To affect, to cause, to decrease, acute, slight, damage, to rise, to perforate, to spread, to enlarge, permanent. 

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To affect, to cause, to decrease, acute, slight, damage, to rise, to perforate, to spread, to enlarge, permanent.

2. Give the words of the opposite meaning:

Onset, gradually, fat, exertion, to precede, internal, malignant, moist, frequent, to improve, to result in.

VIII. Supply one of known to you words of the same root. Make up sentences using them:

Appear, tender, danger, occur, digest, bleed.

IX. Explain the following terms:

Hypothermia, fibrillation, leucocytosis, a causative agent, anaemia, malaise, pathogenesis, aetiology.

X. Translate the sentences:

The surgeon did not doubt that he could perform this operation under local anaesthesia. 2. Gangrenous forms of appendicitis are dangerous to life because they may result in peritonitis. 3. The retention of stool may be due to the inflammatory process in the appendix. 4. During the operation the upper lobe of the lung was removed since a malignant tumour had been revealed there. 5. After the attack of acute appendicitis had been controlled the patient complained of a moderate tenderness on palpation.

XI. 1. Read and translate Text F. 2. Put questions to the text. 3. Retell it.

Text F. Acute Appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is known to occur in all age groups. Its incidence varies in different sex groups; it is more frequent in women from 20 to 40 years of age. Cases of appendicitis have been noted to occur even in infants and in very old age.

Acute appendicitis is known to begin suddenly with sharp pain which is at first felt in epigastrium but then becomes generalized in the abdomen. The pain becomes worse on deep breathing in and coughing, it does not radiate and is accompanied by nausea, retention of stools and gases.

The temperature is normal or subfebrile and there is moderate leucocytosis. The ESR is initially normal. With the development of the disease temperature elevation is observed and ESR becomes increased. The pulse is quick but it is found to be not more than 90-100 beats per minute. The tongue is coated and dry.

The attack of acute appendicitis is known to last for 3-4 days. Then the temperature returns to normal, abdominal pains decrease and only a moderate tenderness is felt in the right lower part of the abdomen on palpation.

Acute appendicitis is treated surgically. The operation is performed both under general and local anaesthesia.

The appendix is removed immediately to prevent its rupture which may result in peritonitis. Such forms of appendicitis as gangrenous and perforating are particularly dangerous to life. But sometimes even a mild form of appendicitis may take a severe course and result in perforation.


Грамматика: cамостоятельный причастный оборот.



I. Прочтите предложения, ответьте на вопросы и выполните задания:

А ) Suffering from a severe pain I called in a doctor. б ) My friend suffering from a severe pain, I called in a doctor.

1*. Найдите общее подлежащее в предложениях. 2*. Найдите сказуемое в предложениях. 3*. Какой неличной формой глагола является слово suffering в предложениях? 4*. Какую синтаксическую функцию выполняет слово suffering в предложениях? 5*. Переведите предложение (а) и скажите, кто страдал от сильной боли и кто вызвал врача. 6*. Кто страдал от сильной боли и вызвал врача в предложении (б)?

Следовательно, чем могут служить слова my friend по отношению к причастию suffering, и как надо перевести причастие?

II*. Найдите самостоятельный причастный оборот. Предложения переведите :

The abdominal incision having been made and the stomach opened, the ulcer was found to involve the posterior wall of the stomach. 2. There being profuse external haemorrhage, the patient was immediately taken to the hospital. 3. The digestion being considerably impaired, the patient constantly complained of epigastric pains.

III*. Укажите, что опущено в самостоятельных причастных оборотах. Переведите предложения :

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