Read the story of Coca-Cola and check your ideas.



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Read the story of Coca-Cola and check your ideas.



Things go better with Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola is enjoyed all over the world. 1.6 billion gallons are sold every year, in over one hundred and sixty countries. The drink was invented by Dr John Pemberton in Atlanta as a health drink on 8 May 1886, but it was given the name Coca-Cola by his partner, Frank Robinson, because it was originally made from the coca (cocaine) plant. In the first year, only nine drinks a day were sold.

The business was bought by a man called Asa Candler in 1888, and the first factory was opened in Dallas, Texas, in 1895. Coca-Cola is still made there. Billions of bottles and cans have been produced since 1895, but the recipe is still kept secret!

Diet Coke has been made since 1982, and over the years many clever advertisements have been used to sell the product. It is certain that Coca-Cola will be drunk far into the twenty-first century.

a) Do you drink Coca-Cola? Do you think these facts about Coca-Cola are true or false?

- 1.6 billion gallons are sold every day.

- Coca-Cola is drunk in every country in the world.

- It was invented in the USA.

- It is nearly 100 years old.

b) Try to remember the whole sentences about Coca-Cola.

 

  1. Match the story with the correct words and get the following information. Can you think of any pastry origin in your own country?

 
 
to make, to become, to grow, to eat, to open (2), to call, to prefer, to give, to buy  


History of the Hamburger

The hamburger is the most eaten food of the world. The first hamburger (1) ______ and sold in Connecticut in 1895 by an American chef called Louis Lassen. Louis (2) ______ them hamburgers because he (3) ______ the recipe by sailors from Hamburg in Germany. Hamburgers (4) ______ a favorite in America in the early part of the 20th century. Their popularity (5) _____ even more after the Second World War, when they (6) _____ in large quantities by teenagers who (7) _____ fast food to family meals. In 1948 two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald (8) _____ a drive-in hamburger restaurant in San Bernardino, California. Since then over 25,000 McDonald’s restaurants (9) _____ worldwide and now 35 million McDonald’s hamburgers (10) _____ every day in 115 countries from India to the Arctic Circle.

 

  1. Study restaurant facilities and tell:

Ø Which of the given is the most often visited personally by you?

Ø Which one is the most popular / common in your city (town) / country?

Ø What is specific about food served there?

Ø Which from the list would you choose to start your own food business?

 

restaurant fast-food restaurant / quick-lunch restaurant mountain restaurant vegetarian restaurant wine-restaurant / wine bar luxury restaurant coffee lounge / coffee house gourmet restaurant club restaurant panorama restaurant terrace restaurant restaurant with the national cuisine informal restaurant open-air restaurant fish (seafood) restaurant self-service restaurant chop house restaurant Japanese restaurant tavern tea-room bar lobby bar / foyer bar banquet bar grill-bar / grill-room disco-bar cocktail bar mini-bar brasserie / pub poolside bar oyster bar fruit bar snack-bar café / coffee shop cafeteria pastry shop / confectioner’s (shop)

 

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1. Speak about advantages of eating out.
  2. Give a recipe of your favorite dish.
  3. What is specific about holiday dishes?
  4. Speak about Ukrainian hospitality in food if any.
  5. Speak about advantages / disadvantages of junk food (McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Potato House).
  6. Speak about differences in world’s cuisines, using your own experience.
  7. Are you concerned about your daily calorie intake when choosing something to eat?
  8. Do you have any food allergies?
  9. Do you know who invented the pizza and why is it so popular?
  10. Why do you think some people become vegetarians?

LESSON 12

Health and Diseases (Keeping Fit, Treatment)

Every disease has a physician. (Irish Proverb)

No doctor is better than three. (German Proverb)

Diagnosis is not the end, but the beginning of practice.

The art of medicine consists in amusing the patient while nature

cures the disease.

I got the bill for my surgery. Now I know what those doctors

were wearing masks for.

It is sometimes as dangerous to be run into by a microbe as

by a trolley car.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

functional / metabolic efficiency – функціональна / метаболічна (що стосується обміну речовин) дієвість (ефективність)

World Health Organization – Всесвітня організація здоров’я (ВОЗ)

complete physical / mental / social well-being – повний фізичний / розумовий / соціальний добробут (здоров’я)

absence of disease / infirmity – відсутність захворювань / недуг

Health Triangle – трикутник здоров’я

to be prone to – бути схильним до

genetics – генетика (наука про спадковість чи вроджені характеристики)

lifestyle – стиль (спосіб) життя

access to health care – доступ до охорони здоров’я

to be restricted – бути обмеженим

longevity – довголіття

positive attitude – позитивне ставлення

hygiene ['hαd3i:n] – гігієна

to floss(ed) teeth – чистити зуби флосом (шовкова стрічка)

dead skin cells – відмерлі клітини шкіри

germ – мікроб

Health is the general condition of a person in all aspects. It is also a level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a human organism.

At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, health was defined as being ‘a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’.

Overall health is achieved through a combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, which, together is commonly referred to as the Health Triangle. There are four general determinants of health including human biology, environment, lifestyle, and healthcare services.

According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviors. Generally, people who finish higher education are more likely to get a better job and therefore are less prone to stress by comparing to individuals with low education levels.

The physical environment includes such factors as clean water and air, safe houses, communities and roads. All of them contribute to good health.

Genetics are also part of the system on which the health of the population can be established. It concerns habits and behaviors individuals develop during their life, particularly in terms of lifestylechoices. For instance, people who come from families whose members had a more active lifestyle and followed healthier diets, non-smoking and non-drinking are more likely to follow the same pattern in their life.

Moreover, the World Health Organization lists a wide range of other factors that can influence the well-being of a person. Access to health care is one of the large issues of the nowadays society, maybe even greater than the quality of the service. Individuals in developing countries are more prone to suffer from different health conditions because their access to the health care system is restrictedmostly from financial reasons.

Personal health depends partially on the social structure of one’s life. The maintenance of strong social relationships is linked to good health conditions, longevity, productivity, and a positive attitude.

Hygiene is the practice of keeping the body clean to prevent infection and illness, and the avoidance of contact with infectious agents. Hygiene practices include bathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands especially before eating, washing food before it is eaten, cleaning food preparation utensils and surfaces before and after preparing meals, and many others. This may help prevent infection and illness. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are washed away with the germs, reducing their chance of entering the body.

 

  1. Comprehension questions.

1. What’s the general definition of health?

2. Explain what Health Triangle is.

3. What do main determinants of health include?

4. What is physical environment?

5. How can genetics influence human health?

6. What is access to health care and who is restricted to it?

7. How can you explain social structure of one’s life?

8. Enumerate hygiene factors?

  1. Complete the following sentences using the text information.

1. At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1948, health was defined as…

2. There are four general determinants of health including…

3. People who finish higher education are more likely to get a…

4. Clean water and air, safe houses, communities and roads contribute to…

5. People follow healthier diets, non-smoking and non-drinking lifestyle are more likely to…

6. Individuals in developing countries are more prone to suffer from different health conditions because…

7. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are…

 

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General 1. Загальна лексика
to be ill / to fall ill / to complain of smth / to trouble (bother, disturb) / to suffer (ed) from бути хворим / захворіти / скаржитися на щось / турбувати / страждати від, хворіти
ache / toothache / headache / earache біль (тривалий, тупий) / зубний біль / головний біль / біль у вусі
pain / in the back біль (гострий) / у спині
sore throat / to gargle(d) the throat біль у горлі / полоскати горло
sleep / liver / visual disorder розлад сну / печінки / зору
to take (took; taken) the temperature / to be running a high temperature / fever зміряти температуру / мати високу температуру / лихоманка
high blood pressure / to measure(d) blood pressure / to feel one’s pulse / to breathe in (out) високий кров’яний тиск / зміряти тиск / прощупати пульс / вдихати (видихати)
rash / itch / spots (pimple) / boil (blister) висип / сверблячка / прищі / фурункул (нарив)
to catch (caught; ~) a cold / to sneeze(d; ing) / running (clogged) nose / to blow (clear) the nose / to cough(ed; ing) / застудитися / чхати (чхання) / нежить / висякати носа / кашляти (кашель)
to feel (felt;~) stiff, shivery / to stay(ed) in bed / to be run down почувати слабко, тремтіти / залишатися в ліжку / перевтомитися
to feel dizzy (dizziness) / to lose consciousness (to faint) / to come around (to one’s senses) / nausea / vomiting голова паморочиться / знепритомніти / прийти до тями / нудота / блювота
stress / depression / exhaustion стрес / депресія / виснаження
to lose (lost; ~) appetite / indigestion / constipation / diarrhea втратити апетит / нетравлення шлунку / запор / пронос
to heal(ed) / to treat(ed) for (to cure smb of smth) / to do good (harm) загоюватися (про рану) / лікувати від / допомогти (зашкодити)
to get better / to recover (ed) одужувати
2. Human body 2. Людське тіло
skeleton / spine (backbone) / spinal cord / back скелет / хребет / спинний мозок / спина
head / back of the head / top of the head / skull / brain голова / потилиця / тім’я / череп / мозок
ears / nose / chin / neck вуха / ніс / підборіддя / шия
shoulders / shoulder-blade / collar-bone / chest (breastbone) плечі / лопатка / ключиця / грудна клітина
arm (hand) / elbow / wrist / palm рука / лікоть / зап’ястя / долоня
ribs / hip ребра / стегно, поперек
leg / thigh / knee / calf / ankle / foot / heel / instep нога / стегно (ноги) / коліно / литка / щиколотка / стопа / п’ята / підйом (ноги)
face / eye (see Lesson 2 p.4) обличчя / очі (дивись урок 2 п.4)
inner organs and systems: внутрішні органи та системи:
throat / bronchus (pl. bronchi, bronchia) / lung горло / бронх / легеня
blood circulation / heart / vein / artery / capillary система кровообігу / серце / кровоносна судина / артерія / капіляр
digestive system / gullet / stomach / liver / intestine / pancreas / gall bladder / spleen система травлення / стравохід / шлунок / печінка / кишечник / підшлункова залоза / жовчний міхур / селезінка
genital (reproductive) system / kidney / bladder статева система / нирка / сечовий міхур
nervous system / nerve (visual / motor) нервова система / нерв (зоровий / руховий)
muscular system / muscles м’язова система / м’язи
3. Diseases / Injuries / Wounds 3. Захворювання / Ушкодження / Рани
sickness (illness, disease) / (non)communicable (catching, contagious) / (in)curable / inherited / inborn / fatal / virus захворювання / (не)заразне / (не)виліковне / спадкове / вроджене / згубне (неминуче) / вірус
epidemic / pandemic (over a whole country or the world) епідемія / пандемія (з розповсюдженням по всій країні або світу)
food poisoning / ulcer / heartburn / to be allergic to харчове отруєння / виразка / печія / мати алергію на щось
bleeding / brain hemorrhage / anemia / myocardial infarction (heart attack) / stroke кровотеча / крововилив в мозок / анемія / інфаркт міокарда / інсульт
cold / flu / bronchitis / pneumonia / asthma / quinsy застуда / грип / бронхіт / запалення легенів / астма / ангіна
rheumatism / appendicitis / cancer / chicken pox / measles / mumps ревматизм / апендицит / рак / вітряна віспа / кір / свинка
burn / cut / scar / bruise (a black eye) опік / поріз / шрам / синець
lump / swelling пухлина / набряк
dislocation / sprain / fracture / to break a leg, ribs вивих / розтягнення зв’язок / перелом / поламати ногу, ребра
physically challenged person (handicapped, disabled, invalid) / to limp(ed) людина з обмеженими фізичними можливостями / шкутильгати
dumb (dumbness) / deaf (deafness) / blind (blindness) / short-sighted / long-sighted німий (німота) / глухий (глухота) / сліпий (сліпота) / короткозорий / далекозорий
bullet (knife) wound / to shoot (shot;~) / to stab(bed) / to get beaten up / to clean a wound кульове (ножове) поранення / застрелити когось / вдарити ножем / бути побитим кимсь / промити рану
4. Medicine / Treatment 4. Ліки / Лікування
chemist’s (drugstore) / to make up a medicine (homeopathy) аптека / приготувати ліки (гомеопатія)
to take medicines for / a tablespoonful / a teaspoonful / three times a day / every two hours / before (after) meals / on an empty stomach приймати ліки від / по столовій ложці / по чайній ложці / тричі на день / кожні дві години / до(після) їди / натщесерце
antibiotic (broad spectrum) / pain-killer (reliever) / cough syrup (mixture) / pills (capsules) / tablets / drops / powders / ointment антибіотик (широкої дії) / знеболююче / сироп (мікстура) від кашлю / пілюлі (капсули) / таблетки / краплі / порошки / мазь
brilliant green / iodine / hydrogen peroxide / alcohol зеленка / йод / перекис водню / спирт
to write out a prescription / to be on a (strict) diet, on a sick-leave виписати рецепт / бути на (суворій) дієті, на лікарняному
to put (to remove) a dressing (bandage) / cotton / to give injection / to be inoculated against / to put a hot-water bottle / mustard-plaster накласти (зняти) пов’язку (бинт) / вати / зробити укол / зробити щеплення від / покласти грілку / гірчичник
blood transfusion / X-ray переливання крові / рентген
doctors: лікарі:
physician (general practitioner) / oculist / psychiatrist / surgeon / oncologist / traumatologist / dermatologist / pediatrician / gynecologist / dentist / urologist / cosmetologist / allergist / tuberculosis specialist / nurse терапевт / окуліст / психіатр / хірург /онколог / травматолог / дерматолог / педіатр / гінеколог / стоматолог / уролог / косметолог / алерголог / фтизіатр / медсестра
5. Admitting to a Hospital 5. Перебування в лікарні
to take (to admit) to a hospital (to hospitalize) / to be discharged from a hospital / reception / ward покласти в лікарню / виписати з лікарні / реєстратура / палата
to call an ambulance / urgent call / emergency case викликати швидку / терміновий виклик / невідкладна справа
to consult(ed) a doctor / to go for a check-up / to check (to examine) / to make tests / to make a diagnosis / to operate (on) / to put in stitches (suture) / cast звернутися до лікаря / піти на консультацію / перевірити (оглянути) / здати аналізи / поставити діагноз / прооперувати / накласти шви / гіпс
in (out) patient / patients with appointments / patient’s file / medical card (record) / health insurance certificate стаціонарний (амбулаторний) хворий / пацієнти з призначеннями / картка пацієнта / історія хвороби / страховка
maternity hospital / to be pregnant / pregnancy / miscarriage / abortion пологовий будинок / бути вагітною / вагітність / викидень / аборт
at the dentist’s: у стоматолога:
check-up / dental care / dental prosthetics перевірка / лікування / протезування
instrument tray / drill / seat лоток для інструментів / бор / крісло для пацієнта
to put on dentures / bridge / crown / braces / filling (photopolymer) / arsenic поставити протез / мостик / коронку / брекети / пломбу (фото полімер) / миш’як
cavity / inflammation of gum / pulpitis / dental abscess (gumboil) карієс / запалення ясен / пульпіт / флюс
to take out (to extract) a tooth / nerve вирвати зуб / видалити нерв
medical fittings: медичне приладдя:
stretcher / examination couch / fracture (extension) bed / crutches / syringe / scales / wheelchair / scalpel / enema syringe (to give an enema) / dropper / get smb on a drip / pipette / first aid kit (car kit) ноші / кушетка для огляду / ортопедичне ліжко / милиці / шприц / ваги / крісло-коляска / скальпель / клізма (поставити клізму) / крапельниця / поставити комусь крапельницю / піпетка / аптечка (аптечка в авто)

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I



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