Read the text about the underground system in London, divide it into logical parts, entitle them.



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Read the text about the underground system in London, divide it into logical parts, entitle them.



London Tube

Buried deep beneath the streets of London is the underground or tube. The tube was built from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. The London underground is large, old and complex. Each day 2.7 million people use it, and the number of uses continues to climb. The Underground has 270 stations and around 400 kilometers (250 mi) of track, making it the second longest metro system in the world by route length after the Shanghai Metro. The London Underground's 11 lines are divided into two classes: the subsurface routes and the deep-tube routes. In 2007, more than one billion passenger journeys were recorded, making it the third busiest metro system in Europe after Paris and Moscow.

Apart from the rush hour it’s a quick and easy way of getting around. There are tube stations all over and trains are very frequent. When you go on the tube you need to know which line to take and which direction you are going. In every station there is a map of the whole system with a different colour for each of the lines.

You can buy tickets from a person at a ticket window or from machines, where you just press for the type of ticket you want and where you are going. Unfortunately, the longer a journey is, the most it costs, but you can buy a special travel card. Once you’ve bought it, you can make as many tube and bus journeys in a day as you like – for free. In 2003 the Oyster card was introduced, a smartcard with an embedded contactless chip, that travelers can obtain, charge with credit, and use to pay for travel. Like travel cards they can be used on the Underground, the Overground, buses, trams, railway services within London. The Oyster card is cheaper to operate than cash ticketing or the older-style magnetic-strip-based travel cards and the Underground is encouraging passengers to use Oyster cards instead of travel cards and cash by implementing significant price differences.

The tube is used by an increasing number of those who live in London. The government cut its subsidy, yet there has been a concessionary fare scheme for disabled and elderly London residents. Since 2006 the scheme has been called the "Freedom Pass" and allows for free travel at all times. It is also valid on National Rail services within London; except between 04:30 and 09:30, Monday to Fridays. From 2010, the Freedom Pass includes an embedded holder's photograph and lasts five years between renewals.

Comprehension questions.

Ø How is underground in London called?

Ø How many stations does it cover?

Ø Is the tube a quick and easy way of getting around London in rush hours?

Ø What does the cost of the journey depend on?

Ø Which way of payment for the tube is the cheapest now?

Ø When can’t the disabled and elderly Londoners use their Freedom Pass?

Ø Name differences and things in common between London and Kyiv underground systems.

 

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1. What are some differences between living in the city and living in the country?
  2. What aspects of life in the city would you complain about?
  3. What do you think should be done to improve living condition in cities?
  4. Would you enjoy designing a new city?
  5. Are there speed limits in your country? If so, what is the average speed limit?
  6. At what age does the average person obtain a driver's license?
  7. Do you often ride public transportation during rush hour?
  8. How do you think countries can reduce congestion on the roads?
  9. Is there any environmentally-friendly transportation in your area?
  10. What kind of things annoy you about other people's driving in your country / abroad?
  11. What do you think is the most dangerous / the safest form of transportation? Why?
  12. Do you think we ought to be obligated to drive electrical- and solar-powered vehicles?
  13. Do you think talking on cell phones can cause traffic accidents? Are traffic accidents a major cause of death in your country?
  14. What kind of safety features (devices) in a car would help you if you had a traffic accident?

LESSON 16

Traveling and Going through Customs

(Air, Sea, Train, Hiking, Customs Control)

It is better to travel than to arrive.

Never go on trips with anyone you do not love.

The only way of catching a train I ever discovered is

to miss the train before.

If you look like your passport photo, you’re too ill to travel.

There are only two emotions in a plane: boredom and terror.

The World is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page.

To travel is to discover that everyone is wrong about other countries.

 

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

recreational (leisure) / business purposes – в цілях відпочинку / у справах

to define(d) – визначати

consecutive year – повний, цілий рік

remunerated – сплачений, компенсований

large intake of money – велике грошове надходження

hospitality services – тут: готельні послуги

entertainment venues – розважальні заходи, місця

amusement park – парк розваг

successive movements – безперервне пересування, послідовні рухи

commuting – щоденні поїздки на роботу (з передмістя і назад)

fleeing war – втеча з місць воєнних дій

round trip – навколосвітня подорож

to toil(ed) – посилено трудитися, працювати без перепочинку

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.” Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity.

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain and Thailand, and many island nations, such as the Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.

Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations for any purpose and any duration, with or without any means of transport. Travel also includes relatively short stays between successive movements. Movements between locations requiring only a few minutes are not considered as travel. As an activity, “travel” also covers all the activities performed during a travel (movement).

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa.

Travel as well as tourism can be for recreational purposes, for tourism, to visit people, for business or for commuting, and may occur for numerous other reasons, such as obtaining health care, migration, fleeing war, etc. Travel may occur by human-powered transport including walking or bicycling, or with vehicles, such as airplanes, private transport, public transport, automobiles and trains.

A round trip is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from his / her usual residence to one or several locations and returns. A trip can also be part of a round trip.

The word “travel” originates from the Middle English word travailen (“to toil”), which comes from the Old French word travailler (“travail”). A person who travels is called a traveler (Am.) or traveller (Br.).

  1. Comprehension questions.
  1. What purposes may tourism include?
  2. How does the World Tourism Organization define tourists?
  3. What countries is tourism vital for? Prove your reasons.
  4. What is travel?
  5. What forms of travel can you name?
  6. How can you define a round trip?
  7. What’s the etymology of a word “travel”?
  1. Complete the following sentences using the text information.
  1. Tourism is travel for such purposes as ...
  2. Tourism has become a popular …
  3. Tourism is vital for many countries due to the opportunity for employment in ...
  4. Hospitality services include ...
  5. Travel also includes relatively short stays between …
  6. Travel may occur by human-powered transport including walking or bicycling, or with…

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General 1. Загальна лексика
journey / trip / cruise / voyage подорож (довга) / подорож (коротка) / морський круїз / подорож морем, літаком
to go on a / to set off for a (two-day) tour, trip / package tour, holiday поїхати / відправитися у (дводенний) тур, подорож / у туристичну путівку
travel (tourist) agency / booking office / reserved booking, reservation туристична агенція / білетна каса / попереднє замовлення, бронювання
to book(ed) (to get, to deliver(ed)) tickets / in advance / to cancel(led) booking купити квитки заздалегідь / доставити квитки / заздалегідь / відмінити замовлення
to be sold out, to be booked up / to leave on time / to keep to schedule / to be behind (to fall behind the schedule) / to be delayed бути розпроданим (про квитки) / відправлятися за розкладом / йти за розкладом / запізнюватися / бути відкладеним (про рейс)
boarding / arrival / departure посадка / прибуття / від’їзд
to catch (the train / plane) / to board(ed) a ship, a plane / to get off сісти на (потяг / літак) / сісти на борт корабля, літака / зійти
to travel light / luggage, baggage / hand luggage / to check one’s luggage подорожувати без багажу / багаж / ручна поклажа / здати речі в багаж
tag / luggage claim (receipt) / left-luggage office / lost property office ярлик на валізу / багажна квитанція / камера схову / бюро знахідок
bag / suit-case / trunk сумка / валіза / велика валіза
to see smb off / to wave (to blow) a kiss / fellow-passenger / en route проводжати когось / послати повітряний поцілунок / попутчик / в дорозі
2. Air (Plane) Travel 2. Подорож літаком
in the airport: airlines / customs officer / passport / foreign passport / visa / boarding card / duty-free shop в аеропорту: авіалінії / митник / паспорт / закордонний паспорт / віза / посадочний талон / магазин “дьюті-фрі”
crew: captain / pilot / air hostess / air steward команда: капітан / пілот / бортпровідниця / бортпровідник
airplane’s (airliner) parts: hangar / fuselage / wing / jet engine / tail / propeller частини літака: ангар / фюзеляж / крило / реактивний двигун / хвостовий кіль / пропелер
taking off / landing: control tower / runaway / to taxi(ed) / to gather (ed) speed / flight / non-stop flight / (forced) landing зліт / приземлення: аеродромно-диспетчерський пункт / злітна смуга / вирулювати / набирати швидкість / політ, рейс / безпосадочний політ / (вимушена) посадка
in the air: cruising speed / altitude / visibility / winds (fair, cross, head) / loop / wingover / (un)fasten(ed) seat-belts (safety belts) / to rock(ed) / to hit(ted) an air pocket / to hijack(ed) a plane у повітрі: крейсерська швидкість / висота / видимість / вітер (попутний, боковий, зустрічний) / петля / віраж / застебнути (розстебнути) паски безпеки / розкачуватися / потрапити в повітряну яму / захопити літак
3. Sea (Ship) Travel 3. Подорож морем
dock / wharf (quay, pier) / horizon / cargo / to cast anchor / to weigh(ed) anchor / to be moored at a pier / maiden trip док / причал / горизонт / вантаж / стати на якір / знятися з якоря / бути пришвартованим на причалі / перше плавання корабля
to raise(d) the gangway / to set sail for / to call(ed) at a port / to have a smooth / rough voyage (crossing) підняти трап / відправитися у плавання / заходити у порт / здійснювати спокійну / неспокійну (бурхливу) подорож
calm / rough (high) sea / tossing / stream, current / up (down) stream / fresh water / to be sea-sick (to suffer from sea-sickness) / to be a poor sailor / old salt спокійне / бурхливе (відкрите) море / качка (морська) / течія / вгору (вниз) за течією / прісна вода / мати морську хворобу (страждати від ~) / погано переносити морську качку / морський “вовк”
crew: captain / mate / pilot / boatswain / radio operator / steersman / steward / ship’s cook / ship’s boy (sea cadet) команда: капітан / помічник капітана / лоцман / боцман / радист / рульовий / черговий по каютам / кок / юнга
ship’s parts: hold / funnel / gangway / cable / windlass / fork lift truck / buoy / life buoy / mast / cabin / state room / (promenade) deck / galley / engine room / porthole / stern / bow / radar / steering wheel частини корабля: трюм / димар / трап / трос / лебідка / автокар / буй / рятувальний круг / щогла / каюта / каюта люкс / палуба для прогулянок / камбуз / машинне відділення / ілюмінатор / корма / ніс (корабля) / радар / штурвал
4. Train Travel 4. Подорож поїздом
at the station: to change(d) trains / terminus / junction / station master / porter / platform / railway line / sleepers / track / timetable / waiting room / announcement / information office / fare / to travel half fare / full ticket / single (one way) ticket / return (round trip) ticket на вокзалі: пересісти на поїзд / кінцева зупинка / вузлова станція / начальник станції / носій / платформа / колія / шпали / путь / розклад / зал очікування / оголошення / довідкове бюро / плата за проїзд / подорожувати за півціни / повний квиток / квиток в одну сторону / зворотні квиток (в обидві сторони)
train classes: express train / fast train / passenger train / mail train / freight (goods) train / long-distance train / irregular (emergency) train / local (suburban) train класи потягів: експрес ~ / швидкісний ~ / пасажирський ~ / поштовий ~ / товарний ~ / ~ далекого прямування / додатковий ~ / приміський ~ (електричка)
in the train: engine / carriage, car / driver / conductor / compartment (sleeper) / car with reserved seats dining car / luggage (baggage) van (car) / luggage rack / seat / to have a seat facing (with one’s back to) the engine / linen у потягу: локомотив / вагон / машиніст / провідник / купе / плацкартний вагон / вагон-ресторан / багажний вагон / багажна полиця / місце / сидіти по ходу поїзда / мати місце проти руху поїзда / постіль
5. Hiking 5. Пішохідна екскурсія
hiker / hitchhike / camping / mountaineering (climbing) / equipment / hiking boots of durable materials / sleeping bag / tent / portable camp stove / camera / fishing pole / lantern / trail мандрівник, спортсмен-ходок / подорож автостопом / кемпінг / альпінізм (скелелазіння) / обладнання / чоботи із міцного матеріалу для пішохідних екскурсій / спальний мішок / намет / портативна пічка / фотоапарат / вудило / ліхтарик / маршрут
6. Customs Control 6. Митний контроль
border / to cross(ed) the border / to smuggle(d) in (out) кордон / перетинати кордон / провозити контрабандою в (із) країни
customs house / regulations / restrictions / to fall under restrictions митниця / митні правила / митні обмеження / попадати під обмеження
to go through customs / to go through one’s luggage / customs clearing (inspection) / to turn smb back / “Customs Inspected” stamp проходити митний контроль / оглядати багаж / митний контроль / не пропустити через митницю / штамп про проходження митного контролю
customs duty / duty-free / duty-free quota list / prohibited articles list / to be liable to duty мито / без оплати мита / перелік речей, дозволених для безмитного провезення / перелік речей, заборонених для ввезення / вивезення / обкладатися митом
to declare(d) / declaration form (blank) / to fill in (out) a customs declaration декларувати / декларація / заповнити митну декларацію
to carry currency(ied) / weapons / personal belongings (effects) / used items / permit провозити валюту / зброю / особисті речі / речі, що були у використанні / дозвіл
customs tariffs / reduction / increase of customs tariffs митні тарифи / зниження / збільшення митних тарифів
particulars on the amount / weight / value / excess of weight / to exceed(ed) / to charge(d) for excess weight точні дані про кількість / вагу / цінність (вартість) / перевищення ваги / перевищувати / збирати додаткову плату за перевищення ваги

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1. Put these words and phrases into the following categories: Ship / Plane / Train.
Words / Phrases Category
Ship Plane Train
express / carriage / ferry / platform / cruise / departure lounge / cabin / ticket inspector / flight / delayed / sail / runway / voyage / land / rails      
     
     
     
  1. Choose the correct word or phrase to complete these collocations.
  1. a school excursion / trip
  2. a business trip / journey
  3. time off / out work
  4. a round-the-world / round-the-earth trip
  5. the holiday of a life / lifetime
  6. a five-star / five-mark hotel
  7. holidaymakers / holidaydoers
  1. Match the words and phrases in column A with those in column B.
A B Answer
1. suburban train a) носій 1.
2. luggage van b) валіза 2.
3. voyage c) багажний вагон 3.
4. harbor d) контрабандист 4.
5. chambermaid e) прибуття 5.
6. carriage f) проводжати 6.
7. check-in g) гавань, порт 7.
8. porter h) морська подорож 8.
9. arrival i) приміський поїзд 9.
10. suitcase j) зареєструватися 10.
11. see off k) плацкартний вагон 11.
12. reserved seats l) попадати під обмеження 12.
13. smuggler m) вагон 13.
14. to fall under restrictions n) покоївка 14.

 

  1. Give a word or a phrase for the following definition.
  1. the part of a ship where passenger cabins are located;
  2. a person who meets you at the car of a train;
  3. a person who is usually sea-sick;
  4. items which are not liable to duty;
  5. a person who makes up your room at the hotel;
  6. part of the flight when the plane touches the ground;
  7. the windows on a ship;
  8. a person who helps you with your luggage;
  9. the part of a ship where cargo is kept;
  10. a person who checks you in at the hotel.

 

  1. Use a word from the box to complete each sentence.

carriage, resort, destination, arrival, cruise, brochure, cabin, platform


  1. We were very disappointed when we got there. The hotel had looked so much nicer in the ………… .
  2. Bella and Derek are going on a ………….. round the Indian Ocean in the summer.
  3. The train leaves at half past three, so I’ll meet you on the ………… at about quarter past.
  4. We are pleased to announce the …………. of flight BA 635 from Barcelona.
  5. The coach stops in Tamworth, but its final ………….. is Birmingham.
  6. We had a tiny ………….. right at the bottom of the ship.
  7. Blackpool is a well-known holiday …………… in the north-west of England.
  8. I had to walk up the train with my heavily suitcase because I’d got in the wrong ………...

 

  1. Complete each sentence changing a form of the word in brackets.
  1. My family runs a hotel, so I’m thinking of studying …………. at college. (TOUR)
  2. I find traveling backwards on trains really ………….. , so I always sit facing forward. (COMFORT)
  3. We regret to announce that the………… of flight SA121 has been delayed. (ARRIVAL)
  4. Teenagers seem to prefer places like Australia to …………….. countries when they go on holiday. (EUROPE)
  5. They made an……. at the airport saying that our flight had been delayed. (ANNOUNCE)
  6. In these days of mass travel, the ………… between Europe and America seems to be much shorter. (DISTANT)
  7. There are a number of reasons for the ……….. in the popularity of Iceland as a holiday destination. (GROW)
  8. I’ve always believed that travel …………… the mind. (BROAD)
  9. It’s interesting to see what ……..…… differences exist in different parts of the world. (CULTURE)
  10. The ……….. of many Pacific islands rely on the money that visitors spend. (INHABIT)
  1. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Потяг запізнюється. Ми не встигаємо на важливу зустріч у центрі міста.

2. Оскільки квитки на пасажирський поїзд було розпродано, ми були змушені їхати у товарному поїзді.

3. Перед тим, як літак підніметься в небо, пасажирам необхідно застебнути паски безпеки.

4. Я люблю подорожувати без багажу і тому зазвичай беру із собою тільки необхідні речі.

5. Носій забрав її валізи і вирушив до вокзалу.

6. Провідник перевірив у всіх пасажирів купейного вагону квитки і розніс чай.

7. У переліку речей, що провозяться через кордон, є речі, за які потрібно сплачувати мито.

8. Митник перевірив мій паспорт, візу, багаж і дозволив перетнути кордон.

9. Після того, як підняли трап, корабель відплив до Нью-Йорку.

10. Вони плавали на рятувальних кругах протягом доби у відкритому морі, поки їх не підібрав танкер.

11. Вчора у мене зламалася машина і на дачу мені довелося їхати електричкою.

12. В якому аеропорту приземляються літаки із Берліна?

BLOCK II



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