuries, the British Isles have been famous for their ___ ___ ___, because the temperature and ___ favour the growing of grass rather than of ___. Today less than seven percent of the population are ___ in farming and the islands are largely ___ on other countries for their ___ ___. London ___ ___ hundreds of years before our era. On the banks of the Thames there was a small ___ named Llin-din. The Romans named Llindin as Londinium and ___ ___ ___ a large and rich city. In 1055, Londinium became London, ___ ___of Great Britain. Since that time many beautiful buildings, palaces and bridges ___ ___ ___ there. London today ___ for nearly 30 miles from north to south and for ___ the same extension from east to west.

The heart of London is the City, its financial and ___ ___ . Few people live there but thousands of clerks, ___ ___ ___ rush to it every day.







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