Расскажите о своей специальности (automobile engineering).



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Расскажите о своей специальности (automobile engineering).




III. 2. TRAFFIC REGULATION

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vehicular traffic – движение транспорта

pedestrian traffic – пешеходное движение

pavement markings – разметка на покрытии (дорог)

traffic markers – дорожные указатели

sign – знак

arterial route – магистральная дорога

one-way street – улица с односторонним движением

assign – назначать, поручать

traffic volume – интенсивность движения

hourly pattern – часовой расчет интенсивности движения

ordinance – постановление

right-of-way – полоса отвода дороги

off-centre lane – центральная разделительная полоса

 

Составьте 3 предложения с новыми словами.

Прочитайте и переведите текст.

TRAFFIC REGULATION

Traffic engineering deals with the direction and control of vehicular and pedestrian traffic on existing highways and streets. Thus it is concerned with the planning, design, and operation of all devices that aid the flow of traffic. Among these are pavement markings, traffic markers, signs, and traffic signals. Traffic engineering also deals with means for improving the efficiency of the existing system by the designation of arterial routes and one-way streets, and by controlling the use of these and other facilities. The integration of street and highway lighting into the over-all highway plan generally is considered a traffic engineering responsibility too. Interwoven into all the functions is accident reduction; and traffic engineers usually are assigned the responsibility for accident records and statistics. Parking likewise falls within the province of the traffic engineer because of the impact that parking problems have on street and highway operation.

The scope of aspects the traffic engineer deals with: traffic characteristics, traffic regulations, traffic-control devices, and environmental improvements. Traffic characteristics include such aspects as: physical factors, traffic volume, volume counting, speed characteristics, traffic stream flows, accidents, vehicular limitations and human characteristics.

As for traffic volume, the traffic engineer must be acquainted with some volume characteristics: hourly pattern, day-of-week variation, classification of vehicles, trends in volumes and the methods of volume counting. Traffic regulations cover traffic laws and ordinances, various types of traffic controls: speed control and curb-parking control. Traffic-control devices consist of traffic signs, markings, signals, islands and street and highway lighting.

Traffic regulations contribute to safety and decrease accidents. A most favourable effect on efficiency and the incidence of traffic accidents is dual highway. A dual highway separates opposite-direction traffic by a median divider. The separation of opposite-direction traffic by a median reduces the possibility of head-on collisions and sideswipe accidents. The width of the dual highway is varied for reasons of topography. Of necessity, the dual highway has not less than four traffic lanes. This number is efficient for traffic safety, because the driver has only one car alongside to watch.

Although the traffic engineer is concerned primarily with the traffic regulation and control, he must take into account the roadway elements, because sometimes, traffic-engineering functions are expanded to deal with problems in geometric design and highway planning.

Распределите слова в три столбика в зависимости от произношения окончания «s» («es»).

[s] [z] [iz]
       

 

Drives, watches, goes, looks, studies, talks, listens, builds, works, consists, regulates, falls, deals, takes.

Закончите предложения.

1. Traffic engineering deals with …

2. It is concerned with …

3. Interwoven into all the functions is …

4. Traffic engineering usually are assigned …

5. Traffic characteristics include …

6. Traffic engineer must be acquainted with some volume characteristics …

7. Traffic regulations cover various types of traffic controls …

8. Traffic-control devices consist of …

9. Traffic regulations contribute to …

10. Traffic engineer must take into account …

 

Подберите к английским словосочетаниям соответствующий русский перевод.

hourly pattern интенсивность движения

off-centre lane полоса отвода дороги

right-of-way центральная разделительная линия

one-way street часовой расчет интенсивности движения

traffic volume пешеходное движение

arterial route движение транспорта

vehicular traffic разметка на покрытии дороги

traffic market дорожные указатели

pavement markings магистральная дорога

pedestrian traffic улица с односторонним движением

 

6. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does traffic engineering deal with? 2. What is traffic engineers assigned? 3. What falls within the province of the traffic engineer? 4. What do traffic characteristics include? 5. What are traffic volume characteristics? 6. What do traffic regulations cover? 7. What does traffic engineer supervise? 8. What do traffic-control devices consist of? 9. What is the role of traffic regulation? 10. What must every traffic engineer take into account?

 

Определите лишнее слово в каждой цепочке, используя информацию из текста.

-planning, design, operation, cleaning of all devices that aid the flow of traffic;

-physical factors, traffic volume, speed characteristics, traffic stream flows, automobile characteristics, accidents, vehicular limitations, human characteristics;

-hourly pattern, day-of-week variation, parking problems, classification of vehicles, trends in volumes, the methods of volume counting;

-traffic laws and ordinances, speed control, traffic signs, curb-parking control.

Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Организация дорожного движения – важная часть дорожного строительства.

2. Правильная установка дорожных знаков и разметок способствует безопасности движения.

3. В зависимости от функции дорожные знаки делятся на предупреждающие, запрещающие, направляющие и указывающие.

4. Правильное проектирование дороги также способствует снижению несчастных случаев.

5. Дорожные знаки и указатели очень важны на дорогах с интенсивным движением.

6. Важная функция разметок – направлять потоки движения.

 

9. Прочитайте текст, составьте его план и кратко передайте его содержание, пользуясь планом реферирования текста (см. приложение).

SAFETY POLICY

The continuing acquisition and analysis of accident statistics confirm great need to reduce accidents. A potential overall reduction is possible with road environment features: improvements at road junctions and intersections provide major opportunities for accident savings. On current sections the use of rumble strips and edgelining seems to improve driver’s behaviour. A check on driving in foggy conditions shows that drivers reduce speed but not down to that indicated to them on signs.

To study drivers’ behaviour in fog in relation to vehicle speed and visibility, equipment was installed on a duel 3-lane motorway during the winter which photographed vehicles from the rear and recorded their speed. A fog detector was used to switch on the equipment when the visibility dropped below 200 m and all vehicles in a selected lane passing the equipment at more than 8km/h were then photographed.

The results show that drivers did not reduce speed a great deal until visibility dropped to 100-150 m. At 50 m visibility, although speeds were substantially lower, more than half the drivers were exceeding the speed at which they could stop within this visibility distance.

10. Прочитайте тексты и найдите автомобильные термины и фразы, связанные с организацией дорожного движения. Обратите внимание на перевод следующих слов.

 

phosphorescent – фосфоресцирующий, светящийся

tape – лента, полоса, полоска

fair – ярмарка

buckle – пряжка

tag – ярлык

lens – линза

dipped headlamp – фара ближнего света

 

Stepping to safety

Italian shoe manufactures have come up with new idea to give pedestrians more safety at night. Strips of phosphorescent tape are placed on the shoe bottoms to serve as safety reflectors. Every time a walker picks up a foot to step forward, his sole will grow in the dark, giving drivers warning. The device will be introduced at the Shoe Fair at Vigevano, Italy, center of the Italian Shoemaking industry.

Safe bags

Life-saving bags for children are orange and have fluorescent buckles. Children also carry reflective tag to keep them safe on the roads in the dark. Little “lenses” on the surface of the tag reflect light from a vehicle’s headlamps back to the driver. With dipped headlamps a pedestrian with a tag is visible to a driver at 148 yards. Without a tag he is only visible at 29 yards, especially if he wears dark clothing.

 



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