Замените русские слова английскими эквивалентами.



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Замените русские слова английскими эквивалентами.



1. A combination of timber stringers with (деревянный или железобетонный настил) sometimes (применяется для пролетов) of less than about 20 ft. 2. (Пролеты) greatly in excess of 500 ft are generally (консольные мосты со сквозными фермами или висячие мосты). 3. For more important construction, location for the bridge structure itself becomes increasingly important and trends more and more to outweigh considerations of cost for the (конструкция подъезда к мосту). 4. (Косой) steel superstructure is generally slightly more expensive; owing to the cost of fabrication. 5. All undesirable features may be eliminated by the revised alinement without added (кривизна). 6. Where (быки моста) must be set into streams with erodible Beds, possible undermining by scour becomes a primary consideration. 7. (Быки и опора моста) can be increased in length and the wing walls on (опоры моста) will be longer on two corners. 8. A bridge structure should take advantage of any narrow neck or point of construction in (фарватер). 9. Graceful (арки) of steel or reinforced concrete may well be most appropriate from an aesthetic if not from a cost point of view. 10. The weight of (косая стальная конструкция) may also be greater, especially if the (поперечные балки) are parallel to the (быки моста).

 

6. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the purpose of bridges?

2. What are the principal differences between bridges and other structures?

3. What are the structures of bridges in the simplest terms?

4. Why there may be sharp turns at the approaches?

5. What factor will determine the location of the bridges?

6. What should the bridge-survey report include?

7. How is the proper form of the bridge chosen?

8. What is the tendency for highway bridgework today?

9. What types of bridges must be bridges engineer acquainted with?

 

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Most bridge maintenance is of a specialized nature. At times cleaning, freezing, and painting bridge seats and rollers may be required. Deck joints may extrude or become filled with dirt so that their cleaning and resealing is necessary. On occasion vehicles out of control strike handrails or other appurtenances; and these must be repaired and straightened. If bridge decks become rough, resurfacing is in order. Remedial measures are sometimes required to correct serious scour around and under piers and abutments. It is common practice among highway agencies to have traveling crews exclusively for bridge work.

 

Подберите перевод английских словосочетаний.

 

cantilever trusses bridge skew bridge leaf bridge   right-angle bridge truss bridge right-frame bridge arch bridge stone masonry bridge arched cantilever bridge beam bridge concrete girder bridge open-deck bridge concrete slab bridge double-deck bridge suspension bridge lattice bridge арочный мост двухъярусный мост мост с проезжей частью из бетонной плиты решетчатый мост разводной мост арочный консольный мост косой мост балочный мост мост с ездой поверху и понизу бетонный балочный мост мост со сквозными фермами висячий мост прямоугольный мост каменный мост консольный мост однопролетный мост

 

Сделайте краткое сообщение на предлагаемые темы.

 

1. Types of bridges.

2. The site for a bridge.

3. The functions of bridges.

 

10. Расскажите о своей специальности, используя предлагаемый план.

a) the similarity of purposes of bridges and highways; the principal differences between them;

b) the types of bridges;

c) the main parts of a bridge;

d) the criterion of choosing the location of the bridge;

e) why do you want to be a bridge engineer.


V.3. ENGINEERING PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

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environment – окружающая среда

to seem – казаться

to design – проектировать, разрабатывать

commissioning – пуск, ввод в действие

maintenance – обслуживание, эксплуатация

stage – ступень, этап, шаг

disposal – размещение, расположение

endeavours – избавление, устранение

averting – предотвращение, предупреждение

contamination – загрязнение, порча

hazardous – опасный, рискованный

assessments – отчисления

to save – спасать, сохранять

to destroy – разрушать

to investigate – разрабатывать, исследовать

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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

It seems that engineering and ecology have nothing in common; however, nowadays people understand that all modern technologies should be “ecologised”. That is, a future specialist (an engineer-ecologist) will take part in the building process on its every stage (pre-designing, designing, commissioning and maintenance of the constructed object).

Environmental Engineering is the development of processes and infrastruc­ture for the supply of water, the disposal of waste and the control of pollution of all kinds. These endeavours protect public health by preventing disease transmission, and they preserve the quality of the environment by averting the contamination and degradation of air, water, and land resources.

Environmental engineering is a field of broad scope that is connected with such dis­ciplines as chemistry, ecology, geology, hydraulics, hydrology, microbiology, economics, and mathematics. It was traditionally a specialized field within civil engineering and was called sanitary engineering until the mid-1960s, when the more accurate name environmental engineering was adopted.

Projects in environmental engineering involve the treatment and distribu­tion of drinking water; the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater; the control of air and noise pollution; the management of municipal solid waste and of hazardous waste; the cleanup of hazardous-waste sites; and the preparation of environmental assessments, audits, and impact studies.

The main task of highway and bridge construction is to save but not to destroy clean lakes and rivers. The whole world and particularly our country need specialists in this sphere. That’s why the qualification “Environmental Engineering” was created at the Highway Engineering faculty in 2001. The students study such specialized subjects as ecological law, monitoring and expertise.

Northern areas of the Omsk region are being investigated now. It is necessary to build roads and bridges there paying attention to wildlife and using environmentally friendly technologies. So, the need in such specialists as engineer-ecologists is constantly growing.

 

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Volition, injury, law of limiting factors, overwatering, overfertilizing, pitfall, growing season, drought, restricting, application, predation, constant struggle, weeds, pests, spread, influence, altering, ripple effect, verge, evidence.

 

Закон минимума (ограничивающих факторов), изменение, ловушка, переизбыток удобрений, влиять, вегетационный период (сезон роста), ограничивающий, переувлажнение, хищный образ жизни, сорняки, применение, засуха, постоянная борьба, воля, вредители, распространяться, повреждение, эффект пульсации, грань, доказательство.

4. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does the term “Environmental Engineering” mean?

2. What disciplines are connected with this sphere?

3. When did the term “Environmental Engineering” appear? What term was used before?

4. What can you tell about the functions of environmental engineer?

5. What do you know about the history of this speciality in our academy?

6. Why does our region need such specialists as environmental engineers?

7. What is the main aim of their job in your opinion?

 

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ECOSYSTEMS: WHAT THEY ARE

1. There are two "sides" in every ecosystem, the organisms on one
hand and the environmental factors on the other. All the organisms – plants, animals, and microbes – in the ecosystem are referred to as the
biota (bio, "life"). The way the categories of organisms fit together is
referred to as the biotic structure. The nonliving chemical and physi­cal factors of the environment (climate, soil quality and so forth) are
referred to as abiotic (a, "non") factors.

2. As it was noted before, the environment involves the interplay of many physical and chemical, or abiotic factors, the major ones being
rainfall (amount and distribution over the year), temperature (extremes
of heat and cold as well as average), light, water, wind, chemical nutrients, pH (acidity), salinity (saltiness) and fire. The degree to which each
is present or absent, high or low, profoundly affects the ability of organisms to survive. However, different species may be affected differently by each factor. This difference in response to environmental factors determines which species may or may not occupy a given region.

3. In any study of the abiotic side of ecology, the key observation is that different species thrive under different conditions. This principle applies to all living things, both plants and animals. Some like it very wet; others like it relatively dry. Some like it very warm; others do best in cooler situations. Some tolerate freezing, others don't. Some require bright sun; others do best in shade. Thus, a single factor – temperature, say – can be varied in a systematic way, while all other factors are kept constant. Experiments show that, as temperature is raised from a low point that fails to support growth, plants grow increasingly well until they reach some maximum. Then, as temperature is raised still fur­ther, the plants become increasingly stressed; they do less well, suffer injury and die.

4. Since the results just described apply to any and all abiotic factors, we observe what is known as the Law of Limiting Factors: Any
one factor being outside its optimal range at any given time will cause
stress and limit the growth of an organism. The factor that is limiting
the growth is called the limiting factor. It may be any factor that affects
the organism. The Law of Limiting Factors includes the problem of
"too much" as well as the problem of "too little". For example, plants
may be stressed or killed by overwatering or overfertilizing as well as by underwatering or underfertilizing, a common pitfall for amateur gar­deners. The factor that is limiting may change from one time to anoth­er.

5. The Law of Limiting Factors was first presented by Justus von Liebig in 1840 in connection with his observations regarding the ef­fects of chemical nutrients on plant growth. He observed that restrict­ing any one of the many different nutrients at any given time had the same effect: it limited growth. Thus, this law is also called Liebig's Law of Minimums. Observations since Liebig's time, however, show that his law has much broader application. Beyond its application to all abiotic factors, it may be applied to biotic factors as well.

6. In summary, the biosphere consists of a great variety of environ­ments, both aquatic and terrestrial. In each environment we find plants, animal, and microbial species that are adapted to all the abiotic factors and also to each other in various feeding and nonfeeding relationships. Such environment supports a more or less unique grouping of organ­isms interacting with each other and with the environment in a way that perpetuates or sustains the entire group. That is, each environment with the species it supports is an ecosystem. Every ecosystem is interconnected with others through ecotones and through some species that cross from one system to another. At the same time, each species and, as a result, each ecosystem, is kept within certain bounds by limiting factors. That is, the spread of each species is at some point limited by its not being able to tolerate particular conditions, compete with other species, or cross some physical barrier.

7. A major concern of many environmentalists is how altering any factor, abiotic or biotic, may upset these limits and have far-reaching consequences through a ripple effect. Recognizing that everything in the biosphere is interconnected leads to the conclusion that nothing can be changed without affecting everything else to a greater or lesser degree. Obviously, humans have changed and are continuing to change things on a very large scale. What will these changes bring? Many envi­ronmentalists, including a number of scientists, promote the idea that we may be on the verge of a sudden and catastrophic "collapse of the biosphere" in which most if not all life may perish. On the other hand, cornucopians, also including a number of scientists, point out that there is no solid evidence to support such a "doomsday scenario"; much less that it is imminent. Indeed, they argue that all our experience to date should lead to the quite opposite conclusion: Humans have already caused the extinction of thousands of species and made manifold changes over most of the earth, but we and the biosphere are still doing well. Therefore, they maintain that continuing development as we have been does not pose an environmental threat.

 



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