Образуйте новые слова при помощи префиксов и переведите их : sub-: cutaneous, cortical, febrile, serous, sternal, mucous; in-: sufficient, direct, active, adequate, digestion, complete. 

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Образуйте новые слова при помощи префиксов и переведите их : sub-: cutaneous, cortical, febrile, serous, sternal, mucous; in-: sufficient, direct, active, adequate, digestion, complete.


Прочтите текст А. 2. Напишите аннотацию этого текста. 3. Найдите и переведите предложение, содержащее сослагательное наклонение.

4. Выпишите английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

Прямой контакт, особое свойство сопротивляемости, в (при) различных условиях, выздоровление наступает, наличие любой инфекции.

Text A. Immunity

Infectious diseases are known to be caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body. Infection may result from direct contact with patients or from indirect one.

But the human organism is known to have a specific capacity of resistance against infection, which is called immunity, it being natural and artificial. Under various conditions it may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute. A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against its subsequent infection.

In the course of their growth in the body many pathogenic microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins, they causing the characteristic symptoms of a particular disease. To meet the infection the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount of this antidote to neutralize the toxins before the vital organs are injured, recovery occurs. If the human body had not this capacity, we should suffer from all infectious diseases.

If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men, an artificial immunity can be produced which results from the formation of antitoxin.

The cellular elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against the infection. The presence of any infection usually produces leucocytosis and bacteria in the tissues are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread of bacteria destroying them.

If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protective mechanisms of the body. Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease, but to establish an active artificial immunity.


XI. Translate the following sentences:

1. If Anton Leeuwenhock (1632-1723) ['liu:ənhuk] had not discovered the specific power ( силу ) of lenses, he should not have seen the world of microbes. 2. The patient’s sclerae were yellow as if he had jaundice. 3. The patient must be given vaccination lest he should become infected. 4. Chronic gastritis would not be so dangerous to life if the patient were not so young. 5. It is likely that the symptoms should recur since the process of inflammation has not been controlled yet. 6. It is necessary that the patient be administered a strict diet to control gastric pains.

XII. Pick out the appropriate phrase to end the sentences:

1. If the human body had no resistance capacity- (a) people would develop any infectious diseases, (b) even direct contacts with infected people would never result in diseases. 2. If a previous attack of a certain infectious disease did not produce a more or less permanent immunity- (a) all of us would be immune ( невосприимчивые ) to any subsequent attack of this particular infection, (b) people would lack resistance to subsequent infection.

3. If all of us had absolute immunity- (a) antitoxins would not be able to neutralize toxins, (b) no infectious disease would ever develop in the human organism.

XIII. Finish the sentences using the Complex Object:

1. In the practical therapy class the students watched- (а) как сестра делала больным подкожные и внутримышечные инъекции, (b) как оперировали больного с закупоркой желчных протоков. 2. The scientists have found- (а) что фагоциты окружают и разрушают бактерии, проникшие в ткани, (b) что антитоксины нейтрализуют действие токсинов.

XIV. Pick out the sentences corresponding to Text A:

1. a) Artificial immunity results from prophylactic vaccination. b) Artificial immunity is due to the formation of specific antitoxins.

2. a) Immunity may vary depending on various conditions. b) Immunity may be present only in certain persons. 3. a) Toxins produce the characteristic symptoms of a particular infectious disease. b) Some microorganisms, like mucobacterium tuberculosis, produce little or no toxin during growth.

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