Dullness, enlargement, intensity, improvement, clearly, moisture, poisonous, smoothly, thinnish, useless, preventive, severely, indication. 

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Dullness, enlargement, intensity, improvement, clearly, moisture, poisonous, smoothly, thinnish, useless, preventive, severely, indication.

IV. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания: affect [ə'fekt] v поражать (болезнью); производить действие, воздей

ствовать causative agent [,kɔ:zətiv'eieent] n возбудитель stage [steie] n стадия, ступень malaise [mf'leiz] n недомогание fatigue [fə'ti:g] n усталость, утомление loss [lɒs] n потеря, утрата pus [pAs] nгной involve [in'vɒlv] v поражать, вовлекать (в патологический процесс) profuse [prə'fju:s] аобильный, чрезмерный permanent ['p3:mənənt] а постоянный, неизменный benign [bi'nain] адоброкачественный (от опухоли); неопасный elevation [,eli'veiʃn] n повышение; поднятие perspiration [,p3:spə'reiʃn] n потение, потоотделение; пот; испарина evidence ['evidəns] nочевидность; основание; доказательство;

Показание ; признак ( и )

V. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова и словосочетания : 1) malaise: a general malaise, to complain of a general malaise, a general malaise is one of the symptoms of tuberculosis; 2) fatigue: a considerable fatigue, a marked fatigue, to suffer from a slight fatigue; 3) pus: a thick pus, the discharge containing much pus, much pus was found in the sputum;

Benign: a benign disease, a benign tumour was revealed in the lungs, benign growth of the kidney.

VI. 1. Прочтите текст С. 2. Выпишите все симптомы туберкулеза, о которых вы узнали из этого текста. 3. Переведите абзац, в котором дается характеристика температуры при туберкулезе. 4. Задайте вопросы по содержанию текста.

Text С . Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Clinical Picture

Pulmonary tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, which produces characteristic tuberculous changes in the lung. This disease may also affect other organs: bones, joints, lymphatic glands, kidneys, etc. The causative agent of tuberculosis was discovered by Koch in 1882.

In the early stage of tuberculosis the patient usually complains of a general malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite and body weight. Cough may be dry or productive, i.e. with sputum discharge. Coughing becomes worse at night and in the morning. In patients with cavities in the lungs coughing is accompanied by a considerable discharge of sputum.

Sputum is mucopurulent. Its microscopic examination reveals a large number of pus corpuscles, erythrocytes, and tuberculous organisms. Blood in the sputum is sometimes the first sign of tuberculosis. If large blood vessels are involved, the discharge of blood may become profuse.

Fever is one of the permanent symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis. In benign processes the body temperature is often subfebrile. In active forms it may range from 38° to 39 °C. A considerable elevation of temperature is observed in pneumonic forms, when fever persists at a level of 38 °C and higher for several months.

Cold profuse perspiration at night is sometimes evidence of a severe form of tuberculosis. Loss of body weight is one of the typical signs of pulmonary tuberculosis. It is caused by tuberculous intoxication, a sharp increase in the metabolic rate and loss of appetite. Loss of body weight is particularly marked in progressive forms of the disease.

VII. Переведите слова и словосочетания в скобках. Предложения переведите :

It is sometimes difficult to make a correct diagnosis ( в ранних стадиях ) of some diseases. 2. ( Потеряаппетита ) is a very important symptom, which a physician must always pay particular attention to. 3. ( Повышение температуры ) has been persisting for several months since it was a pneumonic form of tuberculosis. 4. Dullness in the lungs, accelerated respiration, dry or moist rales and crepitation may be ( доказательством ) of lobular pneumonia. 5. ( Резкое увеличение ) of the number of leucocytes is often the evidence of a certain inflammatory process in the human body.


VIII. Define -ing-forms. Translate the sentences:

Having been affected by the benign process the lungs of the patient showed a marked shadowing at their base. 2. Having revealed the occlusion of numerous bronchioles and alveoli and the decrease in the respiratory surface of the lungs the physician determined the cause of breathlessness and cyanosis. 3. Being examined by the therapeutist the patient stated that he had had an accelerated pulse rate and reduced arterial pressure a month before.

IX. Read the passages, translate them and answer the questions:

1. The patient had a dry cough. In a day or two the cough became productive. After the attacks of cough the patient felt pain in the substernal area and in the throat. His temperature was not very high. He followed home treatment and was administered aspirin and codein. He was recommended to have warm milk with soda several times a day. Чем был болен этот пациент - трахеитом или бронхитом ?

2. The patient̓s temperature had been changing but persisting for two weeks. His breathing was rapid and he complained of breathlessness. There was cyanosis of the face. The chest pain was particularly sharp on deep breathing in. He had cough with purulent sputum. His erythrocyte sedimentation rate was accelerated. Dry rales were heard all over the right lung. Какой диагноз вы поставили бы этому больному - бронхит или пневмония?

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