Paraphrase the parts of the sentences in bold type using words and word combinations from the text. Change the new sentences if it is required. 

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Paraphrase the parts of the sentences in bold type using words and word combinations from the text. Change the new sentences if it is required.

1. The English language has come to be used in a large portion of the world.

2. When the Anglo-Saxon forefathers of the English nation came to England to make their home there they found a more advanced people than themselves living on the island.

3. A large part of English vocabulary is of the Latin origin.

4. Literature and scholarship developed rapidly in the North.

5. The language of the Danes could be understood by the Angles and the Saxons rather easily.

6. King Alfred encouraged learning.



1. General 1. Загальна лексика
native language (mother tongue) / foreign language / international language / lingua franca / artificial language рідна мова / іноземна мова / міжнародна мова / мова спілкування людей різних країн / штучна мова
English-speaking country англомовна країна
to study(ied) / to learn(ed / t) / to teach (taught; taught) / to learn by heart / to learn by rote (to cram) вивчати / вчити / навчати / вчити напам’ять / зубрити
native speaker носій мови
knowledge / thorough knowledge (good command) of English знання / добре володіння англійською мовою
to speak poor English (German) / to speak broken English погано розмовляти англійською (німецькою) мовою / розмовляти ламаною англійською
experience / skill / success / successful / досвід / уміння / успіх / успішний
vowel / consonant / letter /syllable голосна / приголосна / буква (літера) / склад
to master(ed) the language вивчити мову / оволодіти мовою
vocabulary / lexical лексика / лексичний
grammar / grammatical rule граматика / граматичне правило
pronunciation / accent / foreign accent вимова / іноземний акцент
transcription транскрипція, транскрибування
fixed / direct word order фіксований / прямий порядок слів
means of communication засіб спілкування
scientific approach науковий підхід
to read (read; read) in the original / in translation читати в оригіналі / у перекладі
to write (wrote; written) out / to write down (to put down) виписувати / записувати
peculiarity особливість
to translate(d) / to interpret(ed) / to translate with a dictionary / translator (interpreter) перекладати письмово / перекладати усно / перекладати зі словником / перекладач
word-to-word translation / literary translation дослівний переклад / літературний переклад
meaning / to mean (meant; meant) значення / означати
to do (did; done) one’s best робити все можливе
to be of great importance мати важливе значення
as quick as possible якомога швидше
to say (said; said) to / to tell (told; told) / to speak (spoke; spoken) with / to talk(ed) to сказати (комусь) / розповідати / розмовляти
to speak fluently / slowly / in low voice / loudly розмовляти вільно (швидко) / повільно / тихо / голосно
Say it again, please. / Repeat it, please. / Come again? Повторіть це, будь ласка. / Що-що? (розм.)
I don’t understand you. Я Вас не розумію.
to lack(ed) practice бракувати (відчувати нестачу) практики
to compare(d) the results порівняти результати
to influence(d) the development впливати на розвиток
scientific and technical journals наукові й технічні журнали
weak / strong points слабкі / сильні сторони
2. The List of some English Language Derivations.
admiral, algebra, mattress Arabic  
mosquito, cigar, canyon Spanish  
piano, violin, spaghetti Italian  
yacht, boss, deck Dutch  
pyjamas, shampoo, bungalow Hindi  
yogurt, kiosk Turkish  
tycoon, karate Japanese  
bamboo, compound Malay  
tomato, chocolate Aztec  
coca, quinine Inca  
coach, paprika Hungarian  
theatre, astronomy, logic Classic Greek  
whisky Gaelic  
vodka, sputnik Russian  
sauna Finnish  
tea, silk Chinese  
marmalade Portuguese  
robot Czech  
kangaroo, boomerang Australian Aborigine  
rendezvous, cafe Modern French  
kindergarten Modern German  
3. Languages of the World
Country Nationality Language
Germany German German
France French French
Italy Italian Italian
Spain Spanish Spanish
Britain British English
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Japan Japanese Japanese
Korea Korean Korean
China Chinese Mandarin (Cantonese)
Australia Australian English
The United States of America American English
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Arabic
Brazil Brazilian Portuguese
Sweden Swedish Swedish
Switzerland Swiss Swiss-German, French, Italian
Egypt Egyptian Arabic
Holland Dutch Dutch
Mexico Mexican Spanish
Russia Russian Russian
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainian
Israel Israeli Hebrew
Greece Greek Greek
Turkey Turkish Turkish
Argentina Argentinian Spanish


When you are talking about people in general from a particular country, there are some nationalities that you can make plural with an ‘s’, but others can only be formed with the definite article (and no plural ‘s’):

Brazilians the British
Germans the French
(the) Italians the Swiss
Russians the Dutch
Israelis the Japanese

Ø With both groups you can also use the word ‘people’: British people, German people, etc.

Ø When you talk about one person from these countries, you need to add woman / man / person to the group on the right: a Brazilian but a Japanese person, a German but a Swiss person, etc.




  1. Complete these sentences with the name of the people from the country on the right.
Examples: I have worked a lot with Germans. Germany
I’ve spent a lot of time with the French. France
1. We do a lot of business with _________. Japan
2. ________ are usually hard-working. Israel
3. I have always found __________ very friendly. Brazil
4. People often say that __________ are reserved. Britain
5. ________ are very organized. Switzerland
6. I met a lot of _________ on my trip to Athens. Greece


  1. Fill in the missing vowels and read the sentences.

1. Your weak point is your pr_n_nc_ _t_ _n. If you don’t know how to pr_n_ _nc_ a word, look it up in the d_ct_ _n_r_, and write out its tr_nscr_pt_ _n.

2. Why do you think it is important for you to learn f_r_ _gn l_ng_ _g_s?

3. Do you think there is any difference between an _nt_rpr_t_r and a tr_nsl_t_r?

4. My uncle’s kn_wl_dg_ and _xp_r_ _nc_ help him to run a s_cc_ssf_l b_s_n_ss.

5. In the last test I made more gr_mm_r than v_c_b_l_r_ mistakes.

6. My friend _ng_ _s doing English cr_ssw_rds and p_zzl_s.

7. Have you ever tried speaking English to n_t_v_ sp_ _k_rs.

8. My brother is an engineer and knows English well enough to translate articles from

sc_ _nt_f_c and t_chn_c_l j_ _rn_ls.


3. Find the ‘odd one out’. There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons.

  A B C
1. first language native language native tongue
2. English Esperanto Chinese
3. grammar vocabulary consonant
4. fluency skill proficiency
5. lesson course lecture
6. dictionary vocabulary thesaurus
7. motivation memory aptitude
8. interpreter teacher translator

What do you think a good language learner does? Make up as many sentences as possible with the phrase given in the table.

Example: A good language learner reads English books without being told to.

reads English books without the teacher
writes things down in every way possible
practices speaking from films, TV and Internet
tries to learn the language in cases of difficulty
guesses words in real situations
tries to study every day if possible
uses a dictionary without being told to


Match the words and word combinations with their explanation.

1. artificial a) the arrangement of words in a phrase, clause, or sentence
2. influence b) the sounding of words
3.dictionary c) the rules for the correct use of words
4. skill d) made to copy something natural
5. lingua franca e) an effect a person or thing can have on another person or thing
6. pronunciation f) to change into another language
7. grammar g) the imparting or exchange of information, ideas or feelings
8. word order h) cleverness that comes from practice
9. to translate i) a shared language for communication used by people whose main languages are different
10. communication j) a book that gives the meanings of words



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