При наличии этих нарушений, порок сердца, выявление сердечных шумов. 

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При наличии этих нарушений, порок сердца, выявление сердечных шумов.

Text E. Cardiosurgery

Within the last 20 years a new branch of surgery - cardiosurgery has been developing successfully in our country. The beginning of its development was marked by the first operation on the heart performed by Academician A.N. Bakulev. It is due to the work of such prominent Russian surgeons as Vishnevsky, Meshalkin, Petrovsky, Amosov, and others the great progress has been achieved in cardiosurgery. The lives of many thousands of people suffering from cardiac diseases and from those of coronary vessels have been already saved.

The operations on the heart are performed to eliminate the existing heart defects, congenital or developed, and to restore the normal function of the heart.

The operation on the heart is preceded by various examinations, which enable the surgeon to make a correct diagnosis. The most important ones are listening to the heart, its X-ray examination, electrocardiograms, the revealing of heart murmurs, and clinical and biochemical blood analyses. Only having made an exact diagnosis and having come to the conclusion that the therapeutic measures have been ineffective the surgeon can perform the operation on the heart.

The operations on the heart are very difficult to perform because of the intricate ( сложный ) anatomical structure of the heart and because the heart constantly contracts.

Some operations are performed on the contracting heart, but such operations give the surgeon only a very short period of time for his surgical manipulations. Besides in such cases there is always the danger of the impairment of cardiac functions such as heart failure, fibrillation and others. In the presence of these impairments complete or partial arrest of blood circulation develops.

Such intervals of blood circulation result in the damage to some organs, for example, the brain can live without blood supply only four-five minutes; if the interval is longer, the brain cells die.


IX. Give the words of the opposite meaning:

To exclude, to result in, to diminish, gradually, slight, to drop, to suffer from, frequently, to arrest.

X. Translate the following word combinations:

Врожденный порок сердца; 2) принять эффективные меры; 3) внезапная остановка сердца; 4) трепетание предсердий; 5) нарушение кровоснабжения.

XI. Choose the appropriate word given in brackets:

1. Heart operations must be (preceded, followed) by various physical and laboratory analyses enabling the doctor to make a correct diagnosis. 2. The damage to different organs of the human body may be caused by (blood supply, blood loss). 3. The findings of Russian scientists such as Georgi Lang, Alexander Myasnikov and Dmitry Pletnev show that the main cause of some heart diseases is (the impairment, the arrest) of the nerve regulation of cardiac and vascular functions.

XII. Translate into English:

Больной был срочно госпитализирован в связи с его тяжелым состоянием. 2. При наличии тяжелых сердечных заболеваний больной часто страдает одышкой. 3. Операции на сердце всегда предшествуют многочисленные исследования. 4. Его оперировали по поводу врожденного порока сердца. 5. При стенокардии больной должен соблюдать назначение врача в течение определенного периода времени. 6. Обильное наружное кровотечение (bleeding) явилось результатом повреждения большой поверхности голени.

Длительное соблюдение соответствующей диеты привело к снятию боли в желудке.

XIII. Use the Complex Object instead of the subordinate clause. Translate the sentences:

1. At the Institute of Cardiology in Moscow the researchers have found that mental overstrain is the factor causing the infarction in 35% of patients.

They have observed that the direct association between infarctions and the nerves occurs only in the age group of patients over 40. 3. At the Institute of Experimental Medicine in Saint Petersburg the scientists have found that cholesterin is produced in the body itself in the amounts sufficient to cause atherosclerosis. 4. Cardiologists have observed that children with congenital heart defects have no clinical manifestations of the disease until some years after birth, when it may be too late to operate.

XIV. Answer the following questions:

How many litres of blood does the human heart pump per minute at rest? 2. How many litres of blood does the human heart pump per minute on great physical exertion? 3. How many times does the human heart contract within 70 years of life? 4. How many litres of blood does the human heart pump within 70 years of life? 5. In how many seconds does the blood make a complete circle in our body at rest? 6. How long can the man live without water and without food?

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