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В історичній літературі існує чимало версій походження слова “козак”. Один із польських дослідників виводив це найменування від легендарного ватажка, що в давні часи успішно боровся з татарами. Звали його буцімто Козак. Інший, теж польський вчений, пояснював походження цього слова від “коза”. Були версії, згідно з якими козаки – не українці, а нащадки відомих у часи Київської Русі войовничих племен хазарів. Турецькою мовою слово “козак” означає волоцюга, забіяка, розбійник. Очевидно, саме звідти воно й прийшло в Україну. Певно, не самі придумали собі наймення захисники нашого краю, а одержали його від ворога, і воно тут прижилося, зовсім утративши негативний відтінок. Бо козак в Україні став синонімом лицарської доблесті й благородства.

 

BLOCK III

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

Early days. Human beings have lived in the region of Ukraine for about 300,000 years. One of the earliest cultures was that of the Trypillians, who lived in southwestern Ukraine from about 4000 to 200 B.C. The Trypillians grew crops for а living, decorated pottery and made drills for boring holes in wood and stone.

By about 1500 B.C., nomadic herders occupied the region. They included а warlike, horse-riding people called the Cimmerians. The Scythians, a people from central Asia, conquered the Cimmerians about 700 B.C. Between 700 and 600 B.C., Greeks started to set up colonies on the northern coast of the Black Sea. But the Scythians controlled most of the region until about 200 B.C., when they fell to а group called the Sarmatians. The region was invaded by Germanic tribes from the west in A.D. 270 and by the Huns, an Asian people, in 375.

Kyivan Rus. During the A.D. 800s, а Slavic civilization called Rus grew up at Kyip and at other points along river routes between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Kyiv became the first of the East Slavic states and was known as Kyivan Rus. Scandinavian merchant-warriors called Varangians (also known as Vikings) played а part in organizing the East Slavic tribes into Kyivan Rus. Oleg, а Varangian, became its first ruler in 882. During the 900s, other states recognized Kyiv’s leadership. Vladimir I (Volodymyr in Ukrainian), the ruler of the Russian city of Novhorod, conquered Kyivan Rus in 980. Before the East slays became Christians, they had worshipped idols and nature spirits. In 1240 Mongol tribes known as Tatars swept across the Ukrainians plains from the east and conquered the region.

Halych-Volyn Rus. After the fall of Kyivan Rus the principalities of Halych and Volodymyr – Volynsky grew and prospered in Western Ukraine. In 1199, they were united by Prince Roman Mstyslavovych, а gifted military leader. Thus the ethnically homogenous Halych - Volyn Principality was created. Prince Roman curbed the arbitrary rule of the local secular and church feudals, and did his best to establish good order in his domain.

Prince Daniel (Danylo) of Halych (1228-1264), his successor, continued his father’s work, further strengthening his state. Не defended his independence against the Hungarians, Teutonic knights and Tatars. Не was а subtle and cautious diplomat in dealing with Western Europe and the Golden Horde, and he promoted culture and developed the new cities of Lviv and Kholm.

After the death of last Prince, Yuri II (1340), this state also fell apart. Polish King Casimir seized Lviv, the capital of Halychyna. In 1387, Halychyna was incorporated into the Polish Kingdom. In the mid-fourteenth century the Eastern Ukrainian territories fell to Lithuania (Kyiv followed suit in 1362).

With the Union of Lublin (1569) the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania were joined in а single Commonwealth in which Poland was dominant and Lithuania’s Ukrainian territories were transferred to Poland. The long period of struggle of the Ukrainian people for their national and social liberation began.

a) Find adjectives to each of the following nouns from the text. Translate these word combinations.

pottery; principality;

herders; feudals;

people; diplomat;

tribes; liberation.

Commonwealth;

 

b) Match the questions with the answers.

1. How long have human beings lived in the region of Ukraine? A. During the A.D. 800s, а Slavic civilization called Rus grew up at Kyiv between the Baltic sea and the Black sea.
2. What was one of the earliest cultures?   B. Vladimir I, the ruler of Novhorod, conquered Kyivan Rus in 980.
3. Who were Scythians?   C. It was when Poland and Lithuania were joined in а single Commonwealth.
4. When did a Slavic civilization grow up? D. Trypillians lived in southwestern Ukraine from about 4000 to 200 ВС.
5. What did Vikings do?   E. Не promoted culture and developed the new cities of Lviv and Kho1m.
6. Who conquered Kyivan Rus in 980?   F. People from central Asia, conquered the Cimmerians about 700 ВС.
7. What happened in 988?   G. Halychyna was incorporated into the Polish Kingdom.
8. What did Daniel of Halych dо?   H. Vladimir became а Christian and made Christianity the state religion.
9. What happened in 1387? I. They have lived in the region of Ukraine for about 300.000 years.
10. When did the long period of struggle of the Ukrainian people for their national and social liberation begin? J. Scandinavian merchant-warriors called Varangians played а part in organizing East-Slavic tribes into Kyivan Rus.

 



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