IV. Vocabulary and Grammar Activator

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IV. Vocabulary and Grammar Activator

1. Study the text and give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

to select and adapt; the most effective result; the most economical means; to cosider many factors; availability; depend on; to be subjected to load; to use for constructional purposes; durable; fire-proof; poor heat conductivity; compressive strength; hydraulic binders; practical application; building site; mixing installation; casting yard; high standard of precision.

2. Study the text and give English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

зробити вибір; проектувальник повинен бути здатним; брати до уваги; форма; лісоматеріали; цегла; легкі метали; пластмаса; практичне застосування; цивілізовані країни; властивості; завод збірного бетону; особлива зацікавленість (у чомусь).

3. Study the text and find the nouns corresponding to the
following verbs and translate them into Ukrainian:

to build; to design; to construct; to conduct; to produce; to improve; to apply; to install; to operate.

4. Give sentences in English using the following words and word-combinations:

1. зводити споруди; 2. матеріали, які дадуть найкращий результат знайменшими затратами; 3. брати до уваги багато факторів; 4. основні будівельні матеріали; 5. найстаріший будівельний матеріал; 6. міцний та вогнетривкий; 7. цемент; 8. бетон; 9. залізобетон; 10. монолітний бетон; 11. збірний бетон.


5. Change direct speech into indirect speech. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The architect said: "All the buildings erected today are of two main types'".

2. The civil engineer stressed: "These materials will give the most efective result by the most economical means".

3. He remarked: "Portland cement was produced more than a century ago'".

4. The students asked: "What are the most important building materails?"

5. The professor pointed out: "One of the properties of concrete is its compressive etrength".

6. Yesterday you attended the lecture on building materials. Here are some of the things the professor said to you:

1. All the buildings are intended either for housing or industial purposes.

2. A civil engineer has to consider many factors.

3. Timber was one of the first building materials.

4. Concrete was used in antiquity.

5. Reinforced concrete is hardly 100 years old.

6. Cast-in-place concrete is mixed and placed on the building site.

7. A precast concrete plant consists of two parts.

8. Light weight concrete is being widely used today.

9. Materials influence the schools of architecture.

10. The result of segregation will be a concrete of poor quality.

Later that day you tell a friend of yours what the professor said. Use indirect speech:

1. The professor said that all buildings were intended either for housing or industrial purposes.

2. He said that ...

7. You attended the seminar on building materials. The professor asked you a lot of questions:

1. What are the main types of buildings?

2. When will materials be the most effective?

3. What does the choice of materials depend on?

4. When was Portland cement produced?

5. Are buildings made of stone and brick durable?

6. Does precast concrete plant consist of two or three parts?

7. What country was concrete used in?

8. Does a civil enginner consider many factors choosing building materials?

Now you tell another student what the professor asked? Use indirect speech:

1. He asked us what the main types of buildings were.

2. He asked us ...

V. Talking Assignments

Divide the text into logical parts.

2. Express the main idea of each part. Use the following phrases:

– The first (second, third …) part of the text is about …

– It describes (considers, deals with, informs) …

– The author stresses (points out) that …


3. Ask your friend some questions in English about their content. Summarize his/her answers:

– Чому вибір матеріалів дуже важливий при будівництві всіх видів споруд?

– Які будівельні матеріали найбільш поширені сьогодні?

– Який будівельний матеріал був одним з перших?

– Які властивості мають споруди з каменю та цегли?

– Коли з’явився цемент?

– Хто в будівництві використовував бетон?

– Який будівельний матеріал є найважливішим сьогодні та які його властивості?

– Яка різниця між монолітним і збірним бетоном?

– З чого складається завод по виробництву збірного бетону?

– Які переваги елементів із збірного бетону?


4. Describe the procedure of making precast concrete elements. Use the following key words:

precast concrete; to be produced; prefabricated elements; to be made of; dense concrete; lightweight concrete; to consist of; mixing installation; casting yard; to be placed in moulds; high quality; high standard of precision; working conditions; continuous production.

5. Project work. Work in groups of three or four. Discuss and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the most important building materials used nowadays. Use the following phrases:

Opening discussion: As I see it… If you ask me… I’d say that… I couldn’t agree… I sometimes think… Don’t you agree that…
Promoting discussion: That’s good point… I see what you mean…but sorry… Let me explain that… I’m not sure I quite agree with you here… That’s just what I was thinking about…
Misunderstanding: I didn’t quite follow what you are saying… I don’t quite see what you mean… Sorry, let me explain what I mean…


Give a short summary of the text.

VI. Listening Comprehension

1. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

influence; to abound; less pretentious dwellings; tospan the areas; arch; dome; to come into being; marble; beam; to obtain.

2. Mask the text "How Materials Influence the Schools of Architecture" and listen to it attentively:

Text B. How Materials Influence the Schools of Architecture

It is of interest to note briefly the influence of materials the schools of architecture. Where clay abounded, as in Egypt sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made. Stone was also obtainable, and because of its durability it became the material of the temples and palaces; the less pretentious dwellings were built in bricks. In Mesopotamia large brick buildings were constructed, and, in the absence of stone and wood to span their areas, the arch and dome came into being.

Greece possessed perfect marble for columns, and beams and the arch and dome received little attention. A fortunate combination oflime, limestone, clay, and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement, and the great mass of her structures is largely due to the union of stone, brick, strong mortar, and concrete. In Northern Europe, Switzerland and Russia where forests abounded and other materials were difficult to obtain, wooden architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types.

3. Listen to the text again and answer the following questions:

1. Why did the Egyptians build their temples and palaces from brick and stone?

2. Why did the arch and dome come into being in Mesopotamia?

3. Why did the arch and dome receive little attention in Greece?

4. What materials were structures in ancient Rome built from?

5. What material was widely used in Nothern Europe, Switzerland and Russia?

4. Annotate the text either in English or in Ukrainian. Use the following phrases:

The text is head-lined ...

It informs the reader about...

It deals with ...

The text considerds the problem of...

The main idea of the text is ...

The text describes ...

It gives comments on …

It draws reader’sattention to ...

It is pointed out that …

At the beginning / end …

Further …

The author points out / stresses / informs / considers …

The text is useful and interesting for …

Translate the text into Ukrainian.

VII. Written assignment

Using texts A and В of Unit 7 write a presentation about the most important building materials and their influence on the schools of architecture.


8. 1. Brick.
2. Silicate Industry.
3. The Infinitive. The Infinitive Constructions[11].

I. Grammar Revision

The Infinitive /інфінітив/

Інфінітив= неозначена форма дієслова в українській мові:

to read читати, прочитати;
to write писати, написати;
to help допомагати, допомогти.

Інфінітив – це неозначена форма дієслова, яка називає дію безвідносно до часу, особи і числа. Має властивості як іменника, так і дієслова.

1) Як іменник інфінітив може бути:

1. підметом –

To read a lot is very useful. Багато читати корисно.

2. додатком –

I wantto readthis book. Я хочу прочитати цю книгу.

3. частиною присудка –

His task is to readthis book. Його завдання – прочитати цю книгу.

2) Як дієслово інфінітив може:

1. мати при собі додаток –

I told him to post the letter. Я сказав йому відправити листа.

2. визначатися прислівником –

I asked him to speak slowly. Я попросив його говорити повільно.

В науково-технічній літературі широко використовується розщеплений інфінітив \split infinitive\ типу to + adv. +v., наприклад:

to clealy understand чітко розуміти;
to fully realize повністю усвідомлювати.

3. мати форму часу, активного та пасивного стану.

Відсутність частки to перед інфінітивом:

1. Якщо в реченні є два інфінітиви, з’єднані сполучником and, or, except, but, than.

Eg.: I’d like to lie downand goto sleep.

I’ll doanything but work on a farm.

2. Після модальних дієслів can, may, must, shall, should, will, would.

Eg.: I must goon.

Can you help me?

3. Після виразів had better, would sooner, would rather.

Eg.: You had better goback to your sisters.

I’d rather not talk about these things.

4. Після дієслів let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, help,.

Eg.: I didn’t see you comein.

She lets her children stay up very late.

5. Why (not) –для висловлення поради чи пропозиції.

Eg.: Why not takea holiday.

Why not let melend you some money?

6. Do – у підрядному реченні, яке пояснює точне значення doголовного речення.

Eg.: All I did was (to) give him a little push.

What a fire-door does is (to) delay the spread of a fire long enough for people to get out.


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