С) Fill in the missing words in а proper form. 

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С) Fill in the missing words in а proper form.

recognize, defend, incorporate, join in, deal with, invade, occupy

1. The region was __________ by Germanic tribes.

2. During the 900s other states __________ Kyiv’s leadership.

3. By about 1500 BC, normadic herders ____________ the region.

4. Prince Daniel __________ his independence against the Hungarians.

5. Не was very diplomatic in ____________ Western Europe and Golden Horde.

6. In 1387, Halychyna was ___________ into the Polish Kingdom.

7. With the Union of Lublin the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania were __________ а single Commonwealth.


d) Complete the following sentences using the required information from the above text. Add some pieces of new information to each of the sentences.

1. The Trypillians grew crops for _________.

2. After the fall of Kyivan Rus the principalities of Halych and Volodymyr - Volynsky grew _________.

З. Prince Roman curbed the arbitrary rule of the local secular and church feudals, and ________ .

4. During the AD 800s, а Slavic civilization called Rus grew up at Kyiv and ___________ .

5. With the Union of Lublin ________.

6. In 980 Volodymyr I, the ruler of the Russian city of Novhorod _________.



Topics for discussion and essays.

1. If asked about the typical features of the Ukrainians, what peculiarities would you choose?

2. Patriotism and nationalism – difference between the notions.

3. You are having a foreign guest. Choose 5 places of the country to show to him / her.

4. The history and the reasons of constant Ukrainian struggle for freedom.

5. Outstanding people of Ukraine.

6. Name and describe 5 things / achievements of Ukrainians to be proud of.

7. Compare the maps of the Kievan Rus in the 11th century and the present day Ukraine, speak on its geographical position, neighbors, etc.


During the Golden Age of Kiev, the lands of Rus’ covered modern western Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia. But it did not include modern central, eastern, and southern Ukraine, which were inhabited by nomads and had a different history.




English-Speaking Countries (English Language Variations)

No language, no country.

Language is the dress of thought.

Language is the pedigree of nation.

The more languages you know, the more you are a person.

A country without a language is a country without a soul.

Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom.

English is the perfect language for preachers because it allows you to talk until you think of what to say (Garrison Keillor)


Notes to the text:

countless tongues / languages – незліченні / численні мови

to perish(ed) – умирати, гинути

humble and obscure in origin – скромного та неясного походження

pagan / German / Teutonic tribes – язичницькі / германські / тевтонські племена

to conquer(ed) the island – завоювати / підкоряти острів

Anglo-Saxon ancestors – англо-саксонські предки

to ravage(d) Britain – спустошувати / знищувати Британію

Roman Empire – Римська імперія

walled city – місто, обгороджене стіною

to worship(ed) in Christian churches – молитися в християнських церквах

to derive(d) from Latin – походити з латині / мати латинське походження

to flourish(ed) – процвітати

scholarship / scholarly influence – ученість / учений вплив

Northumbrian / Anglican dialect – нортумбрський / англіканський діалект

to acquire(d) – набувати, здобувати

to be utterly destroyed – бути повністю зруйнованим

to invade(d) / invasion of the Danes – вторгатися / навала датчан

to be settled side by side – оселятися поруч

confused and blurred – заплутаний та невиразний

to promote(d) the revival of learning – сприяти відродженню навчання

preserved specimens – зразки / екземпляри, що збереглися

speech of uneducated peasants – мова неосвічених селян

cultivated classes – культурні / освічені прошарки населення

with great rapidity – дуже швидко

to be recorded in writing – бути зафіксованим / відображеним на письмі

fixed word order – сталий / фіксований порядок слів

inflexions – флексія, закінчення

to be distinguished – визначатися, розрізнятися


Among the many forms of human speech, and those countless tongues which have arisen and perished in the past, the English language, which has now spread over so large a portion of the world, is as humble and obscure in its origin as any other. It is, of course, in no sense native to England, but was brought there by the German tribes who conquered the island in the 5th and the 6th centuries. When Angle-Saxon ancestors came to ravage Britain and settled there, they found the island inhabited by a people weaker, but more civilized than themselves. The reason of it: for several centuries the Celts in England had enjoyed the civilization of the Roman Empire; they lived in walled cities, worshipped in Christian churches, and spoke the Latin language. That’s why a large part of English vocabulary derived from Latin sources. But in whatever part of Britain the Teutonic tribes settled, the Roman civilization and the Roman language perished.

In the North of the land, where Christianity and culture were introduced from Ireland, literature and scholarship flourished, and the local or Northumbrian dialect seemed likely to become the standard speech of England. It was from the Angles settled here and their Anglican dialect, that the language acquired the name of English. This Northumbrian civilization, however, was almost utterly destroyed by a new invasion of the Danes, pagan tribesfrom across the Herman Ocean. Their language was so like Angle-Saxon that it could be understood without great difficulty. So when the two races were settled side by side, the mixed dialects arose, mainly English in character, but with many Danish words, and with many different grammatical forms confused and blurred.

When the Northumbrian culture was destroyed, the kingdom of Wessex became the center of English civilization; and under the scholarly influence of King Alfred, and the revival of learning he promoted, West-Saxon became the literary and classical form of English. Almost all the specimens of early English that have been preserved are written in this dialect.

When for the third time a foreign race invaded England, the language of Wessex was almost destroyed. The Normans dominated by interrupting the traditions of the language, by destroying its literature and culture, by reducing it to the speech of uneducated peasants. English, being no longer spoken by the cultivated classes or taught at schools developed as a popular spoken language with great rapidity.

Each man wrote in the dialect he spoke, phonetic changes that had appeared in speech were now recorded in writing. This led to instinctivesearch for new means of expression. Word order became more fixed; the use of prepositions and auxiliary verbs to express the meaning of lost inflexions increased; some foreign pronouns were adopted from another language; from the north spread the use of the genitive and plural in s for nearly all nouns.

Although the development of English was gradual, it may be divided into three main periods – the Old, the Middle, and the Modern, which may be distinguished by their grammatical characteristics:

Old English (down to A.D. 1200) period of full inflexions
Middle English (1200 – 1500) period of leveled inflexions
Modern English (1500 till now) period of lost inflexions


Comprehension questions.

1. How was Old English speech brought to England?

2. Who inhabited England when the Anglo-Saxon tribes invaded it?

3. What were the nearest relations of Old English?

4. How can you explain high standards of the Celtic civilization at during the Anglo-Saxon invasion?

5. Why did the language acquire the name of English?

6. In what respect did the Danish invasion differ from that of the Angles and Saxons? What was the linguistic effect of this invasion?

7. What was the role of the kingdom of Wessex in the development of the English language?

8. How did the Norman Conquest affect the language?

9. What new means of expression were used to make up for the loss of inflexions?

10. What are the three main periods in the development of the English language?


2. Find English equivalents in the text for the following Ukrainian word combinations. язичницькі племена; освічені прошарки населення; місцевий діалект; пліч-о-пліч; засоби вираження; порушувати традиції; швидко; декілька століть; без особливих зусиль; насолоджуватися культурою Римської імперії; змішані діалекти.   3. Find Ukrainian equivalents for the following attributive combinations. rapid movement; rapid progress; rapid steps; a rapid river; a rapid thinker. utter failure; utter ignorance; utter ruin; an utter stranger; an utter mistake. standard size; standard amount; standard weight; standard quality; a standard book. modern language; modern history; modern times; modern music; a modern painter; modern clothes; modern furniture.

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