Cross out incorrect answers.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Cross out incorrect answers.



  1. The teacher told us to finish our work by / until Monday.
  2. We can’t leave by / until the others get back.
  3. I’ve been in the army for / since I was eighteen.
  4. They’ve worked here for / since / during six months.
  5. I visit my uncle every week for / since / during the winter.
  6. I was at university for / since / during four years.
  7. She’s going back to France in / after three months’ time.
  8. He left the office during / throughout the lunch break.
  9. It was not during / throughout August; we didn’t have one day under 30 degrees.
  10. I booked a table in the restaurant by / for next Saturday.

Read the following dialogues.

- What time is it now?

- It’s a quarter to five.

- Is it? Isn’t your watch too fast?

- No, it isn’t. It’s even slow a little bit.

- I’m afraid I’m late for my lectures.

*****

- It’s about time we make a move.

- Really? Can’t we stay a bit longer?

- I’m afraid not. You see, we promised our foreign relatives we’d be back by 12 at the latest.

- I see. What a pity.

- Thank you for a lovely meal.

- I’m glad you enjoyed it. You must come again some other time.

*****

- Are you doing anything special on Saturday night?

- No, I don’t think so. Why?

- Well, I’m having a little party and I’d like you to come.

- Thank you. That would be very nice. When?

- Half past seven.

- Fine. I’ll see you then.

 

Complete the dialogue.

- Excuse me, could you tell me the time by your watch? It seems to me my watch is slow.

- ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

- Oh, yes. Thank you very much. It’s the 12th of May today, isn’t it?

- ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

- And what’s the day today?

- ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

- I’d like to buy tickets to Prague in advance. I’m leaving in three weeks.

- ……………………………………………………………………………………………...

- I prefer to go by train.

BLOCK III

Can you complete these sentences with the correct number?

  1. The Olympic Games usually last about ……………… weeks.
  2. Rembrandt was born in the ……………. the century.
  3. President Kennedy died in ……………. . That’s ………………… years ago.
  4. It takes approximately …………. hours to fly from Tokyo to New York.
  5. Some athletes can run 100 meters in less than ………….. seconds.
  6. The ……………. was the decade in which the USA and USSR (at that time) were both trying to be the first country to put a man on the moon.

 

Read the poem and tell what happened to Solomon Grundy during a week.

Solomon Grundy

was born on Monday,

christened on Tuesday,

got married on Wednesday,

fell ill on Thursday,

got worse on Friday,

died on Saturday,

was buried on Sunday –

that was the end of Solomon Grundy.

 

3. a) Tell what is….  
… the fifth month of the year? … the third season of the year?
… the last day of the week? ….the last month of the year?
….the tenth month of the year?   … the first day of the week?
b) Tell how many…  
…weeks are there in a month / year? …weeks are there in a fortnight?
…days are there in a leap year? …seasons are there in a year?
…days are there in a week? …years are there in a decade?
…years are there in a century? …seconds are there in a minute?
…minutes are there in an hour? ... months are there in a year?

 

Speak about yourself and your country completing these sentences.

  1. On weekdays I usually get up at ………………. and leave home at…………………
  2. I always clean my teeth in ……………………………………………………………
  3. I don’t go o school / college / work on ……………………………………………….
  4. I usually have a holiday in ……………………………………………………………
  5. I have been in my present school / college / job for …………………………………….
  6. I have been studying English since ……………………………………………………..
  7. I haven’t spoken English since ………………………………………………………….
  8. It takes me ………………………………. to get to school / college / work.
  9. You can’t get a driving license until …………………………………………………….
  10. It rains a lot during ………………………………………………………………………

 

Read the joke and say how you personally appreciate time.

A preacher went into his church and he was praying to God.

While he was praying, he asked God, ‘How long is 10 million years to you?’

He replied, ‘1 second’.

The next day the preacher asked God, ‘God, how much is 10 million dollars to you?’

And God replied, ‘A penny’.

Then finally the next day the preacher asked God, ‘God, can I have one of your pennies?’

And God replied, ‘Just wait a sec’.

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1. Explain the saying ‘Time is money’.
  2. Explain why the time is not the same all over the world.
  3. People often say that time flies, time changes and we can’t turn back the time. Express your opinion on the topic.
  4. Describe peculiarities and express your opinion on ‘Some people are early birds others are night owls’.
  5. Does waiting for something bother you?
  6. Do you think you manage your time wisely?
  7. If you could stop time, what would you do and why?
  8. If time travel were possible, which period of world history would you like to return to? Why?

LESSON 5

Natural Phenomena in Weather and Seasons

There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes.

Rainbows apologize for angry skies.

A lot of people like snow. I find it to be an unnecessary freezing of water.

The best thing one can do when it's raining is to let it rain.

Snowflakes are kisses from heaven.

Bad weather always looks better through a window.

It is best to read the weather forecast before praying for rain.

Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.

 

 

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду

to have one thing in common – мати щось спільне / спільну річ

accurate – точний

complicated – складний

weather balloons – метеозонд, кулька-пілот

altitude – висота (над рівнем моря)

satellite – супутникова антена

to be processed by computer – обробляти на комп’ютері

to take into account – узяти до уваги

coast – узбережжя

basic equipment – базове (основне) обладнання

to get worse – погіршуватися

to beat (beat; beaten) the experts – перемогти експертів

Do-It-Yourself-Forecast

When the wind is in the west, the weather is always best.

When the wind’s in the south, the rain’s in its mouth.

Have you heard sayings like these before? Or have you heard that when cows lie down it’s going to rain? May be you’ve heard that a sunny Christmas Day means we’re going to have a warm Easter. Many cultures have traditional ideas about how to forecast the weather and they all have one thing in common: they are not very accurate. Most of them are about as accurate as saying that the weather tomorrow wall be more or less the same as today. The weather is too complicated to be forecasted easily.

How do meteorologists go about trying to forecast the weather? The first thing they need is information, and lots of it. Data is constantly collected from weather stations around the world. Weather balloons tell us what is happening at high altitude. Satellitesgive us images of cloud cover and wind direction. All this information is processed by computer and combined with information about the normal climate of a region to produce the forecast. Even so, we can only accurately forecast the weather for the next couple of days.

Can’t we amateurs forecast the weather at all, then? Yes, we can, but to be a great amateur meteorologist you need to do some of the things the experts do. First of all, collect your information. You need to know about the climate in the area where you live. What’s a typical summer like? How much rain normally falls in October? If your area never gets fog in the summer, then a forecast of fog in July is unlikely to be accurate. The next thing to be taken into accountis local geography. Are there any mountains nearby? They could affect the wind. Are you by the coast? That could affect rainfall. You also need some basic equipment: a good thermometer, a barometer to measure pressure in the atmosphere and, if possible, a wind meter.

Then it’s a question of using your eyes, and even your ears. Listen to the radio. Is there a lot of static? With the fall of atmospheric pressure the weather will get worse. Go outside and listen. Do sounds seem clearer than usual? Is there a kind of ring around the sun or moon? It could mean that it’s going to rain. Is your barometer rising and do the clouds seem to be getting higher? It probably means that the weather is clearing up. With a little practice, your forecasts will become more accurate one day.

Making your own forecasts can be a lot of fun, and you might even beat the experts!

 

  1. Comprehension questions.
  1. What’s the common thing about the weather forecast that all cultures have?
  2. Is it easy to forecast the weather?
  3. What’s the first thing a meteorologist needs to forecast the weather?
  4. What’s the function of weather balloons / satellites / computers in weather forecasting?
  5. What are the things an amateur meteorologist needs to do to predict weather?
  6. What equipment should an amateur meteorologist have?
  7. You will even beat the experts one day, won’t you?

 

  1. Choose the best answer according to the text.
  1. What does ‘them’ in line 4 refer to?

a) different cultures b) traditional ideas about the weather

c) most weather forecasts d) the weather on different days

  1. The writer does not mention that forecasters collect information about…

a) the weather very high in the atmosphere b) the accuracy of forecasts in the past

c) the amount of clouds over an area d) the way the wind is blowing

  1. What does the writer say you need to know about your area?

a) the forecasts of the experts b) the general patterns of weather

c) how rains affect local people d) how summer fog is caused

  1. The writer suggests that the amateur forecaster should…

a) buy a lot accurate equipment b) get a good map of the area

c) make notes about changes in the weather d) live in a flat area away from the sea

  1. You might be able to forecast good weather when…

a) the reading on your barometer is falling b) you can hear sound very clearly

c) low clouds start to disappear d) the moon is very bright in the sky

  1. To make accurate forecasts, you need to have…

a) experience in forecasting b) good planning

c) time to watch the weather change d) a good memory

 

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General 1. Загальна лексика
weather / weather forecast / to predict weather / meteorologist погода / прогноз погоди / передбачати погоду / метеоролог
season / spring / summer / autumn (fall, Am.) / winter пора року / весна / літо / осінь / зима
to affect(ed)=to influence=to impact / to depend(ed) on (upon) впливати на / залежати від
to clear(ed) up / to get colder / to get milder / прояснюватися / холоднішати / теплішати
air humidity вологість повітря
degree / Fahrenheit / Celsius (Centigrade) градус / за Фаренгейтом / за Цельсієм
midsummer Day (22nd of June) середина літа (літнє сонцестояння, 22 червня)
midwinter Day (22nd of December) середина зими (зимове сонцестояння, 22 грудня)
2. Natural Features 2. Властивості природи
continents – e.g. Asia, Europe континент – напр. Азія, Європа
countries – e.g. China, Brazil країни – напр. Китай, Бразилія
islands – e.g. Sicily, Corsica, Hong Kong острови – напр. Сицилія, Корсика, Гонконг
group of islands – e.g. the Bahamas, the Balearics групи островів – напр. Багамські (архіпелаг в Атлантичному океані), Балеарські (західна частина Середземного моря, Іспанія)
oceans – e.g. the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean океани – напр. Атлантичний, Тихий, Арктичний
seas – e.g. the Red Sea, the Dead Sea моря – напр. Червоне (Африка), Мертве (кордон Ізраїль-Йорданія)
lakes – e.g. Lake Tanganyika, Lake Titicaca озера – напр. Танганьїка (Танзанія), Тітікака (кордон Перу та Болівії)
rivers – e.g. the Nile, the Mississippi річки – напр. Ніл (Африка), Міссісіпі (США)
falls – e.g. Niagara Falls, the Iguaçu Falls водоспади – напр. Ніагарський (північна Америка), Ігвесу (Бразилія)
mountains – e.g. Mount Everest, Mount Fuji гори – напр. гора Еверест (Джомолунгма), Гімалайї, висота 8848 м; Фуджі (Японія, вулкан та гора)
mountain ranges – e.g. the Andes, the Alps гірські хребти – напр. Анди (південна Америка), Альпи (Європа)
jungles – e.g. the Amazon (the Amazon rainforest) джунглі – напр. Амазонка (південна Америка, тропічний, вологий ліс)
forests – e.g. the Black Forest ліси – напр. Шварцвальд (гори в Німеччині)
deserts – e.g. the Sahara, the Gobi пустелі – напр. Сахара, Гобі (територія Монголії, Китаю)
3. Seasons’ Features 3. Особливості пір року
spring: spring months: March, April, May to awake (awoke; awoken) from winter sleep to be fill(ed) with new life to shine (shone; shone) brightly earth is warmed by the rays of the sun days become longer snow melt(ed)s / thaw / puddles little streams flow merrily to bud / to blossom(ed) to grow green / fresh green grass / green leaves   to fill(ed) the air with fragrance (scent) twitter of birds revival of nature весна: весняні місяці: березень, квітень, травень прокидатися від зимової сплячки наповнюватися новим життям яскраво світити земля обігрівається променями сонця дні стають довшими сніг тане / відлига / калюжі маленькі струмки весело течуть випускати бруньки / квітнути зеленіти / свіжа зелена трава / зелене листя наповнювати повітря ароматом спів птахів відродження природи
summer: summer months: June, July, August unbearably hot weather to go bathing / to lie in the sun to do (did; done) the gardening farmer’s busy season to cut (cut; cut) the grass / to make the hay to plough(ed) / to sow (sowed; sown) early fruits / vegetables to pick(ed) mushrooms / berries to gather(ed) flowers to have (had; had) storms with lighting / thunder / hail dew on flowers літо: літні місяці: червень, липень, серпень нестерпно спекотна погода купатися / лежати на сонечку (загоряти) займатися садівництвом у фермера багато роботи зрізати (косити) траву / скласти сіно орати / сіяти ранні фрукти / овочі збирати гриби / ягоди рвати квіти мати бурю із блискавкою / громом / градом роса на квітах
Indian summer: warm weather soft carpet of dying leaves nature is slowly falling asleep a soft breeze the sky seems sad silent gardens бабине літо: тепла погода м’який килим згасаючого листя природа поступово засинає теплий вітер (бриз) сумне небо тихі сади
autumn (fall): autumn months: September, October, November cool weather / it often rains / it drizzles (sleet) / it’s muddy and wet / sky is covered with heavy clouds season of harvesting / to gather crops to ripen(ed) in orchards woods (forests) turn yellow (brown) leaves fall off to make multi-colored carpet birds fly (flew; flown) away осінь: осінні місяці: вересень, жовтень, листопад прохолодна погода / часто йде дощ / мряка (дощ зі снігом) / брудно і вогко / небо вкрите важкими хмарами пора врожаю / збирати врожай достигати в плодових садах ліси стають жовтими (коричневими) листя падає утворювати кольоровий килим птахи відлітають
winter: winter months: December, January, February the sun shines rarely / it rises late and sets early   low temperature / it drops to zero lakes / rivers / streams are frozen roads are covered with slippery ice / deep snow   bare trees a piercing wind blizzard (snow-storm) to snow heavily / snowflakes / snow-work / snow-bank (snow-drift) / slush to make a snowman / to play snowballs зима: зимові місяці: грудень, січень, лютий сонце світить рідко / встає пізно та сідає рано низька температура / падає до нуля озера / річки / струмки замерзають дороги вкриті крижаною кіркою / глибокий сніг голі дерева пронизуючий вітер завірюха (хуртовина) снігопад / сніжинки / візерунки / замет (кучугура) / талий сніг ліпити сніговита / грати в сніжки
4. Weather Conditions 4. Погодні умови
weather: 1) positive: calm / mild / fine (good) / warm / windy / clear / favorable 2) negative: bad / cloudy / showery / rainy / sunny (sunshine) / heat / changeable (unsettled, unstable) / wet (humid) / cold / cool (chilly) / snowy / windless / stuffy / frosty / foggy (misty) / nasty (abominable, awful) / severe / dull (gloomy) / unfavorable / dry погода: 1) позитивні прикметники: спокійна / м’яка / хороша / тепла / вітряна / ясна / сприятлива 2) негативні прикметники: погана / хмарна / злива / дощова / сонячна / спекотна / мінлива (нестабільна) / волога / холодна / прохолодна / сніжна / без вітру / задуха / морозна / туманна / огидна (бридка) / сувора / похмура / несприятлива / суха
rain / rainfall (shower, downpour) / continuous (uninterrupted) rain / rainbow дощ / злива / затяжний дощ / веселка
thunderstorm / thunder / lighting / hail / гроза / грім / блискавка / град
It looks like rain / It’s pouring down rain / It’s raining cats and dogs / It’s sprinkling (drizzling) / I’m wet through (I’m wet to the skin) Схоже на дощ / Ллє як з відра / Мряка / Я змок до нитки
snowfall / snowstorm / blizzard снігопад / завірюха / хуртовина (буран)
temperature: hot / warm / chilly / cold / freezing температура: спекотно / тепло / прохолодно / холодно / дуже холодно
wind: breeze / strong wind / gale / hurricane / offshore / choppy / side (cross) / head / fair (favorable) / north-west   how can the wind blow: fierce / furious / great (intense, powerful) / mad / howling / roaring / violent / sharp / shrewd вітер: бриз / сильний вітер / шторм (буря) / ураган / з берега / поривчастий / боковий / зустрічний / попутний / північно-західний як дме вітер: люто / несамовито / сильно / оскаженіло / завиває / ревуче / шалено / пронизливо / люто
5. Climate 5. Клімат
hot / cold / dry / wet / mild / tropical / subtropical / insular / continental / moderate спекотний / холодний / сухий / вологий / м’який / тропічний / субтропічний / острівний / континентальний / помірний
6. Disasters: 6. Катастрофи
volcanic eruption виверження вулкану
earthquake / drought землетрус / посуха
flood / tsunami (seismic sea wave) потоп / цунамі (гігантські хвилі як наслідок підводних землетрусів)
hurricane / tornado / sandstorm ураган / торнадо / піщана буря
avalanche (snow-slip) сніжна лавина
mud flow (torrent) / landslide (landslip) зсув ґрунту
watersprout (whirlwind – water) / tornado (land) водяний смерч / торнадо (на суші)

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1. Guess disasters on the pictures and give answers below.

1 ____________ 7 ______________

2 ____________ 8 ______________

3 ____________ 9 ______________

4 ____________ 10 _____________

5 ____________ 11 _____________

6 ____________ 12 _____________

  1. What disaster is being described in each of these sentences?
  1. It lifted a car about ten feet off the ground, and then we saw it disappear down the street.
  2. It was about two meters deep and we watched as most of our furniture just floated away.
  3. The grass turned yellow and most of the crops died.
  4. The walls began to move visibly, and large cracks opened up in the ground.
  5. We could see the lava slowly advancing towards the town just ten miles away.
  1. Identify weather conditions in these pictures.

1 ____________ 4 _____________

2 ____________ 5 _____________

3 ____________ 6 _____________

  1. True or false? If a sentence is false, write a true sentence about the weather conditions.
  1. It often pours with rain in the desert.
  2. It gets quite chilly in the desert in the evening.
  3. Thunder makes noise.
  4. Lighting can kill people.
  5. A shower is a gentle breeze.
  6. A spell of hot weather may end in a thunderstorm.
  7. If it is humid, the air will be very dry.
  8. Below zero, water turns to ice.
  9. Heavy rain means that it is pouring with rain.
  10. When it’s foggy you need sunglasses.
  1. Complete these scales.

…………..→ wind → strong wind → ……………→ hurricane

…………. → hot → warm →not very warm → cold→ ………….

 

  1. Give two nouns to go with the adjectives. Try not to repeat the nouns you choose.

Model: sandy beach / shore

1 sandy 2 steep 3 shallow 4 rocky 5 turbulent 6 dangerous

 



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